Hippocampal clock regulates memory retrieval via Dopamine and PKA-induced GluA1 phosphorylation.
ABSTRACT: Cognitive performance in people varies according to time-of-day, with memory retrieval declining in the late afternoon-early evening. However, functional roles of local brain circadian clocks in memory performance remains unclear. Here, we show that hippocampal clock controlled by the circadian-dependent transcription factor BMAL1 regulates time-of-day retrieval profile. Inducible transgenic dominant negative BMAL1 (dnBMAL1) expression in mouse forebrain or hippocampus disrupted retrieval of hippocampal memories at Zeitgeber Time 8-12, independently of retention delay, encoding time and Zeitgeber entrainment cue. This altered retrieval profile was associated with downregulation of hippocampal Dopamine-cAMP signaling in dnBMAL1 mice. These changes included decreases in Dopamine Receptors (D1-R and D5-R) and GluA1-S845 phosphorylation by PKA. Consistently, pharmacological activation of cAMP-signals or D1/5Rs rescued impaired retrieval in dnBMAL1 mice. Importantly, GluA1 S845A knock-in mice showed similar retrieval deficits with dnBMAL1 mice. Our findings suggest mechanisms underlying regulation of retrieval by hippocampal clock through D1/5R-cAMP-PKA-mediated GluA1 phosphorylation.
Project description:It is accepted that amyloid ?-derived diffusible ligands (ADDLs) have a prominent role in triggering the early cognitive deficits that constitute Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, there is still no effective treatment for preventing or reversing the progression of the disease. Targeting ?-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA) receptor trafficking and its regulation is a new strategy for AD early treatment. Here we investigate the effect and mechanism of L-Stepholidine (L-SPD), which elicits dopamine D1-type receptor agonistic activity, while acting as D2-type receptor antagonist on cognition and synaptic plasticity in amyloid precursor protein (APP) and presenilin 1 (PS1) double-transgenic (APP/PS1) mice, and hippocampal cultures or slices treated with ADDLs. L-SPD could improve the hippocampus-dependent memory, surface expression of glutamate receptor A (GluA1)-containing AMPA receptors and spine density in hippocampus of APP/PS1 transgenic mice. L-SPD not only rescued decreased phosphorylation and surface expression of GluA1 in hippocampal cultures but also protected the long-term potentiation in hippocampal slices induced by ADDLs. Protein kinase A (PKA) agonist Sp-cAMPS or D1-type receptor agonist SKF81297 had similar effects, whereas PKA antagonist Rp-cAMPS or D1-type receptor antagonist SCH23390 abolished the effect of L-SPD on GluA1 trafficking. This was mediated mainly by PKA, which could phosphorylate serine residue at 845 of the GluA1. L-SPD may be explored as a potential therapeutic drug for AD through a mechanism that improves AMPA receptor trafficking and synaptic plasticity via activating D1/PKA signaling pathway.
Project description:Extinction is the learned inhibition of retrieval. Recently it was shown that a brief exposure to a novel environment enhances the extinction of contextual fear in rats, an effect explainable by a synaptic tagging-and-capture process. Here we examine whether this also happens with the extinction of another fear-motivated task, inhibitory avoidance (IA), and whether it depends on dopamine acting on D1 or D5 receptors. Rats were trained first in IA and then in extinction of this task. The retention of extinction was measured 24 h later. A 5-min exposure to a novel environment 30 min before extinction training enhanced its retention. Right after exposure to the novelty, animals were given bilateral intrahippocampal infusions of vehicle (VEH), of the protein synthesis inhibitor anisomycin, of the D1/D5 dopaminergic antagonist SCH23390, of the PKA inhibitor Rp-cAMP or of the PKC inhibitor Gö6976, and of the PKA stimulator Sp-cAMP or of the PKC stimulator PMA. The novelty increased hippocampal dopamine levels and facilitated the extinction, which was inhibited by intrahippocampal protein synthesis inhibitor anisomysin, D1/D5 dopaminerdic antagonist SCH23390, or PKA inhibitor Rp-cAMP and unaffected by PKC inhibitor Gö6976; additionally, the hippocampal infusion of PKA stimulator Sp-cAMP reverts the effect of D1/D5 dopaminergic antagonist SCH 23390, but the infusion of PKC stimulator PMA does not. The results attest to the generality of the novelty effect on fear extinction, suggest that it relies on synaptic tagging and capture, and show that it depends on hippocampal dopamine D1 but not D5 receptors.
Project description:In bile duct-ligated (BDL) rats, large cholangiocytes proliferate by activation of cAMP-dependent signaling. Melatonin, which is secreted from pineal gland as well as extrapineal tissues, regulates cell mitosis by interacting with melatonin receptors (MT1 and MT2) modulating cAMP and clock genes. In the liver, melatonin suppresses oxidative damage and ameliorates fibrosis. No information exists regarding the role of melatonin in the regulation of biliary hyperplasia. We evaluated the mechanisms of action by which melatonin regulates the growth of cholangiocytes. In normal and BDL rats, we determined the hepatic distribution of MT1, MT2, and the clock genes, CLOCK, BMAL1, CRY1, and PER1. Normal and BDL (immediately after BDL) rats were treated in vivo with melatonin before evaluating 1) serum levels of melatonin, bilirubin, and transaminases; 2) intrahepatic bile duct mass (IBDM) in liver sections; and 3) the expression of MT1 and MT2, clock genes, and PKA phosphorylation. In vitro, large cholangiocytes were stimulated with melatonin in the absence/presence of luzindole (MT1/MT2 antagonist) and 4-phenyl-2-propionamidotetralin (MT2 antagonist) before evaluating cell proliferation, cAMP levels, and PKA phosphorylation. Cholangiocytes express MT1 and MT2, CLOCK, BMAL1, CRY1, and PER1 that were all upregulated following BDL. Administration of melatonin to BDL rats decreased IBDM, serum bilirubin and transaminases levels, the expression of all clock genes, cAMP levels, and PKA phosphorylation in cholangiocytes. In vitro, melatonin decreased the proliferation, cAMP levels, and PKA phosphorylation, decreases that were blocked by luzindole. Melatonin may be important in the management of biliary hyperplasia in human cholangiopathies.
Project description:Excitatory synaptic transmission is mediated by AMPA-type glutamate receptors (AMPARs). In CA1 pyramidal neurons of the hippocampus two types of AMPARs predominate: those that contain subunits GluA1 and GluA2 (GluA1/2), and those that contain GluA2 and GluA3 (GluA2/3). Whereas subunits GluA1 and GluA2 have been extensively studied, the contribution of GluA3 to synapse physiology has remained unclear. Here we show in mice that GluA2/3s are in a low-conductance state under basal conditions, and although present at synapses they contribute little to synaptic currents. When intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP) levels rise, GluA2/3 channels shift to a high-conductance state, leading to synaptic potentiation. This cAMP-driven synaptic potentiation requires the activation of both protein kinase A (PKA) and the GTPase Ras, and is induced upon the activation of ?-adrenergic receptors. Together, these experiments reveal a novel type of plasticity at CA1 hippocampal synapses that is expressed by the activation of GluA3-containing AMPARs.
Project description:Light, restricted feeding, and hormonal inputs may operate as time givers (zeitgebers) for the circadian clock within peripheral organs through the activation of tissue-specific signaling cascades. cAMP signaling through CREM (cAMP-responsive element modulator) and its variant ICER (inducible cAMP early repressor) is linked to the circadian regulation of pineal melatonin synthesis, although little is known about its influence in other organs. We performed experiments in the absence of light and feeding-time cues to test which core clock genes are controlled by CREM/ICER in the liver and adrenal gland. In vivo, Crem loss-of-function mutation resulted in fine-tuning of all measured adrenal clock genes (Per1/2/3, Cry1/2, Bmal1, and Rev-erb?), whereas only Per1 and Cry1 were affected in the liver. Icer expression was circadian in the adrenal gland, with peak gene expression at zeitgeber 12 and the highest protein levels at zeitgeber ?20. The expression of both Icer and Per1 genes responded to cAMP stimuli in an immediate-early fashion. In immortal cells, forskolin induced expression of Per1 after 2 h, and de novo protein synthesis led to Per1 attenuation. We show that the de novo synthesized protein responsible for Per1 attenuation is ICER. Indeed, Per1 expression is up-regulated in cells ectopically expressing antisense Icer, and mobility shift experiments identified ICER binding to cAMP-responsive elements of the Per1 promoter. We propose that ICER acts as a noise filter for different signals that could affect transcription in the adrenal gland. Because ICER is an immediate-early repressor, the circadian nature of adrenal Icer expression could serve a role in a time-dependent gating mechanism.
Project description:The mammalian circadian clock uses interlocked negative feedback loops in which the heterodimeric basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor BMAL1/CLOCK is a master regulator. While there is prominent control of liver functions by the circadian clock, the detailed links between circadian regulators and downstream targets are poorly known. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation combined with deep sequencing we obtained a time-resolved and genome-wide map of BMAL1 binding in mouse liver, which allowed us to identify over 2,000 binding sites, with peak binding narrowly centered around Zeitgeber time 6. Annotation of BMAL1 targets confirms carbohydrate and lipid metabolism as the major output of the circadian clock in mouse liver. Moreover, transcription regulators are largely overrepresented, several of which also exhibit circadian activity. Genes of the core circadian oscillator stand out as strongly bound, often at promoter and distal sites. Genomic sequence analysis of the sites identified E-boxes and tandem E1-E2 consensus elements. Electromobility shift assays showed that E1-E2 sites are bound by a dimer of BMAL1/CLOCK heterodimers with a spacing-dependent cooperative interaction, a finding that was further validated in transactivation assays. BMAL1 target genes showed cyclic mRNA expression profiles with a phase distribution centered at Zeitgeber time 10. Importantly, sites with E1-E2 elements showed tighter phases both in binding and mRNA accumulation. Finally, analyzing the temporal profiles of BMAL1 binding, precursor mRNA and mature mRNA levels showed how transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation contribute differentially to circadian expression phase. Together, our analysis of a dynamic protein-DNA interactome uncovered how genes of the core circadian oscillator crosstalk and drive phase-specific circadian output programs in a complex tissue.
Project description:Clock genes not only regulate the circadian rhythm of physiological activities but also participate in the pathogenesis of many diseases. Previous studies have documented the abnormal expression of clock genes in epilepsy. However, the molecular mechanism of brain and muscle Arnt-like protein 1 (Bmal1), one of the core clock genes, in the epileptogenesis and seizures of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) remain unclear. We first investigated the levels of Bmal1 and other clock proteins in the hippocampus of subjects with epilepsy to define the function of Bmal1. The levels of Bmal1 were decreased during the latent and chronic phases in the experimental group compared with those in the control group. Knockout of Bmal1 in hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) neurons of Bmal1<sup>flox/flox</sup> mice by Synapsin 1 (Syn1) promoter AAV (adeno-associated virus) lowered the threshold of seizures induced by pilocarpine administration. High-throughput sequencing analysis showed that PCDH19 (protocadherin 19), a gene associated with epilepsy, was regulated by Bmal1. PCDH19 expression was also decreased in the hippocampus of epileptic mice. Furthermore, the higher levels of Bmal1 and PCDH19 were detected in patients with no hippocampal sclerosis (no HS) than in patients with HS International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) type I and III. Altogether, these data suggest that decreased expression of clock gene Bmal1 may participate in epileptogenesis and seizures via PCDH19 in TLE.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Skipping breakfast is associated with dysmenorrhea in young women. This suggests that the delay of food intake in the active phase impairs uterine functions by interfering with circadian rhythms.<h4>Objectives</h4>To examine the relation between the delay of feeding and uterine circadian rhythms, we investigated the effects of the first meal occasion in the active phase on the uterine clock.<h4>Methods</h4>Zeitgeber time (ZT) was defined as ZT0 (08:45) with lights on and ZT12 (20:45) with lights off. Young female mice (8 wk of age) were divided into 3 groups: group I (ad libitum consumption), group II (time-restricted feeding during ZT12-16, initial 4 h of the active period), and group III (time-restricted feeding during ZT20-24, last 4 h of the active period, a breakfast-skipping model). After 2 wk of dietary restriction, mice in each group were killed at 4-h intervals and the expression profiles of uterine clock genes, <i>Bmal1</i> (brain and muscle aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator-like protein 1), <i>Per1</i> (period circadian clock 1), <i>Per2</i>, and <i>Cry1</i> (cryptochrome 1), were examined.<h4>Results</h4>qPCR and western blot analyses demonstrated synchronized circadian clock gene expression within the uterus. Immunohistochemical analysis confirmed that BMAL1 protein expression was synchronized among the endometrium and myometrium. In groups I and II, mRNA expression of <i>Bmal1</i> was elevated after ZT12 at the start of the active phase. In contrast, <i>Bmal1</i> expression was elevated just after ZT20 in group III, showing that the uterine clock rhythm had shifted 8 h backward. The changes in BMAL1 protein expression were confirmed by western blot analysis.<h4>Conclusions</h4>This study is the first to indicate that time-restricted feeding regulates a circadian rhythm of the uterine clock that is synchronized throughout the uterine body. These findings suggest that the uterine clock system is a new candidate to explain the etiology of breakfast skipping-induced uterine dysfunction.
Project description:ELOVL3 is a very long-chain fatty acid elongase, and its mRNA levels display diurnal rhythmic changes exclusively in adult male mouse livers. This cyclical expression of hepatic Elovl3 is potentially controlled by the circadian clock, related hormones, and transcriptional factors. It remains unknown, however, whether the circadian clock, in conjunction with androgen signaling, functions in maintaining the rhythmic expression of Elovl3 in a sexually dimorphic manner. Under either zeitgeber or circadian time, WT mouse livers exhibited a robust circadian rhythmicity in the expression of circadian clock genes and Elovl3 In contrast, male Bmal1 -/- mice displayed severely weakened expression of hepatic circadian clock genes, resulting in relatively high, but nonrhythmic, Elovl3 expression levels. ChIP assays revealed that NR1D1 binds to the Elovl3 promoter upon circadian change in WT mouse livers in vivo, and a diminished binding was observed in male Bmal1 -/- mouse livers. Additionally, female mouse livers exhibited constant low levels of Elovl3 expression. Castration markedly reduced Elovl3 expression levels in male mouse livers but did not disrupt circadian variation of Elovl3 Injection of female mice with 5?-dihydrotestosterone induced Elovl3 rhythmicity in the liver. In AML12 cells, 5?-dihydrotestosterone also elevated Elovl3 expression in a time-dependent manner. In contrast, flutamide efficiently attenuated this induction effect. In conclusion, a lack of either the circadian clock or androgen signaling impairs hepatic Elovl3 expression, highlighting the observation that coordination between the circadian clock and androgen signaling is required to sustain the rhythmic expression of Elovl3 in mouse liver.