A Nordic survey of CT doses in hybrid PET/CT and SPECT/CT examinations.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Computed tomography (CT) scans are routinely performed in positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) examinations globally, yet few surveys have been conducted to gather national diagnostic reference level (NDRL) data for CT radiation doses in positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) and single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT). In this first Nordic-wide study of CT doses in hybrid imaging, Nordic NDRL CT doses are suggested for PET/CT and SPECT/CT examinations specific to the clinical purpose of CT, and the scope for optimisation is evaluated. Data on hybrid imaging CT exposures and clinical purpose of CT were gathered for 5 PET/CT and 8 SPECT/CT examinations via designed booklet. For each included dataset for a given facility and scanner type, the computed tomography dose index by volume (CTDIvol) and dose length product (DLP) was interpolated for a 75-kg person (referred to as CTDIvol,75kg and DLP75kg). Suggested NDRL (75th percentile) and achievable doses (50th percentile) were determined for CTDIvol,75kg and DLP75kg according to clinical purpose of CT. Differences in maximum and minimum doses (derived for a 75-kg patient) between facilities were also calculated for each examination and clinical purpose. RESULTS:Data were processed from 83 scanners from 43 facilities. Data were sufficient to suggest Nordic NDRL CT doses for the following: PET/CT oncology (localisation/characterisation, 15 systems); infection/inflammation (localisation/characterisation, 13 systems); brain (attenuation correction (AC) only, 11 systems); cardiac PET/CT and SPECT/CT (AC only, 30 systems); SPECT/CT lung (localisation/characterisation, 12 systems); bone (localisation/characterisation, 30 systems); and parathyroid (localisation/characterisation, 13 systems). Great variations in dose were seen for all aforementioned examinations. Greatest differences in DLP75kg for each examination, specific to clinical purpose, were as follows: SPECT/CT lung AC only (27.4); PET/CT and SPECT/CT cardiac AC only (19.6); infection/inflammation AC only (18.1); PET/CT brain localisation/characterisation (16.8); SPECT/CT bone localisation/characterisation (10.0); PET/CT oncology AC only (9.0); and SPECT/CT parathyroid localisation/characterisation (7.8). CONCLUSIONS:Suggested Nordic NDRL CT doses are presented according to clinical purpose of CT for PET/CT oncology, infection/inflammation, brain, PET/CT and SPECT/CT cardiac, and SPECT/CT lung, bone, and parathyroid. The large variation in doses suggests great scope for optimisation in all 8 examinations.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:CLR1404 is a theranostic molecular agent that can be radiolabeled with 124I (CLR 124) for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging, or 131I (CLR 131) for single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging and targeted radionuclide therapy. This pilot study evaluated a pretreatment dosimetry methodology in a triple-negative breast cancer patient who was uniquely enrolled in both a CLR 124 PET imaging clinical trial and a CLR 131 therapeutic dose escalation clinical trial. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Three-dimensional PET/CT images were acquired at 1, 3, 24, 48, and 120?h postinjection of 178?MBq CLR 124. One month later, pretherapy 2D whole-body planar images were acquired at 0.25, 5, 24, 48, and 144?h postinjection of 370?MBq CLR 131. Following the therapeutic administration of 1990?MBq CLR 131, 3D SPECT/CT images were acquired at 74, 147, 334, and 505?h postinjection. The therapeutic CLR 131 voxel-level absorbed dose was estimated from PET (RAPID PET) and SPECT (RAPID SPECT) images using a Geant4-based Monte Carlo dosimetry platform called RAPID (Radiopharmaceutical Assessment Platform for Internal Dosimetry), and region of interest (ROI) mean doses were also estimated using the OLINDA/EXM software based on PET (OLINDA PET), SPECT (OLINDA SPECT), and planar (OLINDA planar) images. RESULTS:The RAPID PET and OLINDA PET tracer-predicted ROI mean doses correlated well (m???0.631, R2 ? 0.694, p???0.01) with both the RAPID SPECT and OLINDA SPECT therapeutic mean doses. The 2D planar images did not have any significant correlations. The ROI mean doses differed by -4% to -43% between RAPID and OLINDA/EXM, and by -19% to 29% between PET and SPECT. The 3D dose distributions and dose volume histograms calculated with RAPID were similar for the PET/CT and SPECT/CT. CONCLUSIONS:This pilot study demonstrated that CLR 124 pretreatment PET images can be used to predict CLR 131 3D therapeutic dosimetry better than CLR 131 2D planar images. In addition, unlike OLINDA/EXM, Monte Carlo dosimetry methods were capable of accurately predicting dose heterogeneity, which is important for predicting dose-response relationships and clinical outcomes.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:The purpose of this study was to present the optimization process of CT parameters to reduce patient exposure during bone SPECT/CT without affecting the quality of SPECT images with attenuation correction (AC). MATERIAL AND METHODS:A fillable phantom reflecting realistic bone scintigraphy conditions was developed and acquired on an AnyScan SC. SPECT/CT scans were carried out with different x-ray tube current values (10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 90, 110, 130, 150, and 200 mA) at three different high-voltage values (80, 100, and 120 kV). The contrast (C) and coefficients of variation (CV) in the SPECT images as well as the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and noise (SDCT ) in the CT images with CTDIvol were measured. An optimal acquisition protocol that obtained SPECT/CT images with no artifacts on both CT and SPECT images, acceptable C, SNR, CV, and SDCT values, and the largest reduction in patient exposure compared to the reference acquisition procedure was sought. RESULTS:The optimal set of parameters for bone SPECT/CT was determined based on a phantom study. It has been implemented in clinical practice. Two groups of patients were examined according to the baseline and optimized protocols, respectively. The new SPECT/CT protocol substantially reduced patients' radiation exposure compared to the old protocol while maintaining the required diagnostic quality of SPECT and CT images. CONCLUSIONS:In the study, we present a methodology that finds a compromise between diagnostic information and patient exposure during bone SPECT/CT procedures.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Yttrium-90 (90Y) positron emission tomography with integrated computed tomography (PET/CT) represents a technological leap from 90Y bremsstrahlung single-photon emission computed tomography with integrated computed tomography (SPECT/CT) by coincidence imaging of low abundance internal pair production. Encouraged by favorable early experiences, we implemented post-radioembolization 90Y PET/CT as an adjunct to 90Y bremsstrahlung SPECT/CT in diagnostic reporting.<h4>Methods</h4>This is a retrospective review of all paired 90Y PET/CT and 90Y bremsstrahlung SPECT/CT scans over a 1-year period. We compared image resolution, ability to confirm technical success, detection of non-target activity, and providing conclusive information about 90Y activity within targeted tumor vascular thrombosis. 90Y resin microspheres were used. 90Y PET/CT was performed on a conventional time-of-flight lutetium-yttrium-oxyorthosilicate scanner with minor modifications to acquisition and reconstruction parameters. Specific findings on 90Y PET/CT were corroborated by 90Y bremsstrahlung SPECT/CT, 99mTc macroaggregated albumin SPECT/CT, follow-up diagnostic imaging or review of clinical records.<h4>Results</h4>Diagnostic reporting recommendations were developed from our collective experience across 44 paired scans. Emphasis on the continuity of care improved overall diagnostic accuracy and reporting confidence of the operator. With proper technique, the presence of background noise did not pose a problem for diagnostic reporting. A counter-intuitive but effective technique of detecting non-target activity is proposed, based on the pattern of activity and its relation to underlying anatomy, instead of its visual intensity. In a sub-analysis of 23 patients with a median follow-up of 5.4 months, 90Y PET/CT consistently outperformed 90Y bremsstrahlung SPECT/CT in all aspects of qualitative analysis, including assessment for non-target activity and tumor vascular thrombosis. Parts of viscera closely adjacent to the liver remain challenging for non-target activity detection, compounded by a tendency for mis-registration.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Adherence to proper diagnostic reporting technique and emphasis on continuity of care are vital to the clinical utility of post-radioembolization 90Y PET/CT. 90Y PET/CT is superior to 90Y bremsstrahlung SPECT/CT for the assessment of target and non-target activity.
Project description:Importance:The American College of Radiology (ACR) has recognized the importance of minimizing radiation doses used for lung cancer screening (LCS) computed tomography (CT). However, without standard protocols, doses could still be unnecessarily high, reducing screening margin of benefit. Objective:To characterize LCS CT radiation doses and identify factors explaining variation. Design, Setting, and Participants:We prospectively collected LCS examination dose metrics, from 2016 to 2017, at US institutions in the University of California, San Francisco International Dose Registry. Institution-level factors were collected through baseline survey. Mixed-effects linear and logistic regression models were estimated using forward variable selection. Results are presented as percentage excess dose and odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The analysis was conducted between 2018 and 2019. Main Outcomes and Measures:Log-transformed measures of (1) mean volume CT dose index (CTDIvol, mGy), reflecting the average radiation dose per slice; (2) mean effective dose (ED, mSv), reflecting the total dose received and estimated future cancer risk; (3) proportion of CT scans using radiation doses above ACR benchmarks (CTDIvol >3 mGy, ED >1 mSv); and (4) proportion of CT scans using radiation doses above 75th percentile of registry doses (CTDIvol >2.7 mGy, ED >1.4 mSv). Results:Data were collected for 12?529 patients undergoing LCS CT scans performed at 72 institutions. Overall, 7232 participants (58%) were men, and the median age was 65 years (interquartile range [IQR], 60-70). Of 72 institutions, 15 (21%) had median CTDIvol and 47 (65%) had median ED above ACR guidelines. Institutions allowing any radiologists to establish protocols had 44% higher mean CTDIvol (mean dose difference [MDD], 44%; 95% CI, 19%-69%) and 27% higher mean ED (MDD, 27%; 95% CI, 5%-50%) vs those limiting who established protocols. Institutions allowing any radiologist to establish protocols had higher odds of examinations exceeding ACR CTDIvol guidelines (OR, 12.0; 95% CI, 2.0-71.4), and 75th percentile of registry CTDIvol (OR, 19.0; 95% CI, 1.9-186.7) or ED (OR, 8.5; 95% CI, 1.7-42.9). Having lead radiologists establish protocols resulted in lower odds of doses exceeding ACR ED guidelines (OR, 0.01; 95% CI, 0.001-0.1). Employing external vs internal medical physicists was associated with increased odds of exceeding ACR CTDIvol guidelines (OR, 6.1; 95% CI, 1.8-20.8). Having medical physicists establish protocols was associated with decreased odds of exceeding 75th percentile of registry CTDIvol (OR, 0.09; 95% CI, 0.01-0.59). Institutions reporting protocol updates as needed had 27% higher mean CTDIvol (MDD, 27%; 95% CI, 8%-45%). Conclusions and Relevance:Facilities varied in LCS CT radiation dose distributions. Institutions limiting protocol creation to lead radiologists and having internal medical physicists had lower doses.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Coincidence imaging of low-abundance yttrium-90 (90Y) internal pair production by positron emission tomography with integrated computed tomography (PET/CT) achieves high-resolution imaging of post-radioembolization microsphere biodistribution. Part 2 analyzes tumor and non-target tissue dose-response by 90Y PET quantification and evaluates the accuracy of tumor 99mTc macroaggregated albumin (MAA) single-photon emission computed tomography with integrated CT (SPECT/CT) predictive dosimetry. METHODS: Retrospective dose quantification of 90Y resin microspheres was performed on the same 23-patient data set in part 1. Phantom studies were performed to assure quantitative accuracy of our time-of-flight lutetium-yttrium-oxyorthosilicate system. Dose-responses were analyzed using 90Y dose-volume histograms (DVHs) by PET voxel dosimetry or mean absorbed doses by Medical Internal Radiation Dose macrodosimetry, correlated to follow-up imaging or clinical findings. Intended tumor mean doses by predictive dosimetry were compared to doses by 90Y PET. RESULTS: Phantom studies demonstrated near-perfect detector linearity and high tumor quantitative accuracy. For hepatocellular carcinomas, complete responses were generally achieved at D70 > 100 Gy (D70, minimum dose to 70% tumor volume), whereas incomplete responses were generally at D70 < 100 Gy; smaller tumors (<80 cm3) achieved D70 > 100 Gy more easily than larger tumors. There was complete response in a cholangiocarcinoma at D70 90 Gy and partial response in an adrenal gastrointestinal stromal tumor metastasis at D70 53 Gy. In two patients, a mean dose of 18 Gy to the stomach was asymptomatic, 49 Gy caused gastritis, 65 Gy caused ulceration, and 53 Gy caused duodenitis. In one patient, a bilateral kidney mean dose of 9 Gy (V20 8%) did not cause clinically relevant nephrotoxicity. Under near-ideal dosimetric conditions, there was excellent correlation between intended tumor mean doses by predictive dosimetry and those by 90Y PET, with a low median relative error of +3.8% (95% confidence interval, -1.2% to +13.2%). CONCLUSIONS: Tumor and non-target tissue absorbed dose quantification by 90Y PET is accurate and yields radiobiologically meaningful dose-response information to guide adjuvant or mitigative action. Tumor 99mTc MAA SPECT/CT predictive dosimetry is feasible. 90Y DVHs may guide future techniques in predictive dosimetry.
Project description:The aim of this study was to clarify the predictive value of fractional flow reserve (FFR) determined by myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) using thallium (Tl)-201 IQ-SPECT without and with computed tomography-based attenuation correction (CT-AC) for patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD).We assessed 212 angiographically identified diseased vessels using adenosine-stress Tl-201 MPI-IQ-SPECT/CT in 84 consecutive, prospectively identified patients with stable CAD. We compared the FFR in 136 of the 212 diseased vessels using visual semiquantitative interpretations of corresponding territories on MPI-IQ-SPECT images without and with CT-AC.FFR inversely correlated most accurately with regional summed difference scores (rSDS) in images without and with CT-AC (r?=?-0.584 and r?=?-0.568, respectively, both P?<?.001). Receiver-operating characteristics analyses using rSDS revealed an optimal FFR cut-off of <0.80 without and with CT-AC. Although the diagnostic accuracy of FFR <0.80 did not significantly differ, FFR ?0.82 was significantly more accurate with, than without CT-AC. Regions with rSDS ?2 without or with CT-AC predicted FFR <0.80, and those with rSDS ?1 without and with CT-AC predicted FFR ?0.81, with 73% and 83% sensitivity, 84% and 67% specificity, and 79% and 75% accuracy, respectively.Although limited by the sample size and the single-center design, these findings showed that the IQ-SPECT system can predict FFR at an optimal cut-off of <0.80, and we propose a novel application of CT-AC to MPI-IQ-SPECT for predicting clinically significant and insignificant FFR even in nonobese patients.
Project description:Phosphaturic mesenchymal tumors (PMTs) are small, typically difficult to localize, and express somatostatin receptors. Recent work suggests imaging studies using 68Gallium (68Ga)-conjugated somatostatin peptide analogues, such as 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA)TATE, which enables somatostatin receptor imaging with positron emission tomography (PET), may be useful at identifying these tumors.Our objective was to evaluate the use of 68Ga-DOTATATE PET/computed tomography (CT) for tumor localization in tumor-induced osteomalacia (TIO).This was a single-center prospective study of patients with TIO.The study was conducted at the National Institutes of Health Clinical Center between February 2014 and February 2015.Eleven subjects (six females, five males) with TIO were included.Subjects underwent 68Ga-DOTATATE PET/CT in addition to 111In-pentetreotide single-photon emission CT (Octreoscan- SPECT/CT) and fluorodeoxyglucose-PET/CT (18F FDG-PET/CT) scan.Localization of PMTs on the previously described imaging modalities were determined.The tumor was successfully localized in 6/11 (54.5%) subjects (one was metastatic). The tumor was identified by 68Ga-DOTATATE in all six cases. Both Octreoscan-SPECT/CT and 18F FDG-PET each identified the tumor in 4/6. In no cases was 68Ga-DOTATATE the only imaging study to identify the tumor.In this first prospective study comparing 68Ga-DOTATATE PET/CT to Octreoscan-SPECT/CT and 18F FDG-PET in TIO localization, 68Ga-DOTATATE PET/CT demonstrated the greatest sensitivity and specificity, suggesting that it may be the best single study for localization of PMTs in TIO.
Project description:Purpose:To determine the effect of patient's vertical off-centering and scout direction on the function of automatic tube voltage selection (ATVS) and tube current modulation (TCM) in chest computed tomography (CT). Methods:Chest phantom was scanned with Siemens and GE CT systems using three clinical chest CT protocols exploiting ATVS and a fixed 120 kVp chest protocol. The scans were performed at five vertical positions of the phantom (-6 to +6?cm from the scanner isocenter). The effects of scout direction (posterior-to-anterior, anterior-to-posterior, and lateral) and vertical off-centering on the function of ATVS and TCM were studied by examining changes in selected voltage, radiation dose (volume CT dose index, CTDIvol), and image noise and contrast. Results:Both scout direction and vertical off-centering affected ATVS. The effect differed between the vendors for the studied geometry, demonstrating differences in technical approaches. The greatest observed increase in CTDIvol due to off-centering was 91%. Anterior-to-posterior scout produced highest doses at the uppermost table position, whereas posterior-to-anterior scout produced highest doses at the lowermost table position. Dose varied least using lateral scouts. Vertical off-centering impacted image noise and contrast due to the combined effect of ATVS, TCM, structural noise, and bowtie filters. Conclusions:Patient vertical off-centering and scout direction affected substantially the CTDIvol and image quality in chest CT examinations. Vertical off-centering caused variation also in the selected tube voltage. The function of ATVS and TCM methods differ significantly between the CT vendors, resulting in differences in CTDIvol and image noise characteristics.
Project description:To compare the interobserver agreement and degree of confidence in anatomical localisation of lesions using 2-[fluorine-18]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ((18)F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) and (18)F-FDG PET alone in patients with head and neck tumours. A prospective study of 24 patients (16 male, eight female, median age 59 years) with head and neck tumours was undertaken. (18)F-FDG PET/CT was performed for staging purposes. 2D images were acquired over the head and neck area using a GE Discovery LS PET/CT scanner. (18)F-FDG PET images were interpreted by three independent observers. The observers were asked to localise abnormal (18)F-FDG activity to an anatomical territory and score the degree of confidence in localisation on a scale from 1 to 3 (1=exact region unknown; 2=probable; 3=definite). For all (18)F-FDG-avid lesions, standardised uptake values (SUVs) were also calculated. After 3 weeks, the same exercise was carried out using (18)F-FDG PET/CT images, where CT and fused volume data were made available to observers. The degree of interobserver agreement was measured in both instances. A total of six primary lesions with abnormal (18)F-FDG uptake (SUV range 7.2-22) were identified on (18)F-FDG PET alone and on (18)F-FDG PET/CT. In all, 15 nonprimary tumour sites were identified with (18)F-FDG PET only (SUV range 4.5-11.7), while 17 were identified on (18)F-FDG PET/CT. Using (18)F-FDG PET only, correct localisation was documented in three of six primary lesions, while (18)F-FDG PET/CT correctly identified all primary sites. In nonprimary tumour sites, (18)F-FDG PET/CT improved the degree of confidence in anatomical localisation by 51%. Interobserver agreement in assigning primary and nonprimary lesions to anatomical territories was moderate using (18)F-FDG PET alone (kappa coefficients of 0.45 and 0.54, respectively), but almost perfect with (18)F-FDG PET/CT (kappa coefficients of 0.90 and 0.93, respectively). We conclude that (18)F-FDG PET/CT significantly increases interobserver agreement and confidence in disease localisation of (18)F-FDG-avid lesions in patients with head and neck cancers.
Project description:The detection of occult bone metastases is a key factor in determining the management of patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC), especially when curative surgery is considered. This prospective study assessed the sensitivity of (18)F-labelled sodium fluoride in conjunction with positron emission tomography/computed tomography ((18)F-NaF PET/CT) for detecting RCC bone metastases, compared with conventional imaging by bone scintigraphy or CT.An adaptive two-stage trial design was utilized, which was stopped after the first stage due to statistical efficacy. Ten patients with stage IV RCC and bone metastases were imaged with (18)F-NaF PET/CT and (99m)Tc-labelled methylene diphosphonate ((99m)Tc-MDP) bone scintigraphy including pelvic single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Images were reported independently by experienced radiologists and nuclear medicine physicians using a 5-point scoring system.Seventy-seven lesions were diagnosed as malignant: 100% were identified by (18)F-NaF PET/CT, 46% by CT and 29% by bone scintigraphy/SPECT. Standard-of-care imaging with CT and bone scintigraphy identified 65% of the metastases reported by (18)F-NaF PET/CT. On an individual patient basis, (18)F-NaF PET/CT detected more RCC metastases than (99m)Tc-MDP bone scintigraphy/SPECT or CT alone (P = 0.007). The metabolic volumes, mean and maximum standardized uptake values (SUV mean and SUV max) of the malignant lesions were significantly greater than those of the benign lesions (P < 0.001).(18)F-NaF PET/CT is significantly more sensitive at detecting RCC skeletal metastases than conventional bone scintigraphy or CT. The detection of occult bone metastases could greatly alter patient management, particularly in the context when standard-of-care imaging is negative for skeletal metastases.