LncRNA KLF3-AS1 in human mesenchymal stem cell-derived exosomes ameliorates pyroptosis of cardiomyocytes and myocardial infarction through miR-138-5p/Sirt1 axis.
ABSTRACT: AIM:Myocardial infarction (MI) is a severe disease with increased mortality and disability rates, posing heavy economic burden for society. Exosomes were uncovered to mediate intercellular communication after MI. This study aims to explore the effect and mechanism of lncRNA KLF3-AS1 in exosomes secreted by human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) on pyroptosis of cardiomyocytes and MI. METHODS:Exosomes from hMSCs were isolated and identified. Exosomes from hMSCs with transfection of KLF3-AS1 for overexpression were injected into MI rat model or incubated with hypoxia cardiomyocytes. Effect of KLF3-AS1 on MI area, cell viability, apoptosis, and pyroptosis was determined. The relationship among miR-138-5p, KLF3-AS1, and Sirt1 was verified by dual-luciferase reporter assay. Normal cardiomyocytes were transfected with miR-138-5p inhibitor or sh-Sirt1 to clarify whether alteration of miR-138-5p or sh-Sirt1 can regulate the effect of KLF3-AS1 on cardiomyocytes. RESULTS:Exosomes from hMSCs were successfully extracted. Transfection of KLF3-AS1 exosome in rats and incubation with KLF3-AS1 exosome in hypoxia cardiomyocytes both verified that overexpression of KLF3-AS1 in exosomes leads to reduced MI area, decreased cell apoptosis and pyroptosis, and attenuated MI progression. KLF3-AS1 can sponge miR-138-5p to regulate Sirt1 expression. miR-138-5p inhibitor transfection and KLF3-AS1 exosome incubation contribute to attenuated pyroptosis and MI both in vivo and in vitro, while transfection of sh-Sirt1 could reverse the protective effect of exosomal KLF3-AS1 on hypoxia cardiomyocytes. CONCLUSION:LncRNA KLF3-AS1 in exosomes secreted from hMSCs by acting as a ceRNA to sponge miR-138-5p can regulate Sirt1 so as to inhibit cell pyroptosis and attenuate MI progression.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Exosomes secreted by human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) have been shown to promote cartilage regeneration. This study aimed to explore whether exosomal lncRNA-KLF3-AS1 derived from hMSCs can promote chondrocyte proliferation via miR-206/GIT1 axis in osteoarthritis (OA). METHODS:hMSCs and MSC-derived exosomes (MSC-exo) were prepared for morphological observation and identification by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and flow cytometry. IL-1?-induced OA chondrocytes and collagenase-induced mouse OA model were established for the further experiments. Luciferase activity assay was performed to test whether miR-206 could bind to KLF3-AS1 or GIT1. Cell proliferation and apoptosis were evaluated by CCK-8 assay and flow cytometry, respectively. RESULTS:MSC-Exos increased chondrogenic genes Col2a1 (type II collagen alpha 1) and aggrecan, decreased hondrocyte hypertrophy markers MMP-13 (matrix metalloproteinase-13) and Runx2 (runt-related transcription factor 2) in chondrocytes isolated from OA model mice. Furthermore, MSC-Exos attenuated IL-1?-induced chondrocyte proliferation inhibition and apoptosis induction. Moreover, MSCKLF3-AS1-Exos (exosomes derived from KLF3-AS1-overexpressing-MSCs) ameliorated IL-1?-induced chondrocyte injury. Results also demonstrated that KLF3-AS1 acted as a competitive endogenous RNA (ceRNA) by sponging miR-206 to facilitate GIT1 expression. In addition, miR-206 overexpression and GIT1 knockdown reversed MSCKLF3-AS1-Exos-mediated attenuation of chondrocyte injury. CONCLUSION:Exosomal KLF3-AS1 derived from MSCs involved in MSC-Exos-mediated chondrocyte proliferation induction and chondrocyte apoptosis inhibition via miR-206/GIT1 axis. Abbreviation: G-protein-coupled receptor kinase interacting protein-1 (GIT1).
Project description:The role of microRNA in the aberrant autophagy that occurs in pancreatic cancer remains controversial. Because hypoxia is known to induce autophagy, we screened for differentially expressed microRNAs using a miRNA microarray with pancreatic cancer cells cultured under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. We found that miR-138-5p was among the most downregulated miRNA in hypoxia-stimulated cells, and that overexpression of miR-138-5p substantially reduced expression of autophagy markers. In addition, western blot and immunofluorescence analyses and electron microscopy revealed that miR-138-5p inhibited autophagy in pancreatic cancer cells and blocked serum starvation-induced autophagic flux independently of the typical autophagic signaling pathway. miR-138-5p had no effect on ATG3, ATG5, or ATG7, three primary autophagy-associated genes. Instead, miR-138-5p specifically targeted the SIRT1 3' untranslated region and suppressed autophagy by reducing the level of SIRT1, which acetylates FoxO1 and regulates autophagy via FoxO1/Rab7. SIRT1 or Rab7 knockdown blocked the SIRT1/FoxO1/Rab7 axis and suppressed autophagic inhibition by miR-138-5p. Finally, we found that miR-138-5p inhibited autophagy and tumor growth in vivo. These results indicate that miR-138-5p suppresses autophagy in pancreatic cancer by targeting SIRT1.
Project description:NLRP3 (Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor pyrin domain-containing 3) inflammasome-mediated cardiomyocytes pyroptosis plays a crucial part in progression of acute myocardial infarction (MI). GDF11 (Growth Differentiation Factor 11) has been reported to generate cytoprotective effects in phylogenesis and multiple diseases, but the mechanism that GDF11 contributes to cardioprotection of MI and cardiomyocytes pyroptosis remains poorly understood. In our study, we first determined that GDF11 was abnormally downregulated in the heart tissue of MI mice and hypoxic cardiomyocytes. Moreover, AAV9-GDF11 markedly alleviated heart function in MI mice. Meanwhile, GDF11 overexpression also decreased the pyroptosis of hypoxic cardiomyocytes. PROMO and JASPAR prediction software found that transcription factor HOXA3 was predicted as an important regulator of NLRP3, and was confirmed by ChIP assay. Further analysis identifying GDF11 promoted the Smad2/3 pathway resulted in HOXA3 overexpression. Taken together, our study implies that GDF11 prevents cardiomyocytes pyroptosis via HOXA3/NLRP3 signaling pathway in MI mice.
Project description:Evidence has indicated that M2 macrophages promote the progression of cancers, but few focus on the ability of M2 macrophage-derived exosomes in pancreatic cancer (PC). This study aims to explore how M2 macrophages affect malignant phenotypes of PC through regulating long non-coding RNA SET-binding factor 2 antisense RNA 1 (lncRNA SBF2-AS1)/microRNA-122-5p (miR-122-5p)/X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) axis. THP-1 cells were transformed into M1 macrophages by lipopolysaccharide and interferon-? treatment, and into M2 macrophages after interleukin-4 treatment. The PANC-1 PC cell line with the largest lncRNA SBF2-AS1 expression was selected, and M2 macrophage-derived exosomes were isolated and identified. A number of assays were applied for the examination of lncRNA SBF2-AS1 expression, PC cell biological functions and subcellular localization of lncRNA SBF2-AS1. XIAP expression was detected, along with the interaction among lncRNA SBF2-AS1, miR-122-5p and XIAP. M2 macrophage exosomal lncRNA SBF2-AS1 expression's effects on the tumorigenic ability of PANC-1 cells in nude mice were also investigated. M2 macrophage-derived exosomes promoted progression of PC cells. Overexpressed lncRNA SBF2-AS1 promoted progression of PC cells. LncRNA SBF2-AS1 was found to act as a competing endogenous RNA to repress miR-122-5p and up-regulate XIAP. Constrained lncRNA SBF2-AS1 in M2 macrophage-derived exosomes contributed to restraining tumorigenic ability of PC cells. Collectively, our study reveals that constrained lncRNA SBF2-AS1 in M2 macrophage-derived exosomes increases miR-122-5p expression to restrain XIAP expression, which further inhibits PC progression.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Myocardial ischaemia/reperfusion (MI/R) injury is associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes after acute myocardial infarction. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying MI/R injury are unclear. This study investigated the role of long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) Oip5-as1 in regulating mitochondria-mediated apoptosis during MI/R injury. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to MI/R induced by ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery followed by reperfusion. H9c2 cells were incubated under oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R) conditions to mimic in vivo MI/R. RT-qPCR and Western blot were used to evaluate gene and protein levels. CCK-8 assay, biochemical assay and flow cytometric analysis were performed to assess the function of Oip5-as1. The dual-luciferase gene reporter assay and RIP assay were conducted as needed. RESULTS:Oip5-as1 expression was downregulated in the hearts of rats with MI/R and in H9c2 cells treated with OGD/R. Oip5-as1 overexpression alleviated reactive oxygen species-driven mitochondrial injury and consequently decreased apoptosis in MI/R rats and H9c2 cells exposed to OGD/R. Mechanistically, Oip5-as1 acted as a competing endogenous RNA of miR-29a and thus decreased its expression. Inhibition of miR-29a reduced the oxidative stress and cytotoxicity induced by OGD/R. Overexpression of miR-29a reversed the anti-apoptotic effect of Oip5-as1 in H9c2 cells treated with OGD/R. Further experiments identified SIRT1 as a downstream target of miR-29a. Oip5-as1 upregulated SIRT1 expression and activated the AMPK/PGC1? pathway by targeting miR-29a, thus reducing the apoptosis triggered by OGD/R. However, these effects were reversed by a selective SIRT1 inhibitor, EX527. CONCLUSIONS:Oip5-as1 suppresses miR-29a leading to activation of the SIRT1/AMPK/PGC1? pathway, which attenuates mitochondria-mediated apoptosis during MI/R injury. Our findings thus provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms of MI/R injury.
Project description:MicroRNAs (miRs) play an important role in the development and progression of spinal cord injury (SCI). The role of miR?138?5p in SCI was investigated in the present study. The anti?inflammatory effects of miR?138?5p and underlying mechanisms were investigated in an SCI rat model and in vitro model. Reverse transcription?quantitative PCR (RT?qPCR) was used to examine the expression of miR?138?5p in the SCI in vivo and in vitro models, as well as patients with SCI; it was found that miR?138?5p was significantly upregulated in SCI. Bioinformatics and dual?luciferase reporter assays were performed to predict and confirm the binding sites between miR?138?5p and the 3'untranslated region of sirtuin 1 (SIRT1). Then, the expression of SIRT1 was detected via RT?qPCR and western blotting, indicating downregulation of SIRT1 in SCI. PC12 cells were transfected with miR?138?5p inhibitor, inhibitor control or miR?138?5p inhibitor + SIRT1 small interfering RNA for 48 h, and then subjected to lipopolysaccharide (100 ng/ml) treatment for 4 h. Then, MTT assay, flow cytometry and ELISA experiments were performed to analyze cell viability, apoptosis, and the levels of tumor necrosis factor??, interleukin (IL)?1? and IL?6. Findings suggested that downregulation of miR?138?5p increased PC12 cell viability, inhibited cell apoptosis and attenuated proinflammatory responses, which may result in amelioration of SCI. However, all these effects were reversed by SIRT1 knockdown. Finally, it was observed that miR?138?5p altered the related protein expression of the PTEN/AKT pathway. These results indicated that miR?138?5p could regulate inflammatory responses and cell apoptosis in SCI models by modulating the PTEN/AKT signaling pathway via SIRT1, thus playing an important role in the development of SCI. Collectively, the present study demonstrated that miR?138?5p may be a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of SCI.
Project description:Exosomes (Exo) secreted from mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) are protective against myocardial injury. The purpose of the study was to investigate the role and mechanisms by which exosomes promote cardiomyocyte survival and function following myocardial infarction (MI). hMSCs were cultured under hypoxic and normoxic conditions. Hypoxia-conditioned hMSC-derived exosomes (Hypo-Exo) and normoxic-conditioned hMSC-derived exosomes (Nor-Exo) were collected and intramyocardially injected into rats with MI. The therapeutic effects of Hypo-Exo and Nor-Exo were evaluated after 4 weeks. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) was used to detect the expression of candidate long noncoding RNA urothelial carcinoma associated 1 (lncRNA-UCA1) in Nor-Exo and Hypo-Exo. Intramyocardial injection of lncRNA-UCA1-knockdown-Hypo-Exo in a rat model of MI was then performed and the cardiac function was characterized. The target and downstream of the molecular mechanism lncRNA-UCA1 was disclosed by luciferase reporter assays and western blot. Circulating exosomal lncRNA-UCA1 level in AMI patients and healthy volunteers was assessed. We found that (1) hMSC exosomal (from hypoxic and normoxic conditions) cardioprotection in vitro and in vivo correlated with the presence of encapsulated lncRNA-UCA1 in exosomes; (2) lncRNA-UCA1 targeted miR-873 via sponging, reducing the latter's suppressive effects on its target XIAP, and this translated into AMPK phosphorylation and increased level of the antiapoptotic protein BCL2; and (3) plasma derived from patients with AMI contained exosomes enriched with the lncRNA-UCA1, unlike that from normal subjects. This study demonstrates that Hypo-Exo lncRNA-UCA1 plays a cardioprotective role via the miR-873-5p/XIAP axis and circulating exosomal lncRNA-UCA1 may be a promising novel biomarker for the diagnosis of AMI.
Project description:Abstract Implantation of stem cells for tissue regeneration faces significant challenges such as immune rejection and teratoma formation. Cell?free tissue regeneration thus has a potential to avoid these problems. Stem cell derived exosomes do not cause immune rejection or generate malignant tumors. Here, exosomes that can induce osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) are identified and used to decorate 3D?printed titanium alloy scaffolds to achieve cell?free bone regeneration. Specifically, the exosomes secreted by hMSCs osteogenically pre?differentiated for different times are used to induce the osteogenesis of hMSCs. It is discovered that pre?differentiation for 10 and 15 days leads to the production of osteogenic exosomes. The purified exosomes are then loaded into the scaffolds. It is found that the cell?free exosome?coated scaffolds regenerate bone tissue as efficiently as hMSC?seeded exosome?free scaffolds within 12 weeks. RNA?sequencing suggests that the osteogenic exosomes induce the osteogenic differentiation by using their cargos, including upregulated osteogenic miRNAs (Hsa?miR?146a?5p, Hsa?miR?503?5p, Hsa?miR?483?3p, and Hsa?miR?129?5p) or downregulated anti?osteogenic miRNAs (Hsa?miR?32?5p, Hsa?miR?133a?3p, and Hsa?miR?204?5p), to activate the PI3K/Akt and MAPK signaling pathways. Consequently, identification of osteogenic exosomes secreted by pre?differentiated stem cells and the use of them to replace stem cells represent a novel cell?free bone regeneration strategy. Exosomes secreted from human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) pre?differentiated for a certain period of time can serve as inducers to induce osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs in vitro. They can decorate 3D printed titanium alloy scaffolds, which are further implanted into radial bone defect. They are found to enable the scaffolds to achieve efficient cell?free bone regeneration in vivo.
Project description:SIRT1 has been proved to rejuvenate and improve the therapeutic efficacy of aged rat mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Herein, we investigate the protective effect of pretreatment with SIRT1 activator SRT1720 on aged human MSCs (hMSCs). The optimized pretreatment condition for aged hMSCs was determined to be 0.5??M SRT1720 for 24?h by monitoring the survival of aged hMSCs subjected to serum deprivation±hypoxia and±500??M hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Pretreatment with these conditions increased the survival of aged hMSCs 1?day (2.7-fold) and 3 days (1.9-fold) after being transplanted into a rat myocardial infarction (MI) model created by ligation of the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery. Transplantation with SRT1720 pretreated aged hMSCs achieved increased left ventricular ejection fraction (58.9±3.6 versus 52.8±5%) and angiogenesis with reduced fibrosis of rat hearts as compared to DMSO pretreated group 28 days following MI. Unbiased transcriptome analysis conducted on aged hMSCs under oxidative stress indicated the Fas apoptosis inhibitory molecule (FAIM) was significantly upregulated following SRT1720 pretreatment (14.9±0.2-folds). Moreover, the anti-apoptotic effect of SRT1720 was mitigated by FAIM knockdown with a small interfering RNA-targeted FAIM. These results indicated that pretreatment with SRT1720 improves survival of aged hMSCs, and enhances their therapeutic efficacy for rat myocardial infarction (MI). Upregulation of FAIM possibly involves in the mechanisms of the protective effects.
Project description:Human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs) have recently been shown to express key cardiac proteins and improve in vivo cardiac function when administered following myocardial infarction. However, the efficacy of hiPSC-derived cell therapies, in direct comparison to current, well-established stem cell-based therapies, is yet to be elucidated. The goal of the current study was to compare the therapeutic efficacy of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) with hiPSC-CMs in mitigating myocardial infarction (MI).Male athymic nude hyrats were subjected to permanent ligation of the left-anterior-descending (LAD) coronary artery to induce acute MI. Four experimental groups were studied: 1) control (non-MI), 2) MI, 3) hMSCs (MI+MSC), and 4) hiPSC-CMs (MI+hiPSC-derived cardiomyocytes). The hiPSC-CMs and hMSCs were labeled with superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) in vitro to track the transplanted cells in the ischemic heart by high-field cardiac MRI. These cells were injected into the ischemic heart 30-min after LAD ligation. Four-weeks after MI, cardiac MRI was performed to track the transplanted cells in the infarct heart. Additionally, echocardiography (M-mode) was performed to evaluate the cardiac function. Immunohistological and western blot studies were performed to assess the cell tracking, engraftment and cardiac fibrosis in the infarct heart tissues.Echocardiography data showed a significantly improved cardiac function in the hiPSC-CMs and hMSCs groups, when compared to MI. Immunohistological studies showed expression of connexin-43, ?-actinin and myosin heavy chain in engrafted hiPSC-CMs. Cardiac fibrosis was significantly decreased in hiPSC-CMs group when compared to hMSCs or MI groups. Overall, this study demonstrated improved cardiac function with decreased fibrosis with both hiPSC-CMs and hMSCs groups when compared with MI group.