The Circulating GRP78/BiP Is a Marker of Metabolic Diseases and Atherosclerosis: Bringing Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress into the Clinical Scenario.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Glucose-regulated protein 78/Binding immunoglobulin protein (GRP78/BiP) is a protein associated with endoplasmic reticulum stress and is upregulated by metabolic alterations at the tissue-level, such as hypoxia or glucose deprivation, and it is hyper-expressed in fat tissue of obese individuals. OBJECTIVE:To investigate the role of the GRP78/BiP level as a metabolic and vascular disease biomarker in patients with type 2 diabetes (DM), obesity and metabolic syndrome (MS). METHODS:Four hundred and five patients were recruited, of whom 52.5% were obese, 72.8% had DM, and 78.6% had MS. The intimae media thickness (cIMT) was assessed by ultrasonography. The plasma GRP78/BiP concentration was determined, and its association with metabolic and vascular parameters was assessed. Circulating GRP78/BiP was also prospectively measured in 30 DM patients before and after fenofibrate/niacin treatment and 30 healthy controls. RESULTS:In the cross-sectional study, the GRP78/BiP level was significantly higher in the patients with obesity, DM, and MS. Age-, gender- and BMI-adjusted GRP78/BiP was directly associated with LDL-cholesterol, non-HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, apoB, and cIMT. GRP78/BiP was positively associated to carotid plaque presence in the adjusted model, irrespective of obesity, DM and MS. In the prospective study, nicotinic acid treatment produced a significant reduction in the GRP78/BiP levels that was not observed with fenofibrate. CONCLUSIONS:GRP78/BiP plasma concentrations are increased in patients with both metabolic derangements and subclinical atherosclerosis. GRP78/BiP could be a useful marker of metabolic and cardiovascular risk.
Project description:Genetic obesity increases in liver phosphatidylcholine (PC)/phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) ratio, inducing endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress without concomitant increase of ER chaperones. Here, it is found that exposing mice to a palm oil-based high fat (HF) diet induced obesity, loss of liver PE, and loss of the ER chaperone Grp78/BiP in pericentral hepatocytes. In Hepa1-6 cells treated with elevated concentration of palmitate to model lipid stress, Grp78/BiP mRNA was increased, indicating onset of stress-induced Unfolded Protein Response (UPR), but Grp78/BiP protein abundance was nevertheless decreased. Exposure to elevated palmitate also induced in hepatoma cells decreased membrane glycosylation, nuclear translocation of pro-apoptotic C/EBP-homologous-protein-10 (CHOP), expansion of ER-derived quality control compartment (ERQC), loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), and decreased oxidative phosphorylation. When PE was delivered to Hepa1-6 cells exposed to elevated palmitate, effects by elevated palmitate to decrease Grp78/BiP protein abundance and suppress membrane glycosylation were blunted. Delivery of PE to Hepa1-6 cells treated with elevated palmitate also blunted expansion of ERQC, decreased nuclear translocation of CHOP and lowered abundance of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Instead, delivery of the chemical chaperone 4-phenyl-butyrate (PBA) to Hepa1-6 cells treated with elevated palmitate, while increasing abundance of Grp78/BiP protein and restoring membrane glycosylation, also increased ERQC, expression and nuclear translocation of CHOP, non-mitochondrial oxygen consumption, and generation of ROS. Data indicate that delivery of PE to hepatoma cells under lipid stress recovers cell function by targeting the secretory pathway and by blunting pro-apoptotic branches of the UPR.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>To investigate the role of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperone glucose-regulated protein (GRP) 78/BiP in the pathogenesis of obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes.<h4>Research design and methods</h4>Male Grp78(+/-) mice and their wild-type littermates were subjected to a high-fat diet (HFD) regimen. Pathogenesis of obesity and type 2 diabetes was examined by multiple approaches of metabolic phenotyping. Tissue-specific insulin sensitivity was analyzed by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps. Molecular mechanism was explored via immunoblotting and tissue culture manipulation.<h4>Results</h4>Grp78 heterozygosity increases energy expenditure and attenuates HFD-induced obesity. Grp78(+/-) mice are resistant to diet-induced hyperinsulinemia, liver steatosis, white adipose tissue (WAT) inflammation, and hyperglycemia. Hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp studies revealed that Grp78 heterozygosity improves glucose metabolism independent of adiposity and following an HFD increases insulin sensitivity predominantly in WAT. As mechanistic explanations, Grp78 heterozygosity in WAT under HFD stress promotes adaptive unfolded protein response (UPR), attenuates translational block, and upregulates ER degradation-enhancing alpha-mannosidase-like protein (EDEM) and ER chaperones, thus improving ER quality control and folding capacity. Further, overexpression of the active form of ATF6 induces protective UPR and improves insulin signaling upon ER stress.<h4>Conclusions</h4>HFD-induced obesity and type 2 diabetes are improved in Grp78(+/-) mice. Adaptive UPR in WAT could contribute to this improvement, linking ER homeostasis to energy balance and glucose metabolism.
Project description:Activation of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress pathway is associated with poor response to doxorubicin-containing regimens, such as rituximab, cyclophosphamide, hydroxydaunorubicin (doxorubicin), vincristine and prednisone (R-CHOP), in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Bortezomib, a proteasome inhibitor, interferes with ER responses and improves survival in patients with aggressive hematologic malignant tumors, although its use in DLBCL patients remains controversial. The 78-kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP78), also known as immunoglobulin heavy chain binding protein (BiP), is an ER stress sensor involved in the resistance to doxorubicin and bortezomib, but its role in the response to chemotherapy in DLBCL has not been explored before. We show that high BiP/GRP78 expression is related to worse overall survival (median overall survival, 5.2 versus 3.4 years). Moreover, cell death after R-CHOP in DLCBL cell lines is associated with decreased BiP/GRP78 expression. Conversely, DLBCL cell lines are primarily resistant to bortezomib, probably owing to BiP/GRP78 overexpression. Small-interfering RNA silencing of BiP/GRP78 renders all cell lines sensitive to bortezomib. R-CHOP with bortezomib (R-CHOP-BZ) reduces BiP/GRP78 expression and overcomes bortezomib resistance, mimicking the small-interfering RNA silencing of BiP/GRP78. Accordingly, R-CHOP-BZ is the most effective treatment, providing a rationale for the use of this combinational therapy to improve DLBCL patient survival. Moreover, this study provides preclinical evidence that the germinal center B-cell-like subtype DLBCL is sensitive to bortezomib combined with immunochemotherapy.
Project description:Recent data have demonstrated that the hypothalamic GRP78/BiP (glucose regulated protein 78 kDa/binding immunoglobulin protein) modulates brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis by acting downstream on AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Herein, we aimed to investigate whether genetic over-expression of GRP78 in the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH: a key site regulating thermogenesis) could ameliorate very high fat diet (vHFD)-induced obesity. Our data showed that stereotaxic treatment with adenoviruses harboring GRP78 in the VMH reduced hypothalamic endoplasmic reticulum ER stress and reversed vHFD-induced obesity. Herein, we also demonstrated that this body weight decrease was more likely associated with an increased BAT thermogenesis and browning of white adipose tissue (WAT) than to anorexia. Overall, these results indicate that the modulation of GRP78 in the VMH may be a target against obesity.
Project description:GRP78/BiP is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperone protein with the important function of maintaining ER homeostasis, and the overexpression of GRP78/BiP alleviates ER stress. Our previous studies showed that infection with enterovirus 71 (EV71), a (+)RNA picornavirus, induced GRP78/BiP upregulation; however, ectopic GRP78/BiP overexpression in ER downregulates virus replication and viral particle formation. The fact that a virus infection increases GRP78/BiP expression, which is unfavorable for virus replication, is counterintuitive. In this study, we found that the GRP78/BiP protein level was elevated in the cytoplasm instead of in the ER in EV71-infected cells. Cells transfected with polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid, a synthetic analog of replicative double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), but not with viral proteins, also exhibited upregulation and elevation of GRP78/BiP in the cytosol. Our results further demonstrate that EV71 infections induce the dsRNA/protein kinase R-dependent cytosolic accumulation of GRP78/BiP. The overexpression of a GRP78/BiP mutant lacking a KDEL retention signal failed to inhibit both dithiothreitol-induced eIF2α phosphorylation and viral replication in the context of viral protein synthesis and viral titers. These data revealed that EV71 infection might cause upregulation and aberrant redistribution of GRP78/BiP to the cytosol, thereby facilitating virus replication.
Project description:<h4>Objectives</h4>We aimed to determine whether parameters associated with adipose tissue (adipocyte density and the circulating concentrations of markers of adipose tissue pathology) predict cardiovascular risk (CVR) modification after metabolic surgery (MS).<h4>Methods</h4>We performed a case-control study of patients with morbid obesity who were candidates for MS. CVR was defined using flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and carotid intima media thickness (CIMT), which were measured during the 9 months following MS. Subgroups of CVR reduction were defined using the following cut-offs: CIMT 10% and/or a two-fold increase in FMD.<h4>Results</h4>We studied 40 patients with morbid obesity (mean age 44.5 years, 75% women, mean body mass index 46.4 kg/m<sup>2</sup>) and high prevalences of the metabolically unhealthy obesity phenotype, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus. A significant reduction in CVR was associated with lower vascular endothelial growth factor-A concentration (6.20 <i>vs.</i> 1.59 pg/mL, respectively), low adipocyte density in visceral adipose tissue (100 <i>vs.</i> 80 cells/field), low infiltration with CD68+ cells (18 <i>vs.</i> 8 cells/field) and higher concentrations of lipid peroxidation markers and malondialdehyde (313.7 <i>vs.</i> 405.7 ng/mL).<h4>Conclusion</h4>The characteristics of adipose tissue and the circulating concentrations of markers of adipose pathology might represent useful predictors of the reduction in CVR following MS.<b>Clinical trial registration number</b>: NCT0356198 (https://clinicaltrials.gov).
Project description:Abdominal or visceral obesity is a well-known risk factor for metabolic diseases. However, whether abdominal obesity significantly affects plasma lipid profile during the development of type 2 diabetes has not been fully elucidated. We investigated the differences in plasma lipid concentrations in 63 participants categorized into six groups (middle-aged Korean men); Normal, Pre-diabetes (pre-DM), and Diabetes mellitus (DM) with or without abdominal obesity (AO or lean). The lipidomic profiles were determined by using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Sphingomyelin (SM) levels in plasma were significantly higher in the pre-DM with AO than in pre-DM with lean (p = 0.021). SM concentrations correlated positively with waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) (r = 0.256, p = 0.044), cholesteryl ester (CE) (r = 0.483, p < 0.0001), ceramide (r = 0.489, p < 0.0001) and plasmanyl phosphatidylcholine (PC) (r = 0.446, p < 0.0001). The present study found that pre-diabetic patients with AO were characterized by increased plasma concentrations of SM. Plasma SM levels in individuals with AO may be an early prognostic biomarker to better predict the progression toward type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome.
Project description:Pediatric obesity is a major health concern today, which pre-disposes individuals to metabolic syndrome (MS), and the risk of premature cardiovascular disease (CVD). Use of carotid intima media thickness (CIMT) is recognized as non-invasive way to assess vascular health. The objective of this study was to determine which MBS risk factors has an influence on increasing one's risk of an increased CIMT in children. In southern Maine 189 children (age: 10.52?±?.52?years) had their MBS risk factors and CIMT assessed. Based on CIMT, children were divided into quartiles and compared to MBS risk factors. Children in the highest quartile for CIMT had the highest waist circumference (<i>P</i>?<?.05) compared to all other groups, using a one-way analysis of variance. No other MBS risk factors had an influence on CIMT. It appears early identification of children with an elevated WC may be beneficial in identifying children at risk of premature CVD.
Project description:Atherosclerosis prevalence is increased in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients, independent of other risk factors. The etiology of the excess vascular disease in COPD is unknown, although it is presumably related to an underlying (if cryptic) systemic immune response. Autoantibodies with specificity for glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), a multifunctional component of the unfolded protein response, are common in COPD patients and linked to comorbidities of this lung disease. We hypothesized anti-GRP78 autoreactivity might also be a risk factor for atherosclerosis in COPD patients. Carotid intima-medial thickness (cIMT) was measured in 144 current and former smokers by ultrasound. Concentrations of circulating IgG autoantibodies against full-length GRP78, determined by ELISA, were greater among subjects with abnormally increased cIMT (p < 0.01). Plasma levels of autoantibodies against a singular GRP78 peptide segment, amino acids 246-260 (anti-GRP78aa 246-260), were even more highly correlated with cIMT, especially among males with greater than or equal to moderate COPD (r s = 0.62, p = 0.001). Anti-GRP78aa 246-260 concentrations were independent of CRP, IL-6, and TNF-? levels. GRP78 autoantigen expression was upregulated among human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) stressed by incubation with tunicamycin (an unfolded protein response inducer) or exposure to culture media flow disturbances. Autoantibodies against GRP78aa 246-260, isolated from patient plasma by immunoprecipitation, induced HAEC production of proatherosclerotic mediators, including IL-8. In conclusion, anti-GRP78 autoantibodies are highly associated with carotid atherosclerosis in COPD patients and exert atherogenic effects on HAECs. These data implicate Ag-specific autoimmunity in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis among COPD patients and raise possibilities that directed autoantibody reduction might ameliorate vascular disease in this high-risk population.
Project description:In prostate cancer, oxidative stress and the subsequent Nrf2 activation promote the survival of cancer cells and acquired chemoresistance. Nrf2 links prostate cancer to endoplasmic reticulum stress, an event that triggers the unfolded protein response, aiming to restore cellular homeostasis as well as an adaptive survival mechanism. Glucose-regulated protein of 78 kD /immunoglobulin heavy chain binding protein (GRP78/BiP) is a key molecular chaperone in the endoplasmic reticulum that, when expressed at the cell surface, acts as a receptor for several signaling pathways enhancing antiapoptotic and proliferative signals. We showed GRP78/BiP translocation to PC3 cell surface in the presence of tunicamycin, an ER stress inductor, and demonstrated the existence of a GRP78/BiP-dependent non-canonical Nrf2 activation, responsible for increased resistance to ER-stress induced apoptosis. We found that, even in the absence of ROS production, tunicamycin causes Nrf2 activation, and activates Akt signaling, events bulnted by anti-GRP78/BiP antibody treatment. The presence of GRP78/BiP at the cell surface might be exploited for the immunotherapeutic strategy of prostate cancer since its blockage by anti-GRP78/BiP antibodies might promote cancer death by suppressing some of the several molecular protective mechanisms found in aggressive cancer cells.