PurposeOur purpose was to develop predictive nomograms for overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), and time-to-progression (TTP) at 5 years in patients with early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (ES-NSCLC) treated with stereotactic ablative radiation therapy (SABR).
Methods and materialsThe study cohort included 714 ES-NSCLC patients treated with SABR from 2004-2015 with median follow-up of 59 months, divided into training and testing sets (8:2), with the former used for nomogram development. The least absolute shrinkage and selection operator were initially employed to screen for predictors of OS, PFS, and TTP, and identified predictors were subsequently applied toward Cox proportional hazards regression modeling. Significant predictors (P < .05) on multivariable regression were then used to develop nomograms, which were validated via evaluation of concordance indexes (C-index) and calibration plots. Finally, Kaplan-Meier method and Gray's test were employed to compare and confirm differences in outcomes among various groups and explore prognostic factors associated with local versus distant disease progression.
ResultsSignificant predictors of both OS and PFS at 5 years included age, sex, Charlson comorbidity index, diffusing capacity of carbon monoxide, systemic immune-inflammation index, and tumor size (P ? .01 for all). Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status predicted for OS as well (P = .01), and both tumor size (P < .01) and minimum biological equivalent dose to 95% of planning target volume (PTV D95 BED10; P < .01) were predictive of TTP. The C-indexes for the OS, PFS, and TTP nomograms were 0.73, 0.68, and 0.60 in the training data set and 0.72, 0.66, and 0.59 in the testing data set, respectively. Tumor size > 2.45 cm and PTV D95 BED10 < 113 Gy were significantly associated with both local and distant progression.
ConclusionsThese prognostic nomograms can accurately predict for OS, PFS, and TTP at 5 years after SABR for ES-NSCLC and may thus help identify high-risk patients who could benefit from additional systemic therapy.
SUBMITTER: Kang J