Differential contribution of education through KIR2DL1, KIR2DL3, and KIR3DL1 to antibody-dependent (AD) NK cell activation and ADCC.
ABSTRACT: The engagement of activating NK receptors (aNKR) stimulates NK cell activity, provided that interactions between inhibitory NK receptors (iNKR) with their HLA ligands do not override them. Abs bound to target cells can also activate NK cells by engaging the CD16 aNKR. NK cell education status is an important factor for Ab-dependent NK cell activation (ADNKA) of some NK cell subsets. However, whether NK cell education also influences Ab-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) levels is not fully known. ADCC-GranToxiLux (GTL) assays measured ADCC activity as the frequency of granzyme B positive (%GzB+ ) target cells. Target cells were anti-HIV Immunoglobulin G (HIVIG)-opsonized CEM-NKr.CCR5 (CEM) cells. Lymphocytes and sorted single positive (SP) NKG2A+ , KIR2DL1+ , KIR2DL3+ , and KIR3DL1+ NK cells, to self- and nonself HLA, were used as effectors in ADCC-GTL assays to examine how education status influenced ADCC activity. ADNKA activity was assessed by stimulating lymphocytes with HIVIG-opsonized CEMs and measuring the frequency of NK cell populations defined by their expression of iNKRs, along with IFN-?, CCL4, and CD107a functions. ADCC: the %GzB+ CEM cells generated by self- versus nonself HLA-specific SPiNKR did not differ. ADNKA: More NK cells educated through KIR2DL1 and KIR3DL1, but not KIR2DL3, responded to ADNKA than their uneducated counterparts. CD16 engagement induced ADCC and ADNKA activity. With the proviso that groups' sizes were small, our results support the notion that NK cell education does not influence ADCC levels but does contribute to ADNKA activity.
Project description:Natural Killer (NK) cell education, which requires the engagement of inhibitory NK cell receptors (iNKRs) by their ligands, is important for generating self-tolerant functional NK cells. While the potency of NK cell education is directly related to their functional potential upon stimulation with HLA null cells, the influence of NK cell education on the potency of the antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) function of NK cells is unclear. ADCC occurs when the Fc portion of an immunoglobulin G antibody bridges the CD16 Fc receptor on NK cells and antigen on target cells, resulting in NK cell activation, cytotoxic granule release, and target cell lysis. We previously reported that education via the KIR3DL1/HLA-Bw4 iNKR/HLA ligand combination supported higher KIR3DL1+ than KIR3DL1- NK cell activation levels but had no impact on ADCC potency measured as the frequency of granzyme B positive (%GrB+) targets generated in an ADCC GranToxiLux assay. A lower frequency of KIR3DL1+ compared to KIR3DL1- NK cells were CD16+, which may in part explain the discrepancy between NK cell activation and target cell effects. Here, we investigated the frequency of CD16+ cells among NK cells expressing other iNKRs. We found that CD16+ cells were significantly more frequent among NK cells negative for the inhibitory KIR (iKIR) KIR2DL1, KIR2DL3, and KIR3DL1 than those positive for any one of these iKIR to the exclusion of the others, making iKIR+ NK cells poorer ADCC effectors than iKIR- NK cells. The education status of these iKIR+ populations had no effect on the frequency of CD16+ cells.
Project description:Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor/HLA class I (KIR/HLA-I) combinations are associated with disease risk, implicating functional roles for NK cells (NKCs) or KIR(+) T cells. KIR/HLA-I interactions can act through inhibition of NKC activation by target cells and NKC licensing for greater intrinsic responsiveness. We compared licensing conferred by the weaker, HLA-C group 1/KIR2DL3, and the stronger, HLA-C group 2/KIR2DL1, inhibitory combinations. The "rheostat model" predicts weaker licensing by HLA-C1/KIR2DL3 interactions than HLA-C2/KIR2DL1. We analyzed degranulation in NKC subsets expressing single and multiple receptors for HLA-I. NKG2A had the strongest licensing impact, while KIR2DL3, KIR2DL1, and KIR3DL1 were weaker, and not significantly different to each other. Presence of one or two matched HLA-C allotypes did not alter licensing of KIR2DL3(+) and KIR2DL1(+) NKC. Coexpression of activating KIR2DS1 disarmed KIR2DL3(+) and KIR2DL1(+) NKC to a similar extent. KIR3DL1 and NKG2A combined for more enhanced licensing of double-positive NKC than the combination of KIR2DL3 and KIR2DL1. Thus, KIR2DL3 and KIR2DL1 have similar capacity to license NKC, suggesting that inhibitory signal strength and amount of available HLA-C ligands do not correlate with NKC licensing. Altogether, our results show that the basis for disease associations of HLA-C and KIR2DL likely encompasses factors other than licensing.
Project description:Combinations of KIR3DL1 and HLA-Bw4 alleles protect against HIV infection and/or disease progression. These combinations enhance NK cell responsiveness through the ontological process of education. However, educated KIR3DL1(+) NK cells do not have enhanced degranulation upon direct recognition of autologous HIV-infected cells. Since antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) is associated with improved HIV infection outcomes and NK cells overcome inhibition through killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) to mediate ADCC, we hypothesized that KIR3DL1-educated NK cells mediate anti-HIV ADCC against autologous cells. A whole-blood flow cytometry assay was used to evaluate ADCC-induced activation of NK cells. This assay assessed activation (gamma interferon [IFN-?] production and/or CD107a expression) of KIR3DL1(+) and KIR3DL1(-) NK cells, from HLA-Bw4(+) and HLA-Bw4(-) HIV-positive and HIV-negative individuals, in response to autologous HIV-specific ADCC targets. KIR3DL1(+) NK cells were more functional than KIR3DL1(-) NK cells from HLA-Bw4(+), but not HLA-Bw4(-), healthy controls. In HIV-infected individuals, no differences in NK cell functionality were observed between KIR3DL1(+) and KIR3DL1(-) NK cells in HLA-Bw4(+) individuals, consistent with dysfunction of NK cells in the setting of HIV infection. Reflecting the partial normalization of NK cell responsiveness following initiation of antiretroviral therapy, a significant correlation was observed between the peripheral CD4(+) T-lymphocyte counts in antiretroviral therapy-treated subjects and the functionality of NK cells. However, peripheral CD4(+) T-lymphocyte counts were not correlated with an anti-HIV ADCC functional advantage in educated KIR3DL1(+) NK cells. The abrogation of the functional advantage of educated NK cells may enhance HIV disease progression. Strategies to enhance the potency of NK cell-mediated ADCC may improve HIV therapies and vaccines.
Project description:The rate and extent of natural killer (NK)-cell education after hematopoietic cell transplantation correlates with leukemia control. To study the effect of donor and host HLA on NK-cell reconstitution, single killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR)+ NK cells (exhibiting KIR2DL1, KIR2DL2/KIR2DL3, or KIR3DL1 as their sole receptor) were grouped into 4 groups based on the interaction between donor/host HLA and donor inhibitory KIR in 2 cohorts (n = 114 and n = 276, respectively). On days 90 to 180 after transplantation, the absolute number and responsiveness against K562 cells (CD107a or interferon-? expression) of single-KIR+ NK cells were higher in pairs where donor and host HLA both expressed ligands for donor inhibitory KIRs than in pairs where 1 or both of the donor and recipient HLA lacked at least 1 KIR ligand. NK-cell responsiveness was tuned commensurate with the number of inhibitory receptors from the donor. When both donor and host expressed the 3 major KIR ligands (HLA-C1, HLA-C2, and HLA-Bw4), NK cells expressing 3 inhibitory receptors (KIR2DL1/2DL3/3DL1) reached the maximum responsiveness against K562 cells compared with those NK cells expressing only 1 or 2 inhibitory receptors. When donor and host HLA both expressed all ligands for donor inhibitory KIRs, patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) showed the lowest recurrence rate after haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (haplo-HSCT). In conclusion, this study demonstrates that when both donors and hosts present all the KIR ligands for donor KIRs, reconstituted NK cells achieve better functional education and contribute to least relapse among patients. This observation study was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT02978274.
Project description:During human pregnancy, fetal trophoblast cells invade the decidua and remodel maternal spiral arteries to establish adequate nutrition during gestation. Tissue NK cells in the decidua (dNK) express inhibitory NK receptors (iNKR) that recognize allogeneic HLA-C molecules on trophoblast. Where this results in excessive dNK inhibition, the risk of pre-eclampsia or growth restriction is increased. However, the role of maternal, self-HLA-C in regulating dNK responsiveness is unknown. We investigated how the expression and function of five iNKR in dNK is influenced by maternal HLA-C. In dNK isolated from women who have HLA-C alleles that carry a C2 epitope, there is decreased expression frequency of the cognate receptor, KIR2DL1. In contrast, women with HLA-C alleles bearing a C1 epitope have increased frequency of the corresponding receptor, KIR2DL3. Maternal HLA-C had no significant effect on KIR2DL1 or KIR2DL3 in peripheral blood NK cells (pbNK). This resulted in a very different KIR repertoire for dNK capable of binding C1 or C2 epitopes compared with pbNK. We also show that, although maternal KIR2DL1 binding to C2 epitope educates dNK cells to acquire functional competence, the effects of other iNKR on dNK responsiveness are quite different from those in pbNK. This provides a basis for understanding how dNK responses to allogeneic trophoblast affect the outcome of pregnancy. Our findings suggest that the mechanisms that determine the repertoire of iNKR and the effect of self-MHC on NK education may differ in tissue NK cells compared with pbNK.
Project description:The human killer cell Ig-like receptor (KIR) locus comprises two groups of KIR haplotypes, termed A and B. These are present in all human populations but with different relative frequencies, suggesting they have different functional properties that underlie their balancing selection. We studied the genomic organization and functional properties of the alleles of the inhibitory and activating HLA-C receptors encoded by KIR haplotypes. Because every HLA-C allotype functions as a ligand for KIR, the interactions between KIR and HLA-C dominate the HLA class I-mediated regulation of human NK cells. The C2 epitope is recognized by inhibitory KIR2DL1 and activating KIR2DS1, whereas the C1 epitope is recognized by inhibitory KIR2DL2 and KIR2DL3. This study shows that the KIR2DL1, KIR2DS1, and KIR2DL2/3 alleles form distinctive phylogenetic clades that associate with specific KIR haplotypes. KIR A haplotypes are characterized by KIR2DL1 alleles that encode strong inhibitory C2 receptors and KIR2DL3 alleles encoding weak inhibitory C1 receptors. In striking contrast, KIR B haplotypes are characterized by KIR2DL1 alleles that encode weak inhibitory C2 receptors and KIR2DL2 alleles encoding strong inhibitory C1 receptors. The wide-ranging properties of KIR allotypes arise from substitutions throughout the KIR molecule. Such substitutions can influence cell surface expression, as well as the avidity and specificity for HLA-C ligands. Consistent with the crucial role of inhibitory HLA-C receptors in self-recognition, as well as NK cell education and response, most KIR haplotypes have both a functional C1 and C2 receptor, despite the considerable variation that occurs in ligand recognition and surface expression.
Project description:In patients with neuroblastoma (NB), treatment with anti-GD2 monoclonal antibody (mAb) directs natural killer (NK) cell-mediated antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) against tumor cells. However, tumor cytotoxicity is attenuated by ligation of inhibitory killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) by HLA class I molecules. KIR3DL1 polymorphism influences its ability to engage HLA-Bw4 ligands. We tested the hypothesis that poorly interacting combinations of KIR3DL1 and HLA ligands are more permissive of mAb-mediated antitumor effect.KIR3DL1 and HLA-B subtyping were performed with a multiplex intermediate-resolution polymerase chain reaction assay for a cohort of 245 patients who were treated with antibody 3F8 for high-risk NB. Patient outcomes were analyzed according to expected degree of interaction between KIR3DL1 and HLA-B subtypes and grouped as strong, weak, or noninteractors. A comparison of NK response to 3F8 mAb opsonized NB cells between strong- and noninteracting donors was performed by flow cytometry.KIR3DL1 and HLA-B subtype combinations associated with noninteraction as a result of lack of receptor expression [KIR3DL1(-)], failure of interaction with inhibitory ligands [KIR3DS1(+)], or absence of KIR ligands resulted in significantly improved overall and progression-free survival. Patients with KIR3DL1 and HLA-B subtype combinations that were predictive of weak interaction had superior outcomes compared with those that were predictive of strong interaction; however, both groups were inferior to those with noninteracting subtype combinations. In vitro analysis of 3F8-mediated ADCC showed that KIR3DL1(-) and 3DS1(+) NK cells were insensitive to inhibition by HLA-Bw4-expressing NB targets.We conclude that KIR3LD1 and HLA-B allele combinations can have a prognostic impact on patient survival after treatment with anti-GD2 mAb that relies on NK-ADCC. The survival advantage seen in noninteracting combinations supports the therapeutic disinhibition of individuals with strongly interacting KIR and ligand pairs.
Project description:Human natural killer (NK) cell activity is regulated by a family of killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) that bind human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I. Combinations of KIR and HLA genotypes are associated with disease, including susceptibility to viral infection and disorders of pregnancy. KIR2DL1 binds HLA-C alleles of group C2 (Lys80). KIR2DL2 and KIR2DL3 bind HLA-C alleles of group C1 (Asn80). However, this model cannot explain HLA-C allelic effects in disease or the impact of HLA-bound peptides. The goal of this study was to determine the extent to which the endogenous HLA-C peptide repertoire can influence the specific binding of inhibitory KIR to HLA-C allotypes.The impact of HLA-C bound peptide on inhibitory KIR binding was investigated taking advantage of the fact that HLA-C*05:01 (HLA-C group 2, C2) and HLA-C*08:02 (HLA-C group 1, C1) have identical sequences apart from the key KIR specificity determining epitope at residues 77 and 80. Endogenous peptides were eluted from HLA-C*05:01 and used to test the peptide dependence of KIR2DL1 and KIR2DL2/3 binding to HLA-C*05:01 and HLA-C*08:02 and subsequent impact on NK cell function. Specific binding of KIR2DL1 to the C2 allotype occurred with the majority of peptides tested. In contrast, KIR2DL2/3 binding to the C1 allotype occurred with only a subset of peptides. Cross-reactive binding of KIR2DL2/3 with the C2 allotype was restricted to even fewer peptides. Unexpectedly, two peptides promoted binding of the C2 allotype-specific KIR2DL1 to the C1 allotype. We showed that presentation of endogenous peptides or HIV Gag peptides by HLA-C can promote KIR cross-reactive binding.KIR2DL2/3 binding to C1 is more peptide selective than that of KIR2DL1 binding to C2, providing an explanation for KIR2DL3-C1 interactions appearing weaker than KIR2DL1-C2. In addition, cross-reactive binding of KIR is characterized by even higher peptide selectivity. We demonstrate a hierarchy of functional peptide selectivity of KIR-HLA-C interactions with relevance to NK cell biology and human disease associations. This selective peptide sequence-driven binding of KIR provides a potential mechanism for pathogen as well as self-peptide to modulate NK cell activation through altering levels of inhibition.
Project description:Differences in HLA-C expression are inversely correlated with HIV viral load set-point and slower progression to AIDS, linked to enhanced cytotoxic T cell immunity. Yet, beyond T cells, HLA-C serves as a dominant ligand for natural killer (NK) cell killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR). Thus, we speculated that HLA-C expression levels may also impact NK activity, thereby modulating HIV antiviral control. Phenotypic and functional profiling was performed on freshly isolated PBMCs. HLA-C expression was linked to changes in NK subset distribution and licensing, particularly in HLA-C1/C1, KIR2DL3+2DL2-individuals. Moreover, high levels of HLA-C, were associated with reduced frequencies of anergic CD56neg NKs and lower frequencies of KIR2DL1/2/3+ NK cells, pointing to an HLA-C induced influence on the NK cell development in the absence of disease. In HIV infection, several spontaneous controllers, that expressed higher levels of HLA-C demonstrated robust NK-IFN-? secretion in response to target cells, highlighting a second disease induced licensing phenotype. Thus this population study points to a potential role for HLA-C levels both in NK cell education and development.
Project description:NK cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) haplotype-specific DNA fragments were sequenced to identify centromeric and telomeric allele-level haplotype structures and their frequencies from 76 unrelated individuals with European ancestry. Analysis was simplified by redefining the 5' boundary of the centromeric KIR gene cluster to include only exons 7-9 of KIR3DL3. Three consensus allele-level haplotypes were identified for a centromeric gene presence/absence structure designated as Cen-A1. KIR3DL3*00201 (exons 7-9)?KIR2DL3*001?KIR2DL1*00302 was the most frequent (37.5%) centromeric structure. Single consensus haplotypes were observed for haplotype structures Cen-B1 and Cen-B2. Six Tel-A1 and two Tel-B1 consensus haplotypes were observed; the most prevalent (23.0%) was KIR2DL4*00102?KIR3DL1*002?KIR2DS4*00101?KIR3DL2*002. A small number of nucleotide substitutions (?3) in the coding regions of the functional KIR genes created microvariants of the consensus haplotypes. Eight less common haplotype structures were also detected. Four carried hybrid genes formed during gene deletion events, two carried an insertion with a 2DL5/3DP1 fusion gene and two included a very large insertion. These data show that the KIR gene complex is composed of a limited number of conserved allele-level centromeric and telomeric haplotypes that have diversified by mutation, recombination within a locus and unequal crossing over.