Lot-to-Lot Variation in Adeno-Associated Virus Serotype 9 (AAV9) Preparations.
ABSTRACT: Viral vectors are complex drugs that pose a particular challenge for manufacturing. Previous studies have shown that, unlike small-molecule drugs, vector preparations do not yield a collection of identical particles. Instead, a mixture of particles that vary in capsid stoichiometry and impurities is created, which may differ from lot to lot. The consequences of this are unclear, but conflicting reports regarding the biological properties of vectors, including transduction patterns, suggest that this variability may have an effect. However, other variables, including differences in animal strains and techniques, make it difficult to identify a cause. Here, we report lot-to-lot variation in spinal cord gray matter transduction following intrathecal delivery of self-complementary adeno-associated virus serotype 9 vectors. Eleven lots of vector were evaluated from six vector cores, including one preclinical/Good Laboratory Practice lot. Eight of the lots, including the preclinical lot, failed to transduce the gray matter, whereas the other three provided robust transduction. The cause for this variation is unknown, but it did not correlate with vector titer, buffer, or purification method. These results highlight the need to identify the cause of this variation and to develop improved production and quality control methods to ensure lot-to-lot consistency of vector potency.
Project description:Multi-mycotoxin determination by LC-MS is commonly based on external solvent-based or matrix-matched calibration and, if necessary, the correction for the method bias. In everyday practice, the method bias (expressed as apparent recovery RA), which may be caused by losses during the recovery process and/or signal/suppression enhancement, is evaluated by replicate analysis of a single spiked lot of a matrix. However, RA may vary for different lots of the same matrix, i.e., lot-to-lot variation, which can result in a higher relative expanded measurement uncertainty (U r ). We applied a straightforward procedure for the calculation of U r from the within-laboratory reproducibility, which is also called intermediate precision, and the uncertainty of RA (ur,RA). To estimate the contribution of the lot-to-lot variation to U r , the measurement results of one replicate of seven different lots of figs and maize and seven replicates of a single lot of these matrices, respectively, were used to calculate U r . The lot-to-lot variation was contributing to ur,RA and thus to U r for the majority of the 66 evaluated analytes in both figs and maize. The major contributions of the lot-to-lot variation to ur,RA were differences in analyte recovery in figs and relative matrix effects in maize. U r was estimated from long-term participation in proficiency test schemes with 58%. Provided proper validation, a fit-for-purpose U r of 50% was proposed for measurement results obtained by an LC-MS-based multi-mycotoxin assay, independent of the concentration of the analytes.
Project description:The biological response of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) is related to their physicochemical properties and a thorough MWNT characterization should accompany an assessment of their biological activity, including their potential toxicity. Beyond characterizing the physicochemical properties of MWNTs from different sources or manufacturers, it is also important to characterize different production lots of the same MWNT product from the same vendor (i.e., lot-to-lot batch consistency). Herein, we present a comprehensive physicochemical characterization of two lots of commercial pristine MWNTs (pMWNTs) and carboxylated MWNTs (cMWNTs) used to study the response of mammalian macrophages to MWNTs. There were many similarities between the physicochemical properties of the two lots of cMWNTs and neither significantly diminished the 24-h proliferation of RAW 264.7 macrophages up to the highest concentration tested (200 ?g cMWNTs/mL). Conversely, several physicochemical properties of the two lots of pMWNTs were different; notably, the newer lot of pMWNTs displayed less oxidative stability, a higher defect density, and a smaller amount of surface oxygen species relative to the original lot. Furthermore, a 72-h half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC-50) of ~90 µg pMWNTs/mL was determined for RAW 264.7 cells with the new lot of pMWNTs. These results demonstrate that subtle physicochemical differences can lead to significantly dissimilar cellular responses, and that production-lot consistency must be considered when assessing the toxicity of MWNTs.
Project description:An Escherichia. coli-produced HPV-16/18 bivalent vaccine has been proved to be well-tolerated and highly efficacious against diseases associated with vaccine HPV types. As a part of the multi-center, randomized, double-blind phase III clinical trial, this lot-to-lot consistency study aimed to assess the safety and immunogenicity consistency of this novel HPV vaccine, which is also one of the objectives of the phase III trial. A total of 3689 healthy women aged 18-45 years were enrolled and randomly assigned 1:1:1 to three lots of the HPV vaccine groups. The primary outcomes were the IgG antibody level at 1 month after the last dose (month 7). In the immunogenicity per-protocol set (PPS), almost all of the participants seroconverted at month 7 and remained seropositive at month 42. For each paired comparison of the three lot groups, the two-sides of 90% CIs of GMC ratios for both IgG and neutralizing antibodies for HPV-16 and HPV-18 at month 7 were within the equivalence interval [0.5, 2]. Lot consistency was also demonstrated at month 42. The majority of recorded solicited reactions were mild or moderate. The incidences of solicited reactions of Lot 2 and Lot 3 were slightly higher than Lot 1. However, the incidences of solicited reactions of ? grade 3 and solicited reactions by symptoms were all similar among the three lot groups. None of the SAEs was considered related to vaccination by the investigator. In conclusion, this study demonstrates lot-to-lot consistency of the 3 consecutive lots of the E. coli-produced HPV-16/18 bivalent vaccine.
Project description:BACKGROUND:A heat-stable bovine-human rotavirus reassortant pentavalent vaccine (BRV-PV, ROTASIIL®) was developed in India. In this study, the vaccine was tested for safety, immunogenicity and clinical lot-to-lot consistency. METHODS:This was a Phase III, open label, randomized, equivalence design study. The primary objective was to demonstrate lot-to-lot consistency of BRV-PV. Subjects were randomized into four arms, three arms received Lots A, B, and C of BRV-PV and the control arm, received Rotarix®. Three doses of BRV-PV or two doses of Rotarix® and one dose of placebo were given at 6, 10, and 14?weeks of age. Blood samples were collected four weeks after the third dose to assess rotavirus IgA antibody levels. The three lots of BRV-PV were equivalent if the 95% Confidence Intervals (CIs) of the geometric mean concentration (GMC) ratios were between 0.5 and 2. Solicited reactions were collected by using diary cards. RESULTS:The study was conducted in 1500 randomized infants, of which 1341 infants completed the study. The IgA GMC ratios among the three lots were around 1 (Lot A versus Lot B: 1.07; Lot A versus Lot C: 1.06; and Lot B versus Lot C: 0.99). The 95% CIs for the GMC ratios were between 0.78 and 1.36. The IgA GMCs were: BRV-PV group 19.16 (95% CI 17.37-21.14) and Rotarix® group 10.92 (95% CI 9.36-12.74) (GMC ratio 1.75; 90% CI 1.51-2.04). Seropositivity rates were 46.98% (95% CI 43.86-50.11) and 31.12% (95% CI 26.17-36.41). The incidence of solicited reactions was comparable across the four arms. No serious adverse events were associated with the study vaccines, except two gastroenteritis events in the BRV-PV groups. CONCLUSION:Lot-to-lot consistency of BRV-PV was demonstrated in terms of GMC ratios of IgA antibodies. The vaccine safety and immunogenicity profiles were similar to those of Rotarix®. Clinical Trials.Gov [NCT02584816] and Clinical Trial Registry of India [CTRI/2015/07/006034].
Project description:The study was to evaluate the safety, immunogenicity and lot-to-lot consistency of live attenuated varicella vaccine in Chinese population aged 1-3 years. The double-blind, randomized phase III trial was conducted in Henan Province, China. In total, 1197 subjects were included in this study. Subjects were randomly assigned into four groups in a 2:2:2:1 ratio to receive one of the three lots of commercial scale (CS) vaccine or the licensed pilot scale (LPS) vaccine. Seroconversion rate and neutralizing antibody titers (NATb) were assessed at day 0 pre-vaccination and at day 30 post-vaccination. Safety data were recorded for 30 days post-vaccination. After vaccination, the geometric mean titers (GMTs) of the three CS groups were 25.04 (95% confidence interval [CI], 22.85 to 27.44), 24.47 (95% CI, 22.35 to 26.78) and 25.88 (95% CI, 23.61 to 28.36), respectively (P= 0.6928). The ratio of GMTs adjusted for covariates of each pair of lots were all between 0.67 to 1.50 in susceptible subjects. The difference of seroconversion rate between pooled CS group and LPS group was 3.82 (95% CI, 0.55 to 8.81). Meanwhile, the percentage of solicited local, systemic and unsolicited adverse reactions showed no difference across the four groups, and most of the adverse reactions were mild or moderate in intensity. The CS group was comparable to the LPS group in safety and immunogenicity. The consistency of three consecutive CS lots was reliable. Moreover, the CS group was non-inferior to the LPS group.
Project description:Gene therapy product release requires reliable and consistent demonstration of biopotency. In hemophilia B vectors, this is usually determined in vivo by measuring the plasma levels of the expressed human factor IX (FIX) transgene product in FIX knockout mice. To circumvent this laborious assay, we developed an in vitro method in which the HepG2 human liver cell line was infected with the vector, and the resulting FIX activity was determined in the conditioned medium using a chromogenic assay. The initial low sensitivity of the assay, particularly toward adeno-associated viral serotype 8 (AAV8), increased approximately 100-fold and allowed linear measurement in a broad range of multiplicities of infection. Statistical parameters indicated high assay repeatability (relative standard deviation (RSD) < 5%) and intra-assay reproducibility (RSD < 20%). To compare the performance of the in vitro and in vivo biopotency assay, we applied statistical analyses including regression techniques and variation decomposition to the results obtained for 25 AAV8-FIX vector lots (BAX 335). These showed a highly significant correlation, with the cell culture-based assay demonstrating less variation than the in vivo test. The in vitro assay thus constitutes a viable alternative to using animals for lot release testing.
Project description:Influenza vaccines are the primary method for preventing influenza and its complications. Considering the increasing demand for influenza vaccines, vaccine manufacturers are required to establish large-scale production systems. This phase IV randomized trial was conducted to evaluate the lot consistency of trivalent split influenza vaccines regarding immunogenicity and safety. A total of 1,023 healthy adults aged 18-64 y were enrolled in the study. Subjects were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive the GC FLU® Prefilled Syringe or the GC FLU® Injection, and they were further randomized to one of 3 lots of each vaccine in a 1:1:1 ratio. In both GC FLU® Injection and GC FLU® Prefilled Syringe groups, immune responses were equivalent between lots for each of the 3 vaccine strains on day 21. The 2-sided 95% CI of GMT ratios between pairs of lots were between 0.67 and 1.5, meeting the equivalence criteria. After vaccination, all 3 criteria of the European Medicines Agency were met in both GC FLU® Injection and GC FLU® Prefilled Syringe groups. The vaccines showed tolerable safety profiles without serious adverse events. The demonstration of lot consistency, robust immunogenic responses and favorable safety profiles support the reliability of mass-manufacturing systems for the GC FLU® Injection and GC FLU® Prefilled Syringe.
Project description:Lentiviral vectors have emerged as an efficient, safe therapeutic tool for gene therapy based on hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) or T cells. However, the monitoring of transduced cells in preclinical models remains challenging because of the inefficient transduction of murine primary T cells with lentiviral vectors, in contrast to gammaretroviral vectors. The use of this later in preclinical proof of concept is not considered as relevant when a lentiviral vector will be used in a clinical trial. Hence, there is an urgent need to develop an efficient transduction protocol for murine cells with lentiviral vectors. Here, we describe an optimized protocol in which a nontoxic transduction enhancer (Lentiboost) enables the efficient transduction of primary murine T cells with lentiviral vectors. The optimized protocol combines low toxicity and high transduction efficiency. We achieved a high-level transduction of murine CD4+ and CD8+ T cells with a VSV-G-pseudotyped lentiviral vector with no changes in the phenotypes of transduced T cells, which were stable and long-lived in culture. This enhancer also increased the transduction of murine HSCs. Hence, use of this new transduction enhancer overcomes the limitations of lentiviral vectors in preclinical experiments and should facilitate the translation of strategies based on lentiviral vectors from the bench to the clinic.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Assessing the quality of mass drug administration (MDA) rounds is a key component of lymphatic filariasis (LF) elimination programs. Routine collection of administrative coverage is unreliable, especially when pockets with low program coverage exist. To address this gap, we used lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) following the 10th annual LF-MDA round in Fiji to explore whether there was any area in which target coverage was not reached. We also assessed the level of drug compliance and satisfaction with the LF-MDA implementation strategy. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS:We conducted a cross-sectional household survey in 3 divisions of Fiji. For LQAS, we defined 19 lots in 7 medical areas of the Suva sub-division and another 12 sub-divisions in the Central, Northern, and Eastern Divisions. A sample of 16 randomly selected household members was taken un each lot. We defined our decision rule as follows: if more than 1 person in a given lot did not swallow the medication, coverage was considered inadequate, i.e. less than 80%. Of the 7 lots in Suva sub-division and 12 lots in the 3 divisions, five and two lots, respectively, were identified as having inadequate coverage. The overall program coverage estimated from 304 samples was 92%, which was higher than the reported administrative coverage of 82%. About 98% of interviewees were offered the medication and 96% swallowed it. Non-participation arose from insufficient information on how to obtain the drugs. At least 92% were satisfied with the LF-MDA implementation strategy. CONCLUSIONS:Areas of low program coverage with results discordant with the reported administrative coverage existed in both urban and rural settings. Drug compliance and satisfaction were high, even after repeated rounds. We recommend increasing efforts to deliver the service in those areas with inadequate program coverage, as well as conducting timely coverage assessment through LQAS for corrective action.
Project description:Despite much speculation, the principal factors controlling concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in settled house dust (SHD) have not yet been identified. In response to recent reports that dust from pavement with coal-tar-based sealcoat contains extremely high concentrations of PAH, we measured PAH in SHD from 23 apartments and in dust from their associated parking lots, one-half of which had coal-tar-based sealcoat (CT). The median concentration of total PAH (T-PAH) in dust from CT parking lots (4760 microg/g, n = 11) was 530 times higher than that from parking lots with other pavement surface types (asphalt-based sealcoat, unsealed asphalt, concrete [median 9.0 microg/g, n = 12]). T-PAH in SHD from apartments with CT parking lots (median 129 microg/g) was 25 times higher than that in SHD from apartments with parking lots with other pavement surface types (median 5.1 microg/g). Presence or absence of CT on a parking lot explained 48% of the variance in log-transformed T-PAH in SHD. Urban land-use intensity near the residence also had a significant but weaker relation to T-PAH. No other variables tested, including carpeting, frequency of vacuuming, and indoor burning, were significant.