Data on the inner filter effect, suspended solids and nitrate interferences in fluorescence measurements of wastewater organic matter.
ABSTRACT: Data presented in this article show the extent of the inner filter effect (IFE) in fluorescence measurements of wastewater and wastewater-impacted surface water samples. Particularly, data show the effectiveness of a commonly used method for IFE correction based on UV absorbance measurement to reinstate the linearity of the relationship between fluorescence intensities and absorbance values. Data report also the effect of nitrates in fluorescence measurements of wastewater samples. Finally, data presented in this work show the effect of total suspended solids (TSS) in the UV absorbance and fluorescence measurements of different waters. Particularly, data describe the TSS effect in fluorescence intensities acquired at different pairs of excitation-emission wavelengths, and in waters with different TSS concentration. Data of this article are related to the publication "M. Sgroi, E. Gagliano, F.G.A. Vagliasindi, P. Roccaro, Inner filter effect, suspended solids and nitrite/nitrate interferences in fluorescence measurements of wastewater organic matter, Sci. Total Environ., In press" . Raw data are available in a public repository (https://doi.org/10.17632/4zss49jycj.1).
Project description:Surface water quality strongly depends on anthropogenic activity. Among the main anthropogenic sources of this activity are the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents. The discharged loads of nutrients and suspended solids could provoke serious problems for receiving water bodies and significantly alter the surface water quality. This study presents inventory analysis and chemometric assessment of WWTP effluents based on the mandatory monitoring data. The comparison between the Bulgarian WWTPs and previously reported data from other countries reveals that discharged loads from investigated WWTPs are lower. This is particularly valid for total suspended solids (TSS). The low TSS loads are the reason for the deviations of the typical calculated WWTP effluent ratios of Bulgarian WWTPs compared to the WWTPs worldwide. The performed multivariate analysis reveals the hidden factors that determine the content of WWTP effluents. The source apportioning based on multivariate curve resolution analysis provides detailed information for source contribution profiles of the investigated WWTP effluent loads and elucidate the difference between WWTPs included in this study.
Project description:The performance of isolated designed consortia comprising Bacillus pumilus, Brevibacterium sp, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa for the treatment of sewage wastewater in terms of reduction in COD (chemical oxygen demand), BOD (biochemical oxygen demand) MLSS (mixed liquor suspended solids), and TSS (total suspended solids) was studied. Different parameters were optimized (inoculum size, agitation, and temperature) to achieve effective results in less period of time. The results obtained indicated that consortium in the ratio of 1?:?2 (effluent : biomass) at 200?rpm, 35°C is capable of effectively reducing the pollutional load of the sewage wastewaters, in terms of COD, BOD, TSS, and MLSS within the desired discharge limits, that is, 32?mg/L, 8?mg/L, 162?mg/L, and 190?mg/L. The use of such specific consortia can overcome the inefficiencies of the conventional biological treatment facilities currently operational in sewage treatment plants.
Project description:Data presented in this data article show artifacts (bias and error) that influence fluorescence measurement of dissolved organic matter (DOM) due to samples handling and storage. Data show interferences in fluorescence measurements related to filtration of water by different filter materials, including 0.7 ?m glass microfiber filter, 0.45 ?m polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane, 0.45 ?m cellulose nitrate membrane, and 0.45 ?m polyethersulfone (PES) syringe filter. Data show also changes of several fluorescence indexes and UV absorbance measurements of wastewater organic matter respect to time under different storage conditions. Particularly, spectroscopic data were acquired using 0.7 ?m filtered and unfiltered wastewater samples stored at different temperatures (i.e, room temperature, 4 °C, -20 °C) over a testing period of 21 days. Finally, data show the effect of chlorine disinfection (doses of 0.5-8 mg/L) in fluorescence measurements accomplished in samples from two secondary wastewater effluents. Data of this article are related to the publication "M. Sgroi, E. Gagliano, F.G.A. Vagliasindi, P. Roccaro, Absorbance and EEM fluorescence of wastewater: effects of filters, storage conditions, and chlorination, Chemosphere, 243, 2020, 125292 ". Raw data are available in a public repository (https://doi.org/10.17632/pf86xs7ybk.1).
Project description:In this study, four plant-based natural coagulants (banana peel powder, banana stem juice, papaya seed powder and neem leaf powder) were evaluated for the removal of turbidity, chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total suspended solids (TSS) from municipal wastewater. The experiments were conducted at room temperature without adjusting the initial pH. The maximum turbidity removal was observed with banana peel powder (59.6%) at 0.4 g/L of dosage. Papaya seed powder and banana stem juice were the most effective for TSS removal (66.66%) and COD removal (66.67%), respectively. Significant linear relationships between turbidity and TSS (R2 = 0.67-0.88) and turbidity removals and COD removals (R2 = 0.68-0.8) were observed. Interestingly, all the natural coagulants tested in the study did not change the pH of the wastewater, which is an added advantage. FTIR analysis of banana peels revealed that functional groups such as carboxylic acid, hydroxyl and aliphatic amines might be responsible for promoting the coagulation-flocculation by neutralizing the charge on impurities in water. Overall, the results suggest the potential of low-cost natural coagulants in municipal wastewater treatment.
Project description:Fluorescence change is convenient for monitoring enzyme kinetics. Unfortunately, it loses linearity as the absorbance of the fluorescent substrate increases with concentration. When the sum of absorbance at excitation and emission wavelengths exceeds 0.08, this inner filtering effect (IFE) alters apparent initial velocities, K(m), and k(cat). The IFE distortion of apparent initial velocities can be corrected without doing fluorophore dilution assays. Using the substrate's extinction coefficients at excitation and emission wavelengths, the inner filter effect can be modeled during curve fitting for more accurate Michaelis-Menten parameters. A faster and simpler approach is to derive k(cat) and K(m) from progress curves. Strategies to obtain reliable and reproducible estimates of k(cat) and K(m) from only two or three progress curves are illustrated using matrix metalloproteinase 12 and alkaline phosphatase. Accurate estimates of concentration of enzyme-active sites and specificity constant k(cat)/K(m) (from one progress curve with [S]<<K(m)) confer accuracy, freedom of choices of [S], and robustness to k(cat) and K(m) globally fitted to a few progress curves. The economies of the progress curve approach make accurate k(cat) and K(m) more accessible from fluorescence measurements.
Project description:Impact of aging on nanoparticle toxicity in real matrices is scarcely investigated due to a lack of suitable methodologies. Herein, the toxicity of pristine and aged silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) to a bioluminescent Pseudomonas putida bioreporter was measured in spiked crude and final wastewater samples (CWs and FWs, respectively) collected from four wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Results showed lower toxicity of pristine Ag NPs in CWs than in FWs. The effect of the matrix on the eventual Ag NP toxicity was related to multiple physico-chemical parameters (biological oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids (TSS) pH, ammonia, sulfide and chloride) based on a multivariate analysis. However, no collection site effect was concluded. Aged Ag NPs (up to eight weeks) were found less toxic than pristine Ag NPs in CWs; evident increased aggregation and decreased dissolution were associated with aging. However, Ag NPs exhibited consistent toxicity in FWs despite aging; comparable results were obtained in artificial wastewater (AW) simulating effluent. The study demonstrates the potency of performing nanoparticle acute toxicity testing in real and complex matrices such as wastewaters using relevant bacterial bioreporters.
Project description:Health assumptions to the population due to the utilization of contaminated vegetables have been a great concern all over the world. In this study, an investigation has been conducted to ascertain metal concentrations in the wastewater, soil and commonly consumed vegetables from the vicinity of Gadoon Industrial Estate Swabi, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan. Physicochemical parameters such as pH, electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), total suspended solids (TSS) and total solids (TS) and heavy metals such as Pb, Cr, Cd, Ni, Zn, Cu, Fe, Mn were determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). Moreover, possible health risks due to the consumption of vegetables have also been estimated. pH and TSS in wastewater were found to be higher than the permissible limit set by WHO (1996). These results revealed that Cr concentration in the wastewater was above the permissible limits of United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) which may lead to a detrimental effect on soil quality deterioration, ultimately leading to food contamination. ANOVA analysis demonstrated a significant difference in soil samples for Pb, Cr, Cd, Ni, Zn and Cu at p ≤ 0.001, for Mn at p ≤ 0.05 while no significant difference was observed for Fe respectively. ANOVA analysis also exhibited the highest mean value for Pb, Cr, Cd and Zn in vegetables. A substantial positive correlation was found among the soil and vegetable contamination. The transfer factor for Cr, Pb, Zn, Mn, Ni, Cd and Cu was greater than 0.5 due to contamination caused by domestic discharges and industrial effluents. Health assessment via consumption of dietary vegetables revealed a higher level than the permissible limit (HRI > 1) for Pb and Cd in children and adults. Enrichment factor (EF) due to consumption of vegetables was found higher for Pb and Cr respectively. Based on the findings of this study, there would be a significant risk to the consumers associated with consumptions of vegetables being cultivated in Gadoon Industrial Estate area of district Swabi. Therefore, strict regulatory control measures are highly recommended for the safety of vegetables originated from the study area.
Project description:Saline municipal wastewater treatment is a challenging environmental issue in coastal cities, due to the discharge of saline water into the sewers. The present research article focuses on the phytoremediation of high saline municipal wastewater by <i>Ruppia maritime</i>, a widespread plant which can be found in saline medium such as traditional fish ponds, estuaries, tidal flats, salt pans, coastal paddy fields, coastal lagoons, marsh pools, and mangrove salt marshes in Khuzestan province, Iran. The experimental data was obtained using a pilot plant constructed in Chobeineh wastewater treatment plant in Ahvaz city, fed by activated sludge effluent in 3 levels of electrical conductivity (EC) (10, 15, 20 ms cm<sup>-1</sup>), during 45 days of the experiment. Chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP) and total suspended solids (TSS) were daily monitored in blank and pilot study. The COD removal decreased from 83.26% to 72.39% by increasing the EC level from 10 to 20 ms cm<sup>-1</sup>, respectively. The experimental data will practically be an appropriate source of information for environmental engineers to design a natural treatment scenario for saline wastewater treatment.
Project description:Deterioration of water quality is a major problem world widely according to many international non-governmental organizations (NGO). As one of the European Union (EU) countries, Bulgaria is also obliged by EU legislation to maintain best practices in assessing surface water quality and the efficiency of wastewater treatment processes. For these reasons studies were undertaken to utilize ecotoxicological (Microtox<sup>®</sup>, Phytotoxkit F<sup>TM</sup>, Daphtoxkit F<sup>TM</sup>), instrumental (to determine pH, electrical conductivity (EC), chemical oxygen demand, total suspended solids (TSS), total nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P), chlorides, sulphates, Cr, Co, Cu, Cd, Ba, V, Mn, Fe, Ni, Zn, Se, Pb), as well as advanced chemometric methods (partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA)) in data evaluation to comprehensively assess wastewater treatment plants' (WWTPs) effluents and surface waters quality around 21 major Bulgarian cities. The PLS-DA classification model for the physicochemical parameters gave excellent discrimination between WWTP effluents and surface waters with 93.65% correct predictions (with significant contribution of EC, TSS, P, N, Cl, Fe, Zn, and Se). The classification model based on ecotoxicological data identifies the plant test endpoints as having a greater impact on the classification model efficiency than bacterial, or crustaceans' endpoints studied.
Project description:Monitoring the genetic signal of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) through RNA titers in wastewater has emerged as a promising strategy for tracking community-scale prevalence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Although many studies of SARS-CoV-2 in wastewater have been conducted around the world, a uniform procedure for concentrating the virus in wastewater is lacking. The goal of this study was to comprehensively evaluate how different methods for concentrating the suspended solids in wastewater affect the associated SARS-CoV-2 RNA signal and the time required for processing samples for wastewater-based epidemiology efforts. We additionally consider the effects of sampling location in the wastewater treatment train (i.e., following preliminary or primary treatment), pasteurization, and RNA extraction method. Comparison of the liquid phase to suspended solids obtained via centrifugation or vacuum filtration suggests that the RNA signal of SARS-CoV-2 preferentially occurs in the solids. Therefore, we assert that the recovery of SARS-CoV-2 from wastewater should focus on suspended solids. Our data indicate that the measured SARS-CoV-2 signal is higher among samples taken from the primary clarifier effluent, as opposed to those taken after preliminary treatment. Additionally, we provide evidence that sample pasteurization at 60 °C for 90 min reduces the SARS-CoV-2 signal by approximately 50-55%. Finally, the results indicate that a magnetic bead approach to RNA extraction leads to a higher SARS-CoV-2 signal than does a silica membrane approach.