?-Emitters for Radiotherapy: From Basic Radiochemistry to Clinical Studies-Part 2.
ABSTRACT: The use of radioactive sources to deliver cytotoxic ionizing radiation to disease sites dates back to the early 20th century, with the discovery of radium and its physiologic effects. ?-emitters are of particular interest in the field of clinical oncology for radiotherapy applications. The first part of this review explored the basic radiochemistry, high cell-killing potency, and availability of ?-emitting radionuclides, together with hurdles such as radiolabeling methods and daughter redistribution. The second part of this review will give an overview of the most promising and current uses of ?-emitters in preclinical and clinical studies.
Project description:The advent of click chemistry has had a profound influence on almost all branches of chemical science. This is particularly true of radiochemistry and the synthesis of agents for positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and targeted radiotherapy. The selectivity, ease, rapidity, and modularity of click ligations make them nearly ideally suited for the construction of radiotracers, a process that often involves working with biomolecules in aqueous conditions with inexorably decaying radioisotopes. In the following pages, our goal is to provide a broad overview of the first 10 years of research at the intersection of click chemistry and radiochemistry. The discussion will focus on four areas that we believe underscore the critical advantages provided by click chemistry: (i) the use of prosthetic groups for radiolabeling reactions, (ii) the creation of coordination scaffolds for radiometals, (iii) the site-specific radiolabeling of proteins and peptides, and (iv) the development of strategies for in vivo pretargeting. Particular emphasis will be placed on the four most prevalent click reactions-the Cu-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC), the strain-promoted azide-alkyne cycloaddition (SPAAC), the inverse electron demand Diels-Alder reaction (IEDDA), and the Staudinger ligation-although less well-known click ligations will be discussed as well. Ultimately, it is our hope that this review will not only serve to educate readers but will also act as a springboard, inspiring synthetic chemists and radiochemists alike to harness click chemistry in even more innovative and ambitious ways as we embark upon the second decade of this fruitful collaboration.
Project description:A series of novel derivatives exhibiting high affinity and selectivity towards the COX-2 enzyme in the (aza) indazole series was developed. A short synthetic route involving a bromination/arylation sequence under microwave irradiation and direct C-H activation were established in the indazole and azaindazole series respectively. In vitro assays were conducted and structural modifications were carried out on these scaffolds to furnish compound 16 which exhibited effective COX-2 inhibitory activity, with IC50 values of 0.409?µM and an excellent selectivity versus COX-1. Radiolabeling of this most potent derivative [18F]16 was achieved after boron ester release and the tracer was evaluated in vivo in a rat model of neuroinflammation. All chemistry, radiochemistry and biological experimental data are discussed.
Project description:Radiotheranostics are designed by labeling targeting (bio)molecules with radionuclides for diagnostic or therapeutic application. Because the pharmacokinetics of therapeutic compounds play a pivotal role, chemically closely related imaging agents are used to evaluate the overall feasibility of the therapeutic approach. "Theranostic relatives" that utilize different elements are frequently used in clinical practice. However, variations in pharmacokinetics, biodistribution, and target affinity due to different chemical properties of the radioisotopes remain as hurdles to the design of optimized clinical tools. Herein, the design and synthesis of structurally identical compounds, either for diagnostic (18 F and a stable metal isotope) or therapeutic application (radiometal and stable 19 F), are reported. Such "molecular twins" have been prepared by applying a modular strategy based on click chemistry that enables efficient radiolabeling of compounds containing a metal complex and a tetrazine moiety. This additional bioorthogonal functionality can be used for subsequent radiolabeling of (bio)molecules or pretargeting approaches, which is demonstrated in vitro.
Project description:A novel reaction for chelate-free, heat-induced metal ion binding and radiolabeling of ultra-small paramagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (USPIOs) has been established. Radiochemical and non-radioactive labeling studies demonstrated that the reaction has a wide chemical scope and is applicable to p-, d- and f-block metal ions with varying ionic sizes and formal oxidation states from 2+ to 4+. Radiolabeling studies found that 89Zr-Feraheme (89Zr-FH or 89Zr-ferumoxytol) can be isolated in 93 ± 3% radiochemical yield (RCY) and >98% radiochemical purity using size-exclusion chromatography. 89Zr-FH was found to be thermodynamically and kinetically stable in vitro using a series of ligand challenge and plasma stability tests, and in vivo using PET/CT imaging and biodistribution studies in mice. Remarkably, ICP-MS and radiochemistry experiments showed that the same reaction conditions used to produce 89Zr-FH can be employed with different radionuclides to yield 64Cu-FH (66 ± 6% RCY) and 111In-FH (91 ± 2% RCY). Electron magnetic resonance studies support a mechanism of binding involving metal ion association with the surface of the magnetite crystal core. Collectively, these data suggest that chelate-free labeling methods can be employed to facilitate clinical translation of a new class of multimodality PET/MRI radiotracers derived from metal-based nanoparticles. Further, this discovery is likely to have broader implications in drug delivery, metal separation science, ecotoxicology of nanoparticles and beyond.
Project description:89Zr immuno-PET continues to be assessed in numerous clinical trials. This report evaluates the use of 89Zr-chloride in the radiolabeling of monoclonal antibodies conjugated with desferrioxamine B (DFO), describes its effects on radiopharmaceutical reactivity toward antigen, and offers guidance on how to ensure long-term stability and purity. Methods: 89Zr-DFO-trastuzumab and 89Zr-DFO-cetuximab were prepared using 89ZrCl4 The stability of each was evaluated for 7 d in 20 mM histidine/240 mM sucrose buffer, 0.25 M sodium acetate (NaOAc) buffer containing 5 mg·mL-1 n-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC), or 0.25 M NaOAc containing 5 mg·mL-1 l-methionine (L-MET). To assess antigen reactivity, 89Zr-DFO-trastuzumab was evaluated using the Lindmo method and tested in PET/CT imaging of mouse models of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive or -negative lung cancer. Results: Using 89ZrCl4, 89Zr-DFO-trastuzumab and 89Zr-DFO-cetuximab were prepared with increased specific activity and retained purities of 95% after 3 d when formulated in NaOAc buffer containing L-MET. Based on Lindmo analysis and small-animal PET/CT imaging, 89Zr-DFO-trastuzumab remained reactive toward antigen after being prepared with 89ZrCl4 Conclusion: 89ZrCl4 facilitated the radiosynthesis of 89Zr immuno-PET agents with increased specific activity. L-MET enhanced long-term solution stability better than all other formulations examined, and 89Zr-DFO-trastuzumab remained reactive toward antigen. Although further evaluation is necessary, these initial results suggest that 89ZrCl4 may be useful in immuno-PET radiochemistry as radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies are increasingly integrated into precision medicine strategies.
Project description:223Radium (223Ra) is the first alpha-emitting therapy proven effective in human cancer. Prospective randomized trials indicate that 223Ra, which concentrates after intravenous injection in areas of osteoblastic metastatic disease, can prolong survival in bone-dominant castrate resistant prostate cancer patients. Though radium isotopic therapy is conceptually critical to demonstrate that alpha emitters can be safe and effective, 223Ra has inherent limitations given its restriction to bone metastatic disease. To overcome this limitation, targeted alpha therapy (TAT) is now being actively evaluated in prostate cancer, and other neoplasms. Key to TAT in prostate tumors in current studies is the overexpression of prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA), a folate hydrolase expressed on the cell surface of malignant adenocarcinomas of the prostate. Using PSMA targeting (small molecules or antibodies), alpha emitting agents such as 225Actinium (225Ac) or 213Bismuth (213Bi) can be delivered to PSMA expressing tumors regardless of their metastatic location. Initial results from TAT in prostate cancer are highly promising and rapid development of these agents is anticipated in the years ahead assuming adequacy of isotope availability and appropriate clinical trial design. TAT may be develop as an independent approach, or synergize with a variety of other approaches including external beam radiation, hormonal therapies, chemotherapies, various radiation sensitizers, DNA repair inhibitors, and/or immune modulators. Clinical investigation opportunities in this field will rapidly increase in the years ahead.
Project description:Liquid brachytherapy is an emerging technology for internal radiation therapy where liquids containing radionuclides are administered directly into solid tumors. These technologies are less invasive than conventional brachytherapy, and can potentially improve the dose coverage and homogeneity of the radioactivity distribution within the tumor. For this purpose, we have developed a novel cationic micelle system for delivery of a range of radionuclides. The system is applicable for emitters of alpha, beta or photon radiation, and enables dose-mapping via theranostic nuclear imaging. Methods: The cationic micelles were developed as linear surfactants comprising the chelator DOTA, a triarginine sequence and a palmitoyl or stearoyl fatty acid chain. The critical micelle concentration of the surfactants was determined, and the micelles were radiolabelled with 64Cu or 177Lu in high radiochemical purity (>95%). The tumor retention and biodistribution of the 64Cu-radiolabeled surfactants, administered as micelles or formulated in liposomes, were investigated in vivo by PET/CT in a tumor bearing mouse model. Results: The interaction of the micelles with anionic lipid membranes was demonstrated to be favourable, using a liposome partition assay. In vivo, the surfactants formulated both as cationic micelles and liposomes displayed the best intratumoral retention, with micelles providing more homogeneous activity distribution. Conclusion: A cationic, surfactant-based drug delivery system was developed and demonstrated promise as a vehicle for liquid brachytherapy when formulated as micelles or in liposomes. The system enables accurate dosimetry due to the flexible radiochemistry of DOTA.
Project description:To elucidate the radionuclides and radiochemical impurities included in radiosynthesis processes of positron emission tomography (PET) tracers.Target materials and PET tracers were produced using a cyclotron/synthesis system from Sumitomo Heavy Industry. Positron and ?-ray emitting radionuclides were quantified by measuring radioactivity decay and using the high-purity Ge detector, respectively. Radiochemical species in gaseous and aqueous target materials were analyzed by gas and ion chromatography, respectively.Target materials had considerable levels of several positron emitters in addition to the positron of interest, and in the case of aqueous target materials extremely low levels of many ?-emitters. Five 11C-, 15O-, or 18F-labeled tracers produced from gaseous materials via chemical reactions had no radionuclidic impurities, whereas 18F-FDG, 18F-NaF, and 13N-NH3 produced from aqueous materials had several ?-emitters as well as impure positron emitters. 15O-Labeled CO2, O2, and CO had a radionuclidic impurity 13N-N2 (0.5-0.7 %).Target materials had several positron emitters other than the positron of interest, and extremely low level ?-emitters in the case of aqueous materials. PET tracers produced from gaseous materials except for 15O-labeled gases had no impure radionuclides, whereas those derived from aqueous materials contained acceptable levels of impure positron emitters and extremely low levels of several ?-emitters.
Project description:A robust, click-chemistry-inspired procedure for radiolabeling of cyclic ureas was developed. This protocol, suitable for all carbon isotopes (11 C, 13 C, 14 C), is based on the direct functionalization of carbon dioxide: the universal building block for carbon radiolabeling. The strategy is operationally simple and reproducible in different radiochemistry centers, exhibits remarkably wide substrate scope with short reaction times, and demonstrates superior reactivity as compared to previously reported systems. With this procedure, a variety of pharmaceuticals and an unprotected peptide were labeled with high radiochemical efficiency.
Project description:The production of novel radionuclides is the first step towards the development of new effective radiopharmaceuticals, and the quality thereof directly affects the preclinical and clinical phases. In this review, novel radiometal production for medical applications is briefly elucidated. The production status of the imaging nuclide 44Sc and the therapeutic ?--emitter nuclide 161Tb are compared to their more established counterparts, 68Ga and 177Lu according to their targetry, irradiation process, radiochemistry, and quality control aspects. The detailed discussion of these significant issues will help towards the future introduction of these promising radionuclides into drug manufacture for clinical application under Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP).