A20 deficiency in multipotent progenitors perturbs quiescence of hematopoietic stem cells.
ABSTRACT: Inflammatory signals have been shown to play a critical role in controlling the maintenance and functions of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). While the significance of inflammation in hematopoiesis has begun to unfold, molecular mechanisms and players that govern this mode of HSC regulation remain largely unknown. The E3 ubiquitin ligase A20 has been considered as a central gatekeeper of inflammation. Here, we have specifically depleted A20 in multi-potent progenitors (MPPs) and studied its impact on hematopoiesis. Our data suggest that lack of A20 in Flt3+ progenitors causes modest alterations in hematopoietic differentiation. Analysis of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) pool revealed alterations in HSPC subsets including, HSCs, MPP1, MPP2, MPP3 and MPP4. Interestingly, A20 deficiency in MPPs caused loss of HSC quiescence and compromised long-term hematopoietic reconstitution. Mechanistic studies identified that A20 deficiency caused elevated levels of Interferon-? signaling and downregulation of p57 in HSCs. In essence, these studies identified A20 as a key regulator of HSC quiescence and cell fate decisions.
Project description:Despite great advances in understanding the mechanisms underlying blood production, lineage specification at the level of multipotent progenitors (MPPs) remains poorly understood. Here, we show that MPP2 and MPP3 are distinct myeloid-biased MPP subsets that work together with lymphoid-primed MPP4 cells to control blood production. We find that all MPPs are produced in parallel by hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), but with different kinetics and at variable levels depending on hematopoietic demands. We also show that the normally rare myeloid-biased MPPs are transiently overproduced by HSCs in regenerating conditions, hence supporting myeloid amplification to rebuild the hematopoietic system. This shift is accompanied by a reduction in self-renewal activity in regenerating HSCs and reprogramming of MPP4 fate toward the myeloid lineage. Our results support a dynamic model of blood development in which HSCs convey lineage specification through independent production of distinct lineage-biased MPP subsets that, in turn, support lineage expansion and differentiation.
Project description:Type I interferons (IFN?/?) regulate diverse aspects of host defense, but their impact on hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSC/HSPCs) during infection remains unclear. Hematologic impairment can occur in severe infections, thus we sought to investigate the impact of type I IFNs on hematopoiesis in a tick-borne infection with a virulent ehrlichial pathogen that causes shock-like disease. During infection, IFN?/? induced severe bone marrow (BM) loss, blunted infection-induced emergency myelopoiesis, and reduced phenotypic HSPCs and HSCs. In the absence of type I IFN signaling, BM and splenic hematopoiesis were increased, and HSCs derived from Ifnar1-deficient mice were functionally superior in competitive BM transplants. Type I IFNs impaired hematopoiesis during infection by both limiting HSC/HSPC proliferation and increasing HSPC death. Using mixed BM chimeras we determined that type I IFNs restricted proliferation indirectly, whereas HSPC death occurred via direct IFN?R -mediated signaling. IFN?R-dependent signals resulted in reduced caspase 8 expression and activity, and reduced cleavage of RIPK1 and RIPK3, relative to Ifnar1-deficient mice. RIPK1 antagonism with Necrostatin-1s rescued HSPC and HSC numbers during infection. Early antibiotic treatment is required for mouse survival, however antibiotic-treated survivors had severely reduced HSPCs and HSCs. Combination therapy with antibiotics and Necrostatin-1s improved HSPC and HSC numbers in surviving mice, compared to antibiotic treatment alone. We reveal two mechanisms whereby type I IFNs drive hematopoietic collapse during severe infection: direct sensitization of HSPCs to undergo cell death and enhanced HSC quiescence. Our studies reveal a strategy to ameliorate the type I IFN-dependent loss of HSCs and HSPCs during infection, which may be relevant to other infections wherein type I IFNs cause hematopoietic dysfunction.
Project description:DNA damage tolerance (DDT) enables bypassing of DNA lesions during replication, thereby preventing fork stalling, replication stress, and secondary DNA damage related to fork stalling. Three modes of DDT have been documented: translesion synthesis (TLS), template switching (TS), and repriming. TLS and TS depend on site-specific PCNA K164 monoubiquitination and polyubiquitination, respectively. To investigate the role of DDT in maintaining hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and progenitors, we used PcnaK164R/K164R mice as a unique DDT-defective mouse model. Analysis of the composition of HSCs and HSC-derived multipotent progenitors (MPPs) revealed a significantly reduced number of HSCs, likely owing to increased differentiation of HSCs toward myeloid/erythroid-associated MPP2s. This skewing came at the expense of the number of lymphoid-primed MPP4s, which appeared to be compensated for by increased MPP4 proliferation. Furthermore, defective DDT decreased the numbers of MPP-derived common lymphoid progenitor (CLP), common myeloid progenitor (CMP), megakaryocyte-erythroid progenitor (MEP), and granulocyte-macrophage progenitor (GMP) cells, accompanied by increased cell cycle arrest in CMPs. The HSC and MPP phenotypes are reminiscent of premature aging and stressed hematopoiesis, and indeed progressed with age and were exacerbated on cisplatin exposure. Bone marrow transplantations revealed a strong cell intrinsic defect of DDT-deficient HSCs in reconstituting lethally irradiated mice and a strong competitive disadvantage when cotransplanted with wild-type HSCs. These findings indicate a critical role of DDT in maintaining HSCs and progenitor cells, and in preventing premature aging.
Project description:Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) can either self-renew or differentiate into various types of cells of the blood lineage. Signaling pathways that regulate this choice of self-renewal versus differentiation are currently under extensive investigation. In this study, we report that deregulation of Notch signaling skews HSC differentiation in mouse models of Fanconi anemia (FA), a genetic disorder associated with bone marrow failure and progression to leukemia and other cancers. In mice expressing a transgenic Notch reporter, deletion of the Fanca or Fancc gene enhances Notch signaling in multipotential progenitors (MPPs), which is correlated with decreased phenotypic long-term HSCs and increased formation of MPP1 progenitors. Furthermore, we found an inverse correlation between Notch signaling and self-renewal capacity in FA hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. Significantly, FA deficiency in MPPs deregulates a complex network of genes in the Notch and canonical NF-?B pathways. Genetic ablation or pharmacologic inhibition of NF-?B reduces Notch signaling in FA MPPs to near wild type level, and blocking either NF-?B or Notch signaling partially restores FA HSC quiescence and self-renewal capacity. These results suggest a functional crosstalk between Notch signaling and NF-?B pathway in regulation of HSC differentiation.
Project description:The quiescence of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) is critical for preserving a lifelong steady pool of HSCs to sustain the highly regenerative hematopoietic system. It is thought that specialized niches in which HSCs reside control the balance between HSC quiescence and self-renewal, yet little is known about the extrinsic signals provided by the niche and how these niche signals regulate such a balance. We report that CXCL12 produced by bone marrow (BM) stromal cells is not only the major chemoattractant for HSCs but also a regulatory factor that controls the quiescence of primitive hematopoietic cells. Addition of CXCL12 into the culture inhibits entry of primitive hematopoietic cells into the cell cycle, and inactivation of its receptor CXCR4 in HSCs causes excessive HSC proliferation. Notably, the hyperproliferative Cxcr4(-/-) HSCs are able to maintain a stable stem cell compartment and sustain hematopoiesis. Thus, we propose that CXCR4/CXCL12 signaling is essential to confine HSCs in the proper niche and controls their proliferation.
Project description:The cell surface marker CD133 has been used to describe a revised model of adult human hematopoiesis, with hematopoietic stem cells and multipotent progenitors (HSCs/MPPs: CD133(+)CD45RA(-)CD34(+)) giving rise to lymphomyeloid-primed progenitors (LMPPs: CD133(+)CD45RA(+)CD34(+)) and erythromyeloid progenitors (EMPs: CD133(low)CD45RA(-)CD34(+)). Because adult and fetal hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) differ in their gene expression profile, differentiation capabilities, and cell surface marker expression, we were interested in whether the reported segregation of lineage potentials in adult human hematopoiesis would also apply to human fetal liver. CD133 expression was easily detected in human fetal liver cells, and the defined hematopoietic subpopulations were similar to those found for adult HSPCs. Fetal HSPCs were enriched for EMPs and HSCs/MPPs, which were primed toward erythromyeloid differentiation. However, the frequency of multipotent CD133(+)CD45RA(-)CD34(+) HSPCs was much lower than previously reported and comparable to that of umbilical cord blood. We noted that engraftment in NSG (NOD scid gamma [NOD.Cg-Prkdc(scid) Il2rg(tm1Wjl)/SzJ]) mice was driven mostly by LMPPs, confirming recent findings that repopulation in mice is not a unique feature of multipotent HSCs/MPPs. Thus, our data challenge the general assumption that human fetal liver contains a greater percentage of multipotent HSCs/MPPs than any adult HSC source, and the mouse model may have to be re-evaluated with respect to the type of readout it provides.
Project description:A precise balance between quiescence and proliferation is crucial for the lifelong function of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). Cyclins E1 and E2 regulate exit from quiescence in fibroblasts, but their role in HSCs remains unknown. Here, we report a non-redundant role for cyclin E1 in mouse HSCs. A long-term culture-initiating cell (LTC-IC) assay indicated that the loss of cyclin E1, but not E2, compromised the colony-forming activity of primitive hematopoietic progenitors. Ccne1(-/-) mice showed normal hematopoiesis in vivo under homeostatic conditions but a severe impairment following myeloablative stress induced by 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). Under these conditions, Ccne1(-/-) HSCs were less efficient in entering the cell cycle, resulting in decreased hematopoiesis and reduced survival of mutant mice upon weekly 5-FU treatment. The role of cyclin E1 in homeostatic conditions became apparent in aged mice, where HSC quiescence was increased in Ccne1(-/-) animals. On the other hand, loss of cyclin E1 provided HSCs with a competitive advantage in bone marrow serial transplantation assays, suggesting that a partial impairment of cell cycle entry may exert a protective role by preventing premature depletion of the HSC compartment. Our data support a role for cyclin E1 in controlling the exit from quiescence in HSCs. This activity, depending on the physiological context, can either jeopardize or protect the maintenance of hematopoiesis.
Project description:Regulated blood production is achieved through the hierarchical organization of dormant hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) subsets that differ in self-renewal potential and division frequency, with long-term (LT)-HSCs dividing the least. The molecular mechanisms underlying this variability in HSC division kinetics are unknown. We report here that quiescence exit kinetics are differentially regulated within human HSC subsets through the expression level of CDK6. LT-HSCs lack CDK6 protein. Short-term (ST)-HSCs are also quiescent but contain high CDK6 protein levels that permit rapid cell cycle entry upon mitogenic stimulation. Enforced CDK6 expression in LT-HSCs shortens quiescence exit and confers competitive advantage without impacting function. Computational modeling suggests that this independent control of quiescence exit kinetics inherently limits LT-HSC divisions and preserves the HSC pool to ensure lifelong hematopoiesis. Thus, differential expression of CDK6 underlies heterogeneity in stem cell quiescence states that functionally regulates this highly regenerative system.
Project description:We recently defined a critical role for p53 in regulating the quiescence of adult hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and identified necdin as a candidate p53 target gene. Necdin is a growth-suppressing protein and the gene encoding it is one of several that are deleted in patients with Prader-Willi syndrome. To define the intrinsic role of necdin in adult hematopoiesis, in the present study, we transplanted necdin-null fetal liver cells into lethally irradiated recipients. We show that necdin-null adult HSCs are less quiescent and more proliferative than normal HSCs, demonstrating the similar role of necdin and p53 in promoting HSC quiescence during steady-state conditions. However, wild-type recipients repopulated with necdin-null hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells show enhanced sensitivity to irradiation and chemotherapy, with increased p53-dependent apoptosis, myelosuppression, and mortality. Necdin controls the HSC response to genotoxic stress via both cell-cycle-dependent and cell-cycle-independent mechanisms, with the latter occurring in a Gas2L3-dependent manner. We conclude that necdin functions as a molecular switch in adult hematopoiesis, acting in a p53-like manner to promote HSC quiescence in the steady state, but suppressing p53-dependent apoptosis in response to genotoxic stress.
Project description:The mechanism of lineage commitment from hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) is not well understood. Although commitment to either the lymphoid or the myeloid lineage is popularly viewed as the first step of lineage restriction from HSCs, this model of hematopoietic differentiation has recently been challenged. The previous identification of multipotent progenitors (MPPs) that can produce lymphocytes and granulocyte/macrophages (GMs) but lacks erythroid differentiation ability suggests the existence of an alternative HSC differentiation program. Contribution to different hematopoietic lineages by these MPPs under physiological conditions, however, has not been carefully examined. In this study, we performed a refined characterization of MPPs by subfractionating three distinct subsets based on Flt3 and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 expression. These MPP subsets differ in their ability to give rise to erythroid and GM lineage cells but are equally potent in lymphoid lineage differentiation in vivo. The developmental hierarchy of these MPP subsets demonstrates the sequential loss of erythroid and then GM differentiation potential during early hematopoiesis. Our results suggest that the first step of lineage commitment from HSCs is not simply a selection between the lymphoid and the myeloid lineage.