Serotonin regulates maternal calcium homeostasis during the perinatal period of sheep.
ABSTRACT: The goal of this experiment was to demonstrate the ability of an infusion of serotonin (5-HT; 5-hydroxytryptamine) precursors to increase 5-HT production during the transition from pregnancy to lactation and its effects on gene expression related to calcium (Ca) transporters in the mammary gland and bone resorption markers in the femur. Thirty pregnant Bamei mutton sheep were randomly assigned to 3 experimental groups. All groups received a daily intravenous infusion of saline (control group; n = 10), saline containing 0.178 mg of L-tryptophan/kg body weight (BW) (TRP group, n = 10) or 0.178 mg of 5-hydroxytryptophan/kg BW (5-HTP group, n = 10), beginning on day 7 of prepartum and continuing until delivery. Serum (pre- and postpartum), milk (postpartum), and femur and mammary gland tissue (day 9) were collected. Sheep infused with 5-HTP had a larger total serum Ca concentration on days 3, 6, 15, and 30 of lactation and total milk Ca concentration on days 3, 6, 12, and 15 of lactation compared with that of the control group. Sheep infused with 5-HTP and TRP increased blood and milk concentrations of 5-HT on days 3, 6, 9, and 30 of lactation and parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) on day 3 of prepartum and on days 3, 6, and 15 of lactation (P < 0.05). In addition, compared to that of the control group, the TRP or 5-HTP infusion upregulated PTHrP, a sodium/calcium exchanger, plasma membrane Ca2+ ATPase 2, secretory pathway Ca2+ ATPase 1, and calcium sensing receptor mRNA expression in mammary gland and receptor-activated nuclear factor kappa-B ligand mRNA expression in the femur, but had no effect on receptor-activated nuclear factor kappa-B and osteoprotegerin mRNA expression in the femur (P < 0.05). This suggests that 5-HT and PTHrP may be involved in regulating maternal Ca homeostasis during the transition from pregnancy to lactation in the sheep.
Project description:During lactation, large amounts of calcium are exported from the mammary gland into milk to ensure skeletal growth of the offspring. Recent studies revealed that serotonin (5-HT) is essential to stimulate skeletal calcium resorption for milk synthesis. Our objective was to explore the correlation between circulating 5-HT and serum calcium and parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) concentrations around parturition in dairy goats. We also investigated the effect of 5-HT on PTHrP expression in cultured primary goat mammary epithelial cells (GMEC). Blood samples of multiparous Guanzhong dairy goats were collected on day -5 to 3 postpartum for analysis of serum concentrations of calcium, 5-HT, and PTHrP. Results revealed that from day -3 to 0 postpartum serum calcium and 5-HT concentrations decreased progressively, but serum PTHrP concentration only had a sharp drop in the postpartum period sampled. Correlation analysis of circulating 5-HT and serum calcium and PTHrP concentrations on day 1 and 2 postpartum revealed that low serum 5-HT concentration was positively correlated with serum total calcium or PTHrP concentration. By knocking down tryptophan hydroxylase-1 (TPH1) or adding 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) to decrease or increase the levels of 5-HT in GMEC, we observed that 5-HTP increased PTHrP expression in a dose-dependent manner and siTPH1 decreased PTHrP protein expression. Furthermore, 5-HT increased mRNA abundance of calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) in a dose-dependent manner and decreased the expression of plasma membrane Ca2+ ATPase-1 (PMCA1). Taken together, 5-HT seems to induce PTHrP expression in goat mammary cells during and after parturition. These findings suggest that increasing 5-HT biosynthesis could be a potential therapeutic target for prevention of hypocalcemia in dairy goats.
Project description:The PET tracer [(11)C]5-hydroxytryptophan ([(11)C]5-HTP), which is converted to [(11)C]5-hydroxytryptamine ([(11)C]5-HT) by aromatic amino acid decarboxylase (AADC), is thought to measure 5-HT synthesis rates. But can we measure these synthesis rates by kinetic modeling of [(11)C]5-HTP in rat? Male rats were scanned with [(11)C]5-HTP (60 minutes) after different treatments. Scans included arterial blood sampling and metabolite analysis. 5-HT synthesis rates were calculated by a two-tissue compartment model (2TCM) with irreversible tracer trapping or Patlak analysis. Carbidopa (inhibitor peripheral AADC) dose-dependently increased [(11)C]5-HTP brain uptake, but did not influence 2TCM parameters. Therefore, 10 mg/kg carbidopa was applied in all subsequent study groups. These groups included treatment with NSD 1015 (general AADC inhibitor) or p-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA, inhibitor of tryptophan hydroxylase, TPH). In addition, the effect of a low-tryptophan (Trp) diet was investigated. NSD 1015 or Trp depletion did not affect any model parameters, but PCPA reduced [(11)C]5-HTP uptake, and the k3. This was unexpected as NSD 1015 directly inhibits the enzyme converting [(11)C]5-HTP to [(11)C]5-HT, suggesting that trapping of radioactivity does not distinguish between parent tracer and its metabolites. As different results have been acquired in monkeys and humans, [(11)C]5-HTP-PET may be suitable for measuring 5-HT synthesis in primates, but not in rodents.
Project description:During lactation, calcium is mobilized from the maternal skeleton to supply the breast for milk production. This results in rapid but fully reversible bone loss. Prior studies have suggested that PTHrP, secreted from the breast, and estrogen deficiency, due to suckling-induced central hypogonadism, combine to trigger bone resorption. To determine whether this combination was sufficient to explain bone loss during lactation, we raised PTHrP levels and decreased levels of estrogens in nulliparous mice. PTHrP was infused via osmotic minipumps and estrogens were decreased either by using leuprolide, a long-acting GnRH agonist, or by surgical ovariectomy (OVX). Bone mineral density declined by 23.2 ± 1.3% in the spine and 16.8 ± 1.9% in the femur over 10 d of lactation. This was accompanied by changes in trabecular architecture and an increase in both osteoblast and osteoclast numbers. OVX and PTHrP infusion both induced a modest decline in bone mineral density over 10 d, but leuprolide treatment did not. The combination of OVX and PTHrP was more effective than either treatment alone, but there was no interaction between PTHrP and leuprolide. None of the treatments reproduced the same degree of bone loss caused by lactation. However, both forms of estrogen deficiency led to an increase in osteoclasts, whereas infusion of PTHrP increased both osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Therefore, although the combination of PTHrP and estrogen deficiency contributes to bone loss, it is insufficient to reproduce the full response of the skeleton to lactation, suggesting that other factors also regulate bone metabolism during this period.
Project description:Acute tryptophan depletion (ATD) is a method of lowering brain serotonin (5-HT). Administration of large neutral amino acids (LNAA) limits the transport of endogenous tryptophan (TRP) across the blood brain barrier by competition with other LNAAs and subsequently decreases serotonergic neurotransmission. A recent discussion on the specificity and efficacy of the ATD paradigm for inhibition of central nervous 5-HT has arisen. Moreover, side effects such as vomiting and nausea after intake of amino acids (AA) still limit its use. ATD Moja-De is a revised mixture of AAs which is less nauseating than conventional protocols. It has been used in preliminary clinical studies but its effects on central 5-HT mechanisms and other neurotransmitter systems have not been validated in an animal model. We tested ATD Moja-De (TRP-) in two strains of mice: C57BL/6J, and BALB/cJ, which are reported to have impaired 5-HT synthesis and a more anxious phenotype relative to other strains of mice. ATD Moja-De lowered brain TRP, significantly decreased 5-HT synthesis as indexed by 5-HTP levels after decarboxlyase inhibition, and lowered 5-HT and 5-HIAA in both strains of mice, however more so in C57BL/6J than in BALB/cJ. Dopamine and its metabolites as well as norepinephrine were not affected. A balanced (TRP+) control mixture did not raise 5-HT or 5-HIAA. The present findings suggest that ATD Moja-De effectively and specifically suppresses central serotonergic function. These results also demonstrate a strain-specific effect of ATD Moja-De on anxiety-like behavior.
Project description:BACKGROUND Based on the extensive biological effects of melatonin (MLT), it is beneficial to increase the MLT content in the bodies of animals at a specific physiological stage. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of a diet supplemented with rumen-protected (RP) 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) on the pineal gland and intestinal tract MLT synthesis of sheep. MATERIAL AND METHODS Eighteen Kazakh sheep were assigned randomly to 3 diet groups: control group (CT, corn-soybean meal basal diet), CT+111 group (111 mg/kg BW RP 5-HTP), and CT+222 group (222 mg/kg BW RP 5-HTP). The gene expressions of aromatic amino acid decarboxylase (AADC), arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AA-NAT), hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase (HIOMT), monoamine oxidase A (MAOA), and the intermediates of MLT synthesis were observed from the pineal gland and intestinal tract by the reverse transcription (RT)-PCR method. The 5-HTP, 5-HT, N-acetylserotonin (NAS), MLT, and 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-HIAA) contents in the pineal gland and intestinal tract were analyzed by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. RESULTS The study showed that the pineal gland HIOMT expression (P<0.05), MLT (P<0.05) and 5-HIAA (P<0.05) levels in the 222 mg/kg group significantly increased compared to those in the CT and CT+111 mg/kg groups. In addition, the AADC (P<0.01) and AA-NAT (P<0.05) gene expression levels in the duodenum and jejunum were increased by the supplementation of RP 5-HTP. CONCLUSIONS Rumen-protected 5-hydroxytryptophan promoted melatonin synthesis in the pineal gland and intestinal tract during the natural light period.
Project description:5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) has shown therapeutic promise in a range of human CNS disorders. But native 5-HTP immediate release (IR) is poorly druggable, as rapid absorption causes rapid onset of adverse events, and rapid elimination causes fluctuating exposure. Recently, we reported that 5-HTP delivered as slow-release (SR) in mice augmented the brain pro-serotonergic effect of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), without the usual adverse events associated with 5-HTP IR. However, our previous study entailed translational limitations, in terms of route, dose, and duration. Here we modeled oral 5-HTP SR in mice by administering 5-HTP via the food. We modeled oral SSRI treatment via fluoxetine in the water, in a regimen recapitulating clinical pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. 5-HTP SR produced plasma 5-HTP levels well within the range enhancing brain 5-HT function in humans. 5-HTP SR robustly increased brain 5-HT synthesis and levels. When administered with an SSRI, 5-HTP SR enhanced 5-HT-sensitive behaviors and neurotrophic mRNA expression. 5-HTP SR's pro-serotonergic effects were stronger in mice with endogenous brain 5-HT deficiency. In a comprehensive screen, 5-HTP SR was devoid of overt toxicological effects. The present preclinical data, appreciated in the context of published 5-HTP clinical data, suggest that 5-HTP SR could represent a new therapeutic approach to the plethora of CNS disorders potentially treatable with a pro-serotonergic drug. 5-HTP SR might in particular be therapeutically relevant when brain 5-HT deficiency is pathogenic and as an adjunctive augmentation therapy to SSRI therapy.
Project description:The secreted carbonic anhydrases, CA VI, are high molecular mass, oligomeric enzymes originally found in the sheep parotid gland and saliva. The enzymes have been purified from the saliva or parotid glands of several different species. All the CA VI enzymes studied have an apparent subunit Mr of about 45,000 as previously reported for the sheep enzyme. By Western analysis, CA VI from human, cow and dog cross-reacted with antibody raised against the purified sheep enzyme whereas that of the mouse did not. The N-terminal sequences of the sheep, human, cow and mouse enzymes are reported. The sheep, cow and human N-terminal sequences are similar to one another while the mouse sequence is substantially different. Nevertheless, the amino acids in the aromatic cluster I (Trp-5, Tyr-7, Trp-16 and Tyr/Phe-20) have all been conserved, as is the case with the cytoplasmic carbonic anhydrases. Eighteen tissues from the sheep have been examined for the presence of CA VI by Western analysis but it has been found only in the salivary glands. Northern analysis and hybridization histochemistry show that the mRNA for CA VI in sheep is expressed specifically in the acinar cells of the parotid and submandibular glands.
Project description:Drugs, notably SSRIs, that elevate brain extracellular 5-HT (5-HTExt) are antidepressants. Unfortunately, most patients fail to remit. Multipronged clinical evidence suggests that elevating 5-HTExt beyond the SSRI effect enhances antidepressant efficacy, but previous such drug strategies had prohibitive limitations. In humans, adjunct treatment with the 5-HT precursor 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) elevates 5-HTExt beyond the SSRI effect. Small pilot trials suggest that adjunct 5-HTP can confer antidepressant response in treatment-resistant depression (TRD). However, sustained, stable 5-HTExt elevation is required for antidepressant effect; therefore, the rapid absorption and elimination of standard 5-HTP immediate release (IR) likely curtail 5-HTP IR's antidepressant potential. Slow-release (SR) drug delivery can crucially improve efficacy and safety of rapidly absorbed and eliminated compounds. Here we tested in mice the hypothesis that SR delivery will substantially improve 5-HTP's drug properties, by minimizing adverse effects and securing sustained 5-HTExt elevation beyond the SSRI effect. We modeled 5-HTP SR with minipumps, 5-HTP IR with injections, and chronic SSRI with dietary fluoxetine. We tested adjunct 5-HTP SR in wild-type mice and in mice with low brain 5-HT owing to expression of a mutant form of the brain 5-HT synthesis enzyme, tryptophan hydroxylase 2. In both lines of mice, adjunct 5-HTP SR synergized with SSRI to elevate 5-HTExt beyond the SSRI effect. We observed no adverse effect. Adjunct 5-HTP IR could not produce this therapy-like profile, producing transient 5-HTExt spikes and marked adverse effects. Integrated with a body of clinical data, our mouse data suggest that an adjunct 5-HTP SR drug could safely and effectively elevate 5-HTExt beyond the SSRI effect and represent a novel treatment for TRD.
Project description:In the presence of NMDA receptor open-channel blockers [Mg(2+); (+)-5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[a,d]cyclohepten-5,10-imine maleate (MK-801); 1-amino-3,5-dimethyladamantane (memantine)] and TTX, high concentrations (30-100 microm) of either 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) or alpha-methyl-5-hydroxytryptamine (alpha-Me-5-HT) significantly potentiated NMDA-induced depolarizations of frog spinal cord motoneurones. Potentiation was blocked by LY-53,857 (10-30 microm), SB 206553 (10 microm), and SB 204741 (30 microm), but not by spiroxatrine (10 microm), WAY 100,635 (1-30 microm), ketanserin (10 microm), RS 102221 (10 microm), or RS 39604 (10-20 microm). Therefore, alpha-Me-5-HT's facilitatory effects appear to involve 5-HT(2B) receptors. These effects were G-protein dependent as they were prevented by prior treatment with guanylyl-5'-imidodiphosphate (GMP-PNP, 100 microm) and H-Arg-Pro-Lys-Pro-Gln-Gln-D-Trp-Phe-D-Trp-D-Trp-Met-NH(2) (GP antagonist 2A, 3-6 microm), but not by pertussis toxin (PTX, 3-6 ng ml(-1), 48 h preincubation). This potentiation was not reduced by protein kinase C inhibition with staurosporine (2.0 microm), U73122 (10 microm) or N-(2-aminoethyl)-5-isoquinolinesulfonamide HCl (H9) (77 microm) or by intracellular Ca(2+) depletion with thapsigargin (0.1 microm) (which inhibits Ca(2+)/ATPase). Exposure of the spinal cord to the L-type Ca(2+) channel blockers nifedipine (10 microm), KN-62 (5 microm) or gallopamil (100 microm) eliminated alpha-Me-5-HT's effects. The calmodulin antagonist N-(6-aminohexyl)-5-chloro-1-naphtalenesulfonamide (W7) (100 microm) diminished the potentiation. However, the calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaM Kinase II) blocker KN-93 (10 microm) did not block the 5-HT enhancement of the NMDA responses. In summary, activation of 5-HT(2B) receptors by alpha-Me-5-HT facilitates NMDA-depolarizations of frog motoneurones via a G-protein, a rise in [Ca(2+)](i) from the entry of extracellular Ca(2+) through L-type Ca(2+) channels, the binding of Ca(2+) to calmodulin and a lessening of the Mg(2+) -produced open-channel block of the NMDA receptor.
Project description:Mammary-derived serotonin has been implicated in breast-to-bone communication during lactation by increasing parathyroid hormone related-protein (PTHrP) in the mammary gland. It is well established that PTHrP acts on the bone to liberate calcium for milk synthesis during lactation; however, the mechanism of serotonin's regulation of PTHrP has not been fully elucidated. Recently, serotonylation has been shown to be involved in a variety of physiological processes mediated by serotonin. Therefore, we investigated whether serotonylation is involved in serotonin's regulation of PTHrP in the mammary gland using lactogenically differentiated mouse mammary epithelial cells. We investigated the effect of increased intracellular serotonin using the antidepressant fluoxetine or 5-hydroxytryptophan (serotonin precursor), with or without transglutaminase inhibition and the corresponding action on PTHrP induction and activity. Treatment with fluoxetine or 5-hydroxytryptophan significantly increased intracellular serotonin concentrations and subsequently increased PTHrP gene expression, which was reduced with transglutaminase inhibition. Furthermore, we determined that transglutaminase activity is increased with lactogenic differentiation and 5-hydroxytryptophan or fluoxetine treatment. We investigated whether RhoA, Rac1, and Rab4 were potential serotonylation target proteins. We speculate that RhoA is potentially a serotonylation target protein. Our data suggest that serotonin regulates PTHrP induction in part through the process of serotonylation under lactogenic conditions in mouse mammary epithelial cells.