Comparative Genomics of 86 Whole-Genome Sequences in the Six Species of the Elizabethkingia Genus Reveals Intraspecific and Interspecific Divergence.
ABSTRACT: Bacteria of the genus Elizabethkingia are emerging infectious agents that can cause infection in humans. The number of published whole-genome sequences of Elizabethkingia is rapidly increasing. In this study, we used comparative genomics to investigate the genomes of the six species in the Elizabethkingia genus, namely E. meningoseptica, E. anophelis, E. miricola, E. bruuniana, E. ursingii, and E. occulta. In silico DNA-DNA hybridization, whole-genome sequence-based phylogeny, pan genome analysis, and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analyses were performed, and clusters of orthologous groups were evaluated. Of the 86 whole-genome sequences available in GenBank, 21 were complete genome sequences and 65 were shotgun sequences. In silico DNA-DNA hybridization clearly delineated the six Elizabethkingia species. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed that E. bruuniana, E. ursingii, and E. occulta were closer to E. miricola than to E. meningoseptica and E. anophelis. A total of 2,609 clusters of orthologous groups were identified among the six type strains of the Elizabethkingia genus. Metabolism-related clusters of orthologous groups accounted for the majority of gene families in KEGG analysis. New genes were identified that substantially increased the total repertoire of the pan genome after the addition of 86 Elizabethkingia genomes, which suggests that Elizabethkingia has shown adaptive evolution to environmental change. This study presents a comparative genomic analysis of Elizabethkingia, and the results of this study provide knowledge that facilitates a better understanding of this microorganism.
Project description:The genus Elizabethkingia is genetically heterogeneous, and the phenotypic similarities between recognized species pose challenges in correct identification of clinically derived isolates. In addition to the type species Elizabethkingia meningoseptica, and more recently proposed Elizabethkingia miricola, Elizabethkingia anophelis and Elizabethkingia endophytica, four genomospecies have long been recognized. By comparing historic DNA-DNA hybridization results with whole genome sequences, optical maps, and MALDI-TOF mass spectra on a large and diverse set of strains, we propose a comprehensive taxonomic revision of this genus. Genomospecies 1 and 2 contain the type strains E. anophelis and E. miricola, respectively. Genomospecies 3 and 4 are herein proposed as novel species named as Elizabethkingia bruuniana sp. nov. (type strain, G0146T = DSM 2975T = CCUG 69503T = CIP 111191T) and Elizabethkingia ursingii sp. nov. (type strain, G4122T = DSM 2974T = CCUG 69496T = CIP 111192T), respectively. Finally, the new species Elizabethkingia occulta sp. nov. (type strain G4070T = DSM 2976T = CCUG 69505T = CIP 111193T), is proposed.
Project description:Draft genome sequences of Elizabethkingia meningoseptica and representatives of each of its four historically described genomospecies were sequenced here. Preliminary analysis suggests that Elizabethkingia miricola belongs to genomospecies 2, and both Elizabethkingia anophelis and Elizabethkingia endophytica are most similar to genomospecies 1.
Project description:Elizabethkingia meningoseptica is an emerging, healthcare-associated pathogen causing a high mortality rate in immunocompromised patients. We report the draft genome sequence of E. meningoseptica Em3, isolated from sputum from a patient with multiple underlying diseases. The genome has a length of 4,037,922 bp, a GC-content 36.4%, and 3673 predicted protein-coding sequences. Average nucleotide identity analysis (>95%) assigned the bacterium to the species E. meningoseptica. Genome analysis showed presence of the curli formation and assembly operon and a gene encoding hemagglutinins, indicating ability to form biofilm. In vitro biofilm assays demonstrated that E. meningoseptica Em3 formed more biofilm than E. anophelis Ag1 and E. miricola Emi3, both lacking the curli operon. A gene encoding thiol-activated cholesterol-dependent cytolysin in E. meningoseptica Em3 (potentially involved in lysing host immune cells) was also absent in E. anophelis Ag1 and E. miricola Emi3. Strain Em3 showed ?-hemolysin activity on blood agar medium, congruent with presence of hemolysin and cytolysin genes. Furthermore, presence of heme uptake and utilization genes demonstrated adaptations for bloodstream infections. Strain Em3 contained 12 genes conferring resistance to ?-lactams, including ?-lactamases class A, class B, and metallo-?-lactamases. Results of comparative genomic analysis here provide insights into the evolution of E. meningoseptica Em3 as a pathogen.
Project description:Unlike Elizabethkingia meningoseptica, the clinical importance of E. anophelis is poorly understood. We determined the clinical and molecular epidemiology of bacteremia caused by Elizabethkingia-like species from five regional hospitals in Hong Kong. Among 45 episodes of Elizabethkingia-like bacteremia, 21 were caused by Elizabethkingia, including 17 E. anophelis, three E. meningoseptica and one E. miricola; while 24 were caused by other diverse genera/species, as determined by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Of the 17 cases of E. anophelis bacteremia, 15 (88%) were clinically significant. The most common diagnosis was pneumonia (n = 5), followed by catheter-related bacteremia (n = 4), neonatal meningitis (n = 3), nosocomial bacteremia (n = 2) and neutropenic fever (n = 1). E. anophelis bacteremia was commonly associated with complications and carried 23.5% mortality. In contrast, of the 24 episodes of bacteremia due to non-Elizabethkingia species, 16 (67%) were clinically insignificant. Compared to non-Elizabethkingia bacteremia, Elizabethkingia bacteremia was associated with more clinically significant infections (P < 0.01) and positive cultures from other sites (P < 0.01), less polymicrobial bacteremia (P < 0.01), and higher complication (P < 0.05) and mortality (P < 0.05) rates. Elizabethkingia bacteremia is predominantly caused by E. anophelis instead of E. meningoseptica. Elizabethkingia bacteremia, especially due to E. anophelis, carries significant morbidity and mortality, and should be considered clinically significant unless proven otherwise.
Project description:Some of the previously reported clinical isolates of Elizabethkingia meningoseptica may be later named species of Elizabethkingia We determined the accuracy of species identification (with two matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry [MALDI-TOF MS] systems and the Vitek 2 GN card), relative prevalence of three Elizabethkingia spp. in clinical specimens, and antimicrobial susceptibility of the species identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Specimens for culture were collected from patients in a university hospital in Seoul, South Korea, between 2009 and 2015. All 3 Elizabethkingia spp. were detected in patients; among the 86 isolates identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, 17 (19.8%) were E. meningoseptica, 18 (20.9%) were Elizabethkingia miricola, and 51 (59.3%) were Elizabethkingia anophelis Only the MALDI-TOF Vitek MS system with an amended database correctly identified all of the isolates. The majority (76.7%) of the isolates were from the lower respiratory tract, and 8 (9.3%) were from blood. Over 90% of E. meningoseptica and E. anophelis isolates were susceptible to piperacillin-tazobactam and rifampin. In contrast, all E. miricola isolates were susceptible to fluoroquinolones except ciprofloxacin. Further studies are urgently needed to determine the optimal antimicrobial agents for the treatment of infections due to each individual Elizabethkingia species.
Project description:Elizabethkingia anophelis is an emerging pathogen involved in human infections and outbreaks in distinct world regions. We investigated the phylogenetic relationships and pathogenesis-associated genomic features of two neonatal meningitis isolates isolated 5 years apart from one hospital in Central African Republic and compared them with Elizabethkingia from other regions and sources. Average nucleotide identity firmly confirmed that E. anophelis, E. meningoseptica and E. miricola represent demarcated genomic species. A core genome multilocus sequence typing scheme, broadly applicable to Elizabethkingia species, was developed and made publicly available (http://bigsdb.pasteur.fr/elizabethkingia). Phylogenetic analysis revealed distinct E. anophelis sublineages and demonstrated high genetic relatedness between the African isolates, compatible with persistence of the strain in the hospital environment. CRISPR spacer variation between the African isolates was mirrored by the presence of a large mobile genetic element. The pan-genome of E. anophelis comprised 6,880 gene families, underlining genomic heterogeneity of this species. African isolates carried unique resistance genes acquired by horizontal transfer. We demonstrated the presence of extensive variation of the capsular polysaccharide synthesis gene cluster in E. anophelis. Our results demonstrate the dynamic evolution of this emerging pathogen and the power of genomic approaches for Elizabethkingia identification, population biology and epidemiology.
Project description:Elizabethkingia bruuniana is a novel species of the Elizabethkingia genus. There is scant information on this microorganism. Here, we report the whole-genome features and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of E. bruuniana strain EM798-26. Elizabethkingia strain EM798-26 was initially identified as E. miricola. This isolate contained a circular genome of 4,393,011 bp. The whole-genome sequence-based phylogeny revealed that Elizabethkingia strain EM798-26 was in the same group of the type strain E. bruuniana G0146T. Both in silico DNA-DNA hybridization and average nucleotide identity analysis clearly demonstrated that Elizabethkingia strain EM798-26 was a species of E. bruuniana. The pan-genome analysis identified 2,875 gene families in the core genome and 5,199 gene families in the pan genome of eight publicly available E. bruuniana genome sequences. The unique genes accounted for 0.2-12.1% of the pan genome in each E. bruuniana. A total of 59 potential virulence factor homologs were predicted in the whole-genome of E. bruuniana strain EM798-26. This isolate was nonsusceptible to multiple antibiotics, but susceptible to aminoglycosides, minocycline, and levofloxacin. The whole-genome sequence analysis of E. bruuniana EM798-26 revealed 29 homologs of antibiotic resistance-related genes. This study presents the genomic features of E. bruuniana. Knowledge of the genomic characteristics provides valuable insights into a novel species.
Project description:Three human clinical isolates of bacteria (designated strains Em1, Em2 and Em3) had high average nucleotide identity (ANI) to Elizabethkingia meningoseptica. Their genome sizes (3.89, 4.04 and 4.04 Mb) were comparable to those of other Elizabethkingia species and strains, and exhibited open pan-genome characteristics, with two strains being nearly identical and the third divergent. These strains were susceptible only to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and ciprofloxacin amongst 16 antibiotics in minimum inhibitory tests. The resistome exhibited a high diversity of resistance genes, including 5 different lactamase- and 18 efflux protein- encoding genes. Forty-four genes encoding virulence factors were conserved among the strains. Sialic acid transporters and curli synthesis genes were well conserved in E. meningoseptica but absent in E. anophelis and E. miricola. E. meningoseptica carried several genes contributing to biofilm formation. 58 glycoside hydrolases (GH) and 25 putative polysaccharide utilization loci (PULs) were found. The strains carried numerous genes encoding two-component system proteins (56), transcription factor proteins (187~191), and DNA-binding proteins (6~7). Several prophages and CRISPR/Cas elements were uniquely present in the genomes.
Project description:Elizabethkingia meningoseptica and Elizabethkingia anophelis are two major pathogens in the genus Elizabethkingia. Studies have revealed that Elizabethkingia anophelis is frequently misidentified as E. meningoseptica. Therefore, our aim was to explore the clinical and molecular differences between these two species. The database of a clinical microbiology laboratory in a university-affiliated hospital of Taiwan was searched to identify patients with Elizabethkingia infections between January 2005 and June 2018. Species were reidentified using 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing. Twenty E. meningoseptica and 72 E. anophelis samples were collected from consecutive patients. E. meningoseptica was significantly more frequently isolated from the cerebrospinal fluid than was E. anophelis. The most susceptible antibiotic for all Elizabethkingia isolates was minocycline (91.3%), followed by levofloxacin (52.2%), tigecycline (23.9%), and piperacillin tazobactam (23.9%). Compared with E. anophelis, E. meningoseptica was significantly less susceptible to piperacillin tazobactam, minocycline, and levofloxacin. Regarding nonsynonymous substitutions in the quinolone-resistance determining regions of DNA gyrase, six sites were recognized in E. meningoseptica and one site was recognized in E. anophelis. E. meningoseptica had a significantly higher rate of fluoroquinolone target gene mutations than did E. anophelis. Because of less susceptibility to multiple antibiotics than E. anophelis, empirical antimicrobial therapy of E. meningoseptica should be more rigorous.
Project description:Acquisition of Elizabethkingia infections in intensive care units (ICUs) has risen in the past decade. Treatment of Elizabethkingia infections is challenging due to the lack of effective therapeutic regimens, leading to a high mortality rate. Elizabethkingia infections have long been attributed to Elizabethkingia meningoseptica. Recently, we used whole-genome sequencing to reveal that E. anophelis is the pathogenic agent for an Elizabethkingia outbreak at two ICUs. We performed comparative genomic analysis of seven hospital-isolated E. anophelis strains with five available Elizabethkingia spp. genomes deposited in the National Center for Biotechnology Information Database. A pan-genomic approach was applied to identify the core- and pan-genome for the Elizabethkingia genus. We showed that unlike the hospital-isolated pathogen E. meningoseptica ATCC 12535 strain, the hospital-isolated E. anophelis strains have genome content and organization similar to the E. anophelis Ag1 and R26 strains isolated from the midgut microbiota of the malaria mosquito vector Anopheles gambiae. Both the core- and accessory genomes of Elizabethkingia spp. possess genes conferring antibiotic resistance and virulence. Our study highlights that E. anophelis is an emerging bacterial pathogen for hospital environments.