Selective microstructural integrity impairments of the anterior corpus callosum are associated with cognitive deficits in obstructive sleep apnea.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:There is some evidence that obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients have white matter integrity abnormality in the corpus callosum (CC). However, whether the CC subregions are differentially affected in OSA is largely unknown. METHODS:Twenty patients with OSA and 24 well-matched healthy controls were enrolled and underwent diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and clinical and cognitive assessments. DTI tractography was used to reconstruct the CC which was divided into five subregions. Intergroup differences in multiple diffusion metrics of each CC subregion and their correlations with clinical and cognitive parameters were tested. RESULTS:In comparison with healthy controls, OSA patients exhibited white matter integrity alterations in the anterior CC, characterized by increased radial diffusivity (RD) in the subregion 1 and decreased fractional anisotropy (FA) along with increased mean diffusivity (MD) and RD in the subregion 2. Moreover, we found that the lower microstructural integrity in the anterior CC was correlated with worse prospective memory and sustained attention in OSA patients. CONCLUSIONS:These findings indicate that the selective impairments of the anterior CC may help clarify the neural correlates of cognitive impairments in OSA.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Previous studies have provided evidence that alcohol-dependent patients have abnormality in corpus callosum (CC); however, it is unclear whether micro-structural integrity of the CC subregions is differentially affected in this disorder. METHODS:In this study, a total of 39 male individuals, including 19 alcohol-dependent patients and 20 age-matched healthy controls, underwent diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). CC was reconstructed by DTI tractography and was divided into seven subregions. Multiple diffusion metrics of each subregion were compared between two groups. RESULTS:Compared to healthy controls, patients exhibited increased axial diffusivity (P = 0.007), radial diffusivity (P = 0.009) and mean diffusivity (P = 0.005) in the isthmus. In addition, we observed that daily alcohol intake was correlated positively with radial diffusivity and mean diffusivity and negatively with fractional anisotropy, while abstinence time of hospitalization was negatively correlated with mean diffusivity in the patients. CONCLUSION:These findings suggest a selective micro-structural integrity impairment of the corpus callosum subregions in alcohol dependence, characterized by axon and myelin alterations in the isthmus.
Project description:Human cingulate cortex (CC) has been implicated in many functions, which is highly suggestive of the existence of functional subregions.In this study, we used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to parcellate the human cingulate cortex (CC) based on resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) patterns and anatomical connectivity (AC) patterns, to analyze the rsFC patterns and the AC patterns of different subregions, and to recognize whether the parcellation results obtained by the two different methods were consistent.The CC was divided into six functional subregions, including the anterior cingulate cortex, dorsal anterior midcingulate cortex, ventral anterior midcingulate cortex, posterior midcingulate cortex, dorsal posterior cingulate cortex, and ventral posterior cingulate cortex. The CC was also divided into ten anatomical subregions, termed Subregion 1 (S1) to Subregion 10 (S10). Each subregion showed specific connectivity patterns, although the functional subregions and the anatomical subregions were internally consistent.Using different model MRI images, we established a parcellation scheme, which is internally consistent for the human CC, which may provide an in vivo guide for subregion-level studies and improve our understanding of this brain area at subregional levels.
Project description:The current study sought to examine the relative influence of genetic and environmental factors on corpus callosum (CC) microstructure in a community sample of older adult twins. Analyses were undertaken in 284 healthy older twins (66% female; 79 MZ and 63 DZ pairs) from the Older Australian Twins Study. The average age of the sample was 69.82 (SD?=?4.76) years. Brain imaging scans were collected and DTI measures were estimated for the whole CC as well as its five subregions. Parcellation of the CC was performed using Analyze. In addition, white matter lesion (WMLs) burden was estimated. Heritability and genetic correlation analyses were undertaken using the SOLAR software package. Age, sex, scanner, handedness and blood pressure were considered as covariates. Heritability (h(2)) analysis for the DTI metrics of whole CC, indicated significant h(2) for fractional anisotropy (FA) (h(2)?=?0.56; p?=?2.89×10(-10)), mean diffusivity (MD) (h(2)?=?0.52; p?=?0.30×10(-6)), radial diffusivity (RD) (h(2)?=?0.49; p?=?0.2×10(-6)) and axial diffusivity (AD) (h(2)?=?0.37; p?=?8.15×10(-5)). We also performed bivariate genetic correlation analyses between (i) whole CC DTI measures and (ii) whole CC DTI measures with total brain WML burden. Across the DTI measures for the whole CC, MD and RD shared 84% of the common genetic variance, followed by MD-AD (77%), FA-RD (52%), RD-AD (37%) and FA-MD (11%). For total WMLs, significant genetic correlations indicated that there was 19% shared common genetic variance with whole CC MD, followed by CC RD (17%), CC AD (16%) and CC FA (5%). Our findings suggest that the CC microstructure is under moderate genetic control. There was also evidence of shared genetic factors between the CC DTI measures. In contrast, there was less shared genetic variance between WMLs and the CC DTI metrics, suggesting fewer common genetic variants.
Project description:The purpose of the present study is to examine the integrity of white matter microstructure among individuals coinfected with HIV and HCV using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Twenty-five HIV+ patients, 21 HIV+/HCV+ patients, and 25 HIV- controls were included in this study. All HIV+ individuals were stable on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART; ?3 months). All participants completed MRI and neuropsychological measures. Clinical variables including liver function, HIV-viral load, and CD4 count were collected from the patient groups. DTI metrics including mean diffusivity (MD), axial diffusivity (AD), radial diffusivity (RD), and fractional anisotropy (FA) from five subregions of the corpus callosum were compared across groups. The HIV+/HCV+ group and HIV+ group were similar in terms of HIV clinical variables. None of the participants met criteria for cirrhosis or fibrosis. Within the anterior corpus callosum, significant differences were observed between both HIV+ groups compared to HIV- controls on DTI measures. HIV+ and HIV+/HCV+ groups had significantly lower FA values and higher MD and RD values compared to HIV- controls; however, no differences were present between the HIV+ and HIV+/HCV+ groups. Duration of HIV infection was significantly related to DTI metrics in total corpus callosum FA only, but not other markers of HIV disease burden or neurocognitive function. Both HIV+ and HIV+/HCV+ individuals had significant alterations in white matter integrity within the corpus callosum; however, there was no evidence for an additive effect of HCV coinfection. The association between DTI metrics and duration of HIV infection suggests that HIV may continue to negatively impact white matter integrity even in well-controlled disease.
Project description:Background: Stress-induced cellular changes in limbic brain structures contribute to the development of various psychopathologies. In vivo detection of these microstructural changes may help us to develop objective biomarkers for psychiatric disorders. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is an advanced neuroimaging technique that enables the non-invasive examination of white matter integrity and provides insights into the microstructure of pathways connecting brain areas. Objective: Our aim was to examine the temporal dynamics of stress-induced structural changes with repeated in vivo DTI scans and correlate them with behavioral alterations. Methods: Out of 32 young adult male rats, 16 were exposed to daily immobilization stress for 3 weeks. Four DTI measurements were done: one before the stress exposure (baseline), two scans during the stress (acute and chronic phases), and a last one 2 weeks after the end of the stress protocol (recovery). We used a 4.7T small-animal MRI system and examined 18 gray and white matter structures calculating the following parameters: fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), axial diffusivity (AD), and radial diffusivity (RD). T2-weighted images were used for volumetry. Cognitive performance and anxiety levels of the animals were assessed in the Morris water maze, novel object recognition, open field, and elevated plus maze tests. Results: Reduced FA and increased MD and RD values were found in the corpus callosum and external capsule of stressed rats. Stress increased RD in the anterior commissure and reduced MD and RD in the amygdala. We observed time-dependent changes in several DTI parameters as the rats matured, but we found no evidence of stress-induced volumetric alterations in the brains. Stressed rats displayed cognitive impairments and we found numerous correlations between the cognitive performance of the animals and between various DTI metrics of the inferior colliculus, corpus callosum, anterior commissure, and amygdala. Conclusions: Our data provide further support to the translational value of DTI studies and suggest that chronic stress exposure results in similar white matter microstructural alterations that have been documented in stress-related psychiatric disorders. These DTI findings imply microstructural abnormalities in the brain, which may underlie the cognitive deficits that are often present in stress-related mental disorders.
Project description:Degeneration of the corpus callosum (CC) is evident in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the correlation of microstructural damage in the CC on the cognitive performance of patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and AD dementia is undetermined. We enrolled 26 normal controls, 24 patients with AD dementia, and 40 single-domain aMCI patients with at least grade 1 hippocampal atrophy and isolated memory impairment. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) with fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), axial diffusivity (DA), and radial diffusivity (DR) were measured. The entire CC was parcellated based on fiber trajectories to specific cortical Brodmann areas using a probabilistic tractography method. The relationship between the DTI measures in the subregions of the CC and cognitive performance was examined. Although the callosal degeneration in the patients with aMCI was less extended than in the patients with AD dementia, degeneration was already exhibited in several subregions of the CC at the aMCI stage. Scores of various neuropsychological tests were correlated to the severity of microstructural changes in the subregional CC connecting to functionally corresponding cortical regions. Our results confirm that CC degeneration is noticeable as early as the aMCI stage of AD and the disconnection of the CC subregional fibers to the corresponding Brodmann areas has an apparent impact on the related cognitive performance.
Project description:Introduction: Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder with a clinical presentation characterized by memory impairment and executive dysfunction. Our group previously demonstrated significant alterations in white matter microstructural metrics in AD compared to healthy older adults. We aimed to further investigate the relationship between white matter microstructure in AD and cognitive function, including memory and executive function.Methods: Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and neuropsychological data were downloaded from the AD Neuroimaging Initiative database for 49 individuals with AD and 48 matched healthy older adults. The relationship between whole-brain fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), axial diffusivity (AxD), radial diffusivity (RD), and composite scores of memory and executive function was examined. We also considered voxel-wise relationships using Tract-Based Spatial Statistics.Results: As expected, individuals with AD had lower composite scores on tests of memory and executive function, as well as disrupted white matter integrity (low FA, high MD, AxD, and RD) relative to healthy older adults in widespread regions, including the hippocampus. When the AD and healthy older adult groups were combined, we found significant relationships between DTI metrics (FA/MD/AxD/RD) and memory scores across widespread regions of the brain, including the medial temporal regions. We also found significant relationships between DTI metrics (FA/MD/AxD/RD) and executive function in widespread regions, including the frontal areas in the combined group. However, when the groups were examined separately, no significant relationships were found between DTI metrics (FA/MD/AxD/RD) and memory performance for either group. Further, we did not find any significant relationships between DTI metrics (FA/MD/AxD/RD) and executive function in the AD group, but we did observe significant relationships between FA/RD, and executive function in healthy older adults.Conclusion: White matter integrity is disrupted in AD. In a mixed sample of AD and healthy elderly persons, associations between measures of white matter microstructure and memory and executive cognitive test performance were evident. However, no significant linear relationship between the degree of white matter disruption and level of cognitive functioning (memory and executive abilities) was found in those with AD. Future longitudinal studies of the relations between DTI metrics and cognitive function in AD are required to determine whether DTI has potential to measure progression of AD and/or treatment efficacy.
Project description:It has been shown that cognitive training (CogTr) is effective and recuperative for older adults, and can be used to fight against cognitive decline. In this study, we investigated whether behavioural gains from CogTr would extend to white matter (WM) microstructure, and whether training-induced changes in WM integrity would be associated with improvements in cognitive function, using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). 48 healthy community elderly were either assigned to multi-domain or single-domain CogTr groups to receive 24 sessions over 12 weeks, or to a control group. DTI was performed at both baseline and 12-month follow-up. Positive effects of multi-domain CogTr on long-term changes in DTI indices were found in posterior parietal WM. Participants in the multi-domain group showed a trend of long-term decrease in axial diffusivity (AD) without significant change in fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD) or radial diffusivity (RD), while those in the control group displayed a significant FA decrease, and an increase in MD and RD. In addition, significant relationships between an improvement in processing speed and changes in RD, MD and AD were found in the multi-domain group. These findings support the hypothesis that plasticity of WM can be modified by CogTr, even in late adulthood.
Project description:Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) remains the most commonly reported head injury in the United States, and is associated with a wide range of post-concussive symptoms including physical, cognitive and affective impairments. Elevated aggression has been documented in mTBI; however, the neural mechanisms associated with aggression at the chronic stage of recovery remain poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated the association between white matter integrity and aggression in mTBI using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Twenty-six age-matched adults participated in the study, including 16 healthy controls (HCs) and 10 individuals in the chronic stage of recovery (either 6-months or 12 months post-mTBI). Psychological measures of aggression included the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire and the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI). Axonal pathways implicated in affective processing were studied, including the corpus callosum, anterior thalamic radiation, cingulum and uncinate fasciculus, and measures of white matter integrity included fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), radial diffusivity (RD) and axial diffusivity (AD). We found that adults with mTBI in the chronic stage of recovery had higher levels aggression. Individuals with mTBI also had greater RD in the corpus callosum compared to HCs, indicating reduced fiber integrity. Furthermore, we observed a significant association between reduced white matter integrity in the corpus callosum and greater aggression. Our findings provide additional evidence for underlying neuroanatomical mechanisms of aggression, although future research will be necessary to characterize the specific relationship between aggression and the white matter pathways we identified.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Little is known about the interactions between the default mode network (DMN) subregions in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). This study used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) to examine alterations of long white matter tracts in paired DMN subregions and their functional connectivity in RRMS patients. METHODS: Twenty-four RRMS patients and 24 healthy subjects participated in this study. The fiber connections derived from DTI tractography and the temporal correlation coefficient derived from rs-fMRI were combined to examine the inter-subregion structural-functional connectivity (SC-FC) within the DMN and its correlations with clinical markers. RESULTS: Compared with healthy subjects, the RRMS patients showed the following: 1) significantly decreased SC and increased FC in the pair-wise subregions; 2) two significant correlations in SC-FC coupling patterns, including the positive correlation between slightly increased FC value and long white matter tract damage in the PCC/PCUN-MPFC connection, and the negative correlations between significantly increased FC values and long white matter tract damage in the PCC/PCUN-bilateral mTL connections; 3) SC alterations [log(N track) of the PCC/PCUN-left IPL, RD value of the MPFC-left IPL, FA value of the PCC/PCUN-left mTL connections] correlated with EDSS, increases in the RD value of MPFC-left IPL connection was positively correlated to the MFIS; and decreases in the FA value of PCC/PCUN-right IPL connection was negatively correlated with the PASAT; 4) decreased SC (FA value of the MPFC-left IPL, track volume of the PCC/PCUN-MPFC, and log(N track) of PCC/PCUN-left mTL connections) was positively correlated with brain atrophy. CONCLUSIONS: In the connections of paired DMN subregions, we observed decreased SC and increased FC in RRMS patients. The relationship between MS-related structural abnormalities and clinical markers suggests that the disruption of this long-distance "inter-subregion" connectivity (white matter) may significantly impact the integrity of the network's function.