Nutrient patterns and the skeletal muscle mass index among Polish women: a cross-sectional study.
ABSTRACT: Ageing involves significant changes in skeletal muscle mass and its functioning. This study aimed to identify the major nutrient patterns (NPs) present in a sample of adult Polish women and evaluate their associations with the skeletal muscle mass index (SMI). A cross-sectional study initially recruited 527 women, and a final analysis was carried out on 275 women aged 32-60 years. Nutrient intake was assessed using fourteen repetitions of 24-hour dietary recall. NPs were derived using principal component analysis. Associations between adherence to NPs and the SMI were evaluated using linear regression models. Three NPs were identified: 'Animal Protein-Vitamins', 'Fibre-Plant Protein-Minerals' and 'Fats'. In the adjusted model, the upper tertile compared to the bottom tertile of the 'Animal Protein-Vitamins' NP was related to a higher SMI (??=?0.123 95% CI: 0.019; 0.227; P for 1-SD increase of NP score?=?0.009). No associations between the SMI and the 'Fibre-Plant Protein-Minerals' and 'Fats' NPs were observed. Our results indicate that high adherence to animal product-rich patterns might be related to higher muscle mass in adult women. Research on the influence of dietary and nutrient patterns on the quality of muscle tissue may contribute to the setting of guidelines for nutritional protection of skeletal muscle with ageing and, consequently, dietary recommendations that would improve the quality of women's lives at the later stage of life.
Project description:Skeletal muscle mass was negatively associated with metabolic syndrome prevalence in previous cross-sectional studies. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of baseline skeletal muscle mass and changes in skeletal muscle mass over time on the development of metabolic syndrome in a large population-based 7-year cohort study.A total of 14,830 and 11,639 individuals who underwent health examinations at the Health Promotion Center at Samsung Medical Center, Seoul, Korea were included in the analyses of baseline skeletal muscle mass and those changes from baseline over 1 year, respectively. Skeletal muscle mass was estimated by bioelectrical impedance analysis and was presented as a skeletal muscle mass index (SMI), a body weight-adjusted appendicular skeletal muscle mass value. Using Cox regression models, hazard ratio for developing metabolic syndrome associated with SMI values at baseline or changes of SMI over a year was analyzed.During 7 years of follow-up, 20.1% of subjects developed metabolic syndrome. Compared to the lowest sex-specific SMI tertile at baseline, the highest sex-specific SMI tertile showed a significant inverse association with metabolic syndrome risk (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR] = 0.61, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.54-0.68). Furthermore, compared with SMI changes < 0% over a year, multivariate-AHRs for metabolic syndrome development were 0.87 (95% CI 0.78-0.97) for 0-1% changes and 0.67 (0.56-0.79) for > 1% changes in SMI over 1 year after additionally adjusting for baseline SMI and glycometabolic parameters.An increase in relative skeletal muscle mass over time has a potential preventive effect on developing metabolic syndrome, independently of baseline skeletal muscle mass and glycometabolic parameters.
Project description:Epidemiological evidence linking diet, one of the most important modifiable lifestyle factors, and risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is rapidly increasing. However, there is little or no evidence for a direct association between dietary nutrients and brain biomarkers of AD. This study identifies nutrient patterns associated with major brain AD biomarkers in a cohort of clinically and cognitively normal (NL) individuals at risk for AD.Cross-sectional study.Manhattan (broader area).Fifty-two NL individuals (age 54+12 y, 70% women, Clinical Dementia Rating=0, MMSE>27, neuropsychological test performance within norms by age and education) with complete dietary information and cross-sectional, 3D T1-weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI; gray matter volumes, GMV, a marker of brain atrophy), 11C-Pittsburgh compound-B (PiB; a marker of fibrillar amyloid-?, A?) and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG; a marker of glucose metabolism, METglc) Positron Emission Tomography (PET) scans were examined.Dietary intake of 35 nutrients associated with cognitive function and AD was assessed using the Harvard/Willet Food Frequency Questionnaire. Principal component analysis was used to generate nutrient patterns (NP) from the full nutrient panel. Statistical parametric mapping and voxel based morphometry were used to assess the associations of the identified NPs with AD biomarkers.None of the participants were diabetics, smokers, or met criteria for obesity. Five NPs were identified: NP1 was characterized by most B-vitamins and several minerals [VitB and Minerals]; NP2 by monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats, including ?-3 and ?-6 PUFA, and vitamin E [VitE and PUFA]; NP3 by vitamin A, vitamin C, carotenoids and dietary fibers [Anti-oxidants and Fibers]; NP4 by vitamin B12, vitamin D and zinc [VitB12 and D]; NP5 by saturated, trans-saturated fats, cholesterol and sodium [Fats]. Voxel-based analysis showed that NP4 scores [VitB12 and D] were positively associated with METglc and GMV, and negatively associated with PiB retention in AD-vulnerable regions (p<0.001). In addition, both METglc and GMV were positively associated with NP2 scores [VitE and PUFA], and negatively associated with NP5 scores [Fats] (p<0.001), and METglc was positively associated with higher NP3 scores [Anti-oxidants and Fibers] (p<0.001). Adjusting for age, gender, ethnicity, education, caloric intake, BMI, alcohol consumption, family history and Apolipoprotein E (APOE) status did not attenuate these relationships. The identified 'AD-protective' nutrient combination was associated with higher intake of fresh fruit and vegetables, whole grains, fish and low-fat dairies, and lower intake of sweets, fried potatoes, high-fat dairies, processed meat and butter.Specific dietary NPs are associated with brain biomarkers of AD in NL individuals, suggesting that dietary interventions may play a role in the prevention of AD by modulating AD-risk through its effects on A? and associated neuronal impairment.
Project description:Lower extremity skeletal muscle mass (LESM) in Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) has been linked to adverse clinical events, but it is not known whether it is associated with cognitive difficulties. We conducted a cross-sectional study on 1,235 people (mean age 61.4?±?8.0 years) with T2D under primary and secondary care in Singapore. Bioelectrical impedance analyses (BIA) measures of upper extremity skeletal muscle mass (UESM), LESM and appendicular skeletal muscle index (SMI) were related to the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) measures of cognition, in multiple linear regression. In multivariable models, tertile 1 LESM (b?=?-2.62 (-3.92 to -1.32)) and tertile 2 LESM (b?=?-1.73 (-2.73 to -0.73)), referenced to tertile 3) were significantly associated with decreased RBANS total score. Significant associations of LESM with cognitive domain performances were observed for tertile 1 (b?=?-3.75 (-5.98 to -1.52)) and tertile 2 (b?=?-1.98 (-3.69 to -0.27)) with immediate memory, and for tertile 1 (b?=?-3.05 (-4.86 to -1.24)) and tertile 2 (b?=?-1.87 (-3.25 to -0.48)) with delayed memory, and for tertile 1 (b?=?-2.99 (-5.30 to -0.68)) with visuospatial/constructional ability. Tertile 1 SMI (b?=?-1.94 (-3.79 to -0.08) and tertile 2 SMI (b?=?-1.75 (-3.14 to -0.37)) were also associated with delayed memory. There were no associations between UESM with cognitive performance. Lower LESM may be a useful marker of possible co-occuring cognitive dysfunction.
Project description:Several previous studies have shown that a diet score based on the Japanese food guide Spinning Top (the original score) is associated with both favourable and unfavourable dietary intake patterns. We developed a food-based diet quality score (the modified score) and examined associations with nutrient intakes. Subjects were 3963 young (all aged 18 years), 3800 middle-aged (mean age 47·7 (sd 3·9) years) and 2211 older (mean age 74·4 (sd 5·2) years) Japanese women. Dietary intakes were assessed using comprehensive (for the young and middle-aged) and brief-type (for the older) diet history questionnaires. The original score was calculated based on intakes of grains, vegetables, fish/meat, milk, fruits, and snacks/alcoholic beverages. The modified score was similarly calculated, but included Na from seasonings and without applying the upper cut-off values for dietary components where increased consumption is advocated for Japanese women (grains, vegetables, fish/meat, milk, and fruits). The original score was positively associated with intakes of carbohydrate, dietary fibre, and all the vitamins and minerals examined including Na and inversely with intakes of fats and alcohol in young and middle-aged women. In older women, the original score was inversely associated with intakes of all nutrients except for carbohydrate and vitamin C. However, the modified score was associated positively with intakes of protein, carbohydrate, dietary fibre, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, vitamins A, C and E, and folate and inversely with intakes of fats, alcohol and Na in all generations. In conclusion, the modified diet score was positively associated with favourable nutrient intake patterns in Japanese women.
Project description:We aimed to identify the association between low skeletal muscle, sarcopenic obesity, and the incidence of albuminuria in the general population using a longitudinal study. Data from 29,942 subjects who underwent two or more routine health examinations from 2006 to 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. Relative skeletal muscle mass was presented using the skeletal muscle mass index (SMI), a measure of body weight-adjusted appendicular skeletal muscle mass estimated by bioelectrical impedance analysis. The cumulative incidence of albuminuria was 981 (3.3%) during the 7-year follow-up period. The hazard ratio of incident albuminuria was 1.44 (95% CI: 1.22-1.71, p for trend <0.001) in the lowest SMI tertile relative to the highest SMI tertile after multivariable adjustment. After additionally adjusting for general and central obesity, the hazard ratio was 1.35 (95% CI: 1.13-1.61, p for trend = 0.001) and 1.30 (95% CI: 1.08-1.56, p for trend = 0.003), respectively. Furthermore, the risk of developing albuminuria was much higher in the sarcopenic obesity group (HR: 1.49, 95% CI: 1.21-1.81, p for trend <0.001) compared to the other groups. Sarcopenic obesity, as well as low skeletal muscle, may lead to albuminuria in general populations.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Skeletal muscle mass (SMM) is inversely associated with cardiometabolic health and the ageing process. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the relation between SMM and 10?year cardiovascular disease (CVD) incidence, among CVD-free adults 45+ years?old. METHODS:ATTICA is a prospective, population-based study that recruited 3042 adults without pre-existing CVD from the Greek general population (Caucasians; age ?18 years; 1514 men). The 10?year study follow-up (2011-2012) captured the fatal/non-fatal CVD incidence in 2020 participants (50% men). The working sample consisted of 1019 participants, 45+ years?old (men: n=534; women: n=485). A skeletal muscle mass index (SMI) was created to reflect SMM, using appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) standardised by body mass index (BMI). ASM and SMI were calculated with specific indirect population formulas. RESULTS:The 10?year CVD incidence increased significantly across the baseline SMI tertiles (p<0.001). Baseline SMM showed a significant inverse association with the 10?year CVD incidence (HR 0.06, 95%?CI 0.005 to 0.78), even after adjusting for various confounders. Additionally, participants in the highest SMM tertile had 81% (95% CI 0.04 to 0.85) lower risk for a CVD event as compared with those in the lowest SMM tertile. CONCLUSIONS:The presented findings support the importance of SMM evaluation in the prediction of long-term CVD risk among adults 45+ years old without pre-existing CVD. Preservation of SMM may contribute to CVD health.
Project description:BACKGROUND:A loss of muscle mass may be influenced by multiple factors. Insulin sensitivity and metabolic acidosis are associated with muscle wasting and may be improved with potassium intake. This study evaluated the association between dietary potassium intake and skeletal muscle mass. METHODS:We performed a cross-sectional study with data obtained from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) (2008-2011). Participant's daily food intake was assessed using a 24-h recall method. Appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) was calculated as the sum of muscle mass in both arms and legs, measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. The skeletal muscle index (SMI) was calculated as ASM divided by height2 (kg/m2). Low muscle mass was defined as a SMI <?7.0?kg/m2 for men and?<?5.4?kg/m2 for women. RESULTS:Data from 16,558 participants (age???19?years) were analyzed. Participants were categorized into quintiles according to their potassium intake. Sex-specific differences were found in the association between potassium intake and muscle mass (PInteraction?<?0.001). In men, higher potassium intake was associated with lower odds for low muscle mass; the fully adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) were 0.78 (0.60-1.03), 0.71 (0.54-0.93), 0.68 (0.51-0.90), and 0.71 (0.51-0.98) for the top four quintiles (referenced against the lowest quintile), respectively. However, this association was attenuated in women after adjusting for total energy intake. Higher potassium intakes were also associated with a greater SMI. CONCLUSIONS:Higher dietary potassium intake decreased the odds of low muscle mass in men but not in women.
Project description:Background:Previous studies have shown that chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with accelerated loss of skeletal muscle in patients on dialysis. However, the relationships of sarcopenia with albuminuria and early-stage CKD in patients with type 2 diabetes have not been examined. Methods:We analyzed diabetic subgroup data from 409 patients with type 2 diabetes from the Korean Sarcopenic Obesity Study (KSOS). Sarcopenia was defined as a skeletal muscle mass index (SMI; SMI [%] = total skeletal muscle mass [kg]/weight [kg] × 100) less than 2 SD below the sex-specific mean for a younger reference group. The estimated glomerular filtration rates and urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratios were used to assess renal function and albuminuria. Results:The prevalence of sarcopenia was significantly increased in the albuminuria group compared with the normo-albuminuria group (26.7% vs 12.6%, p = .001), as well as in CKD 3 group compared with the CKD 1-2 group (46.7% vs 15.1%, p = .005). After adjusting for age, SMI was negatively correlated with urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratios and positively correlated with aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that the odds ratio for albuminuria association was 3.02 (95% CI 1.37-6.67) in the lowest tertile of SMI compared with the highest tertile after adjusting for various confounding factors. Conclusions:Sarcopenia is more prevalent in individuals with albuminuria than in those without albuminuria. Furthermore, increased albuminuria is independently associated with low muscle mass in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Project description:This cohort study aimed to identify the associations of dairy protein intake with the risk of developing a low muscle mass during a 12-year follow-up period, using data from 4412 middle-aged Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study participants with a normal baseline muscle mass. Dairy protein intake at baseline was assessed using a semi-quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire. Skeletal muscle mass index (SMI), defined as the weight-adjusted skeletal muscle mass, was measured biennially using multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analyses. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was used to calculate multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Overall, 395 subjects developed a low SMI (%) during an average follow-up of 141 (19-152) months. The average consumption of milk and other dairy products was 73.6 and 104.1 g/day, respectively. In men, a higher dairy protein intake was associated with a decreased risk of developing a low SMI (tertile 3 [T3] vs. T1, HR: 0.63; 95% CI: 0.42, 0.94; p for trend = 0.029). In a stratified analysis according to a total protein intake, this association was stronger in the lower-protein intake group (HR: 0.59; 95% CI: 0.35, 0.99; p for trend = 0.036) but not detected in the higher-protein intake group. Men who consumed milk ?1 time/day had a significantly lower risk of developing a low SMI (HR: 0.62; 95% CI: 0.39, 0.98; p for trend = 0.023). No significant associations were observed in women. In summary, dairy consumption appears to be beneficial for decreasing the risk of developing a low muscle mass in middle-aged Korean men.
Project description:Sarcopenia has been associated with several conditions relevant to obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), such as aging and obesity, but a direct relationship between OSA and skeletal muscle alterations has not been identified. This study investigated associations between computed tomography (CT)-measured skeletal muscle indices and OSA severity. Analyzed were 334 patients who underwent polysomnography to diagnose OSA. Lumbar skeletal muscles were assessed with CT for the skeletal muscle mass index (SMI, cross-sectional area, normalized for height squared) and skeletal muscle density (SMD, fat infiltration). The apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) correlated positively with the SMI and negatively with SMD in both men and women. The AHI was weakly associated with SMI only in men (??=?0.11, P?=?0.017) after adjustment for the body mass index (BMI) (BMI: ??=?0.61, P?<?0.001 in men, ??=?0.65, P?<?0.001 in women). The association of AHI and SMD was not significant after adjustment for BMI (BMI: ??=?-0.42, P?<?0.001 in men, ??=?-0.64, P?<?0.001 in women). Severity of OSA correlated with increases in skeletal muscle mass rather than muscle depletion and skeletal muscle adiposity. These associations were limited compared with the stronger associations between obesity and skeletal muscles.