Association of cleft lip and palate on mother-to-infant bonding: a cross-sectional study in the Japan Environment and Children's Study (JECS).
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Cleft lip and/or palate is among the most prevalent congenital birth defects, and negatively affects maternal psychological status and may consequently result in higher prevalence of child maltreatment. However, the association of childbirths of infants with cleft lip and/or palate with maternal emotional involvement still remains unclear. We examined the association between childbirths of infants with cleft lip and/or palate and mother-to-infant bonding, using data from the Japan Environment and Children's Study, a nationwide birth cohort study. METHODS:A cross-sectional study using the jecs-an-20,180,131 dataset was performed. A total 104,065 fetuses in 15 regional centres in Japan were enrolled after obtaining informed written consent. The Mother-to-Infant Bonding Scale, a self-report scale consisting of 10 items, was used to evaluate maternal bonding at one year after childbirth. Finally, the participants consisted of 79,140 mother-infant pairs, of which 211 mothers of infants with cleft lip and/or palate were included in our analyses. Multivariable logistic regression analysis using multiple imputation for missing data was performed to calculate the odds ratio and 95% confidence interval in the estimation of the association between bonding disorders and childbirths with cleft lip and/or palate. RESULTS:No increased risk of bonding disorders was observed among all the mothers of infants with cleft lip and/or palate (odds ratio [95% confidence interval]; 0.97 [0.63-1.48], p?=?0.880), however, advanced maternal age or multiple parity may adversely affect the associations between bonding disorders and cleft lip and/or palate, respectively. After stratification with a combination of maternal age and parity, a significant association of cleft lip and/or palate with bonding disorders was found only among advanced-age multiparae (odds ratio [95% confidence interval]?=?2.51 [1.17-5.37], p?=?0.018), but it was weakened after additional adjustment for maternal depression. CONCLUSIONS:Childbirths of infants with cleft lip and/or palate may increase the risk of bonding disorders among advanced-age multiparae, possibly through maternal depression. This finding provides valuable information for the provision of multidisciplinary cleft care.
Project description:<h4>Objectives</h4>Cleft lip and/or palate is a common congenital craniofacial malformation found worldwide. A frequently associated disorder is conductive hearing loss, and this disorder has been thoroughly investigated in children with non-syndromic cleft lip and/or palate (NSCL/P). However, analysis of auditory processing function is rarely reported for this population, although this issue should not be ignored since abnormal auditory cortical structures have been found in populations with cleft disorders. The present study utilized electrophysiological tests to assess the auditory status of a large group of children with NSCL/P, and investigated whether this group had less robust central auditory processing abilities compared to craniofacially normal children.<h4>Methods</h4>146 children with NSCL/P who had normal peripheral hearing thresholds, and 60 craniofacially normal children aged from 6 to 15 years, were recruited. Electrophysiological tests, including auditory brainstem response (ABR), P1-N1-P2 complex, and P300 component recording, were conducted.<h4>Results</h4>ABR and N1 wave latencies were significantly prolonged in children with NSCL/P. An atypical developmental trend was found for long latency potentials in children with cleft compared to control group children. Children with unilateral cleft lip and palate showed a greater level of abnormal results compared with other cleft subgroups, whereas the cleft lip subgroup had the most robust responses for all tests.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Children with NSCL/P may have slower than normal neural transmission times between the peripheral auditory nerve and brainstem. Possible delayed development of myelination and synaptogenesis may also influence auditory processing function in this population. Present research outcomes were consistent with previous, smaller sample size, electrophysiological studies on infants and children with cleft lip/palate disorders. In view of the these findings, and reports of educational disadvantage associated with cleft disorders, further research that focuses on the auditory processing abilities of children with cleft lip/palate disorder is warranted.
Project description:Evidence on association of maternal pre-pregnancy weight with risk of orofacial clefts is inconsistent.Six large case-control studies of orofacial clefts from Northern Europe and the USA were included in analyses pooling individual-level data. Cases included 4943 mothers of children with orofacial clefts (cleft lip only: 1135, cleft palate with cleft lip: 2081, cleft palate only: 1727) and controls included 10 592 mothers of unaffected children. Association of orofacial cleft risk with pre-pregnancy maternal weight classified by level of body mass index (BMI, kg/m 2 ) was evaluated using logistic regression adjusting for multiple covariates.Cleft palate, both alone and with cleft lip (CP+/-CL), was associated with maternal class II+ pre-pregnancy obesity (? 35)compared with normal weight [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.36; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.16, 1.58]. CP+/-CL was marginally associated with maternal underweight (aOR = 1.16; 95% CI?=?0.98, 1.36). Cleft lip alone was not associated with BMI.In this largest population-based study to date, we found an increased risk of cleft palate, with or without cleft lip, in class II+ obese mothers compared with normal-weight mothers; underweight mothers may also have an increased risk, but this requires further study. These results also suggest that extremes of weight may have a specific effect on palatal development.
Project description:Non-syndromic cleft lip, with or without cleft palate, is a heterogeneous, complex disease with a high incidence in the Asian population. Several association studies have been done on cleft candidate genes, but no reports have been published thus far on the Orofacial Cleft 1 (OFC1) genomic region in an Asian population. This study investigated the association between the OFC1 genomic region and non-syndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate in 90 Malay father-mother-offspring trios. Results showed a preferential over-transmission of a 101-bp allele of marker D6S470 in the allele- and haplotype-based transmission disequilibrium test (TDT), as well as an excess of maternal transmission. However, no significant p-value was found for a maternal genotype effect in a log-linear model, although single and double doses of the 101-bp allele showed a slightly increased cleft risk (RR = 1.37, 95% CI, 0.527-3.4, p-value = 0.516). Carrying two copies of the 101-bp allele was significantly associated with an increased cleft risk (RR = 2.53, 95% CI, 1.06-6.12, p-value = 0.035). In conclusion, we report evidence of the contribution of the OFC1 genomic region to the etiology of clefts in a Malay population.
Project description:PURPOSE:To compare the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and/or opioids to the use of acetaminophen without NSAIDs or opioids with respect to associations with birth defects. METHODS:We used data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (1997-2011). Exposure was self-reported maternal analgesic use from the month before through the third month of pregnancy (periconceptional). Adjusted odds ratios (aORs) were calculated to examine associations with 16 birth defects. RESULTS:Compared to acetaminophen, mothers reporting NSAIDs were significantly more likely to have offspring with gastroschisis, hypospadias, cleft palate, cleft lip with cleft palate, cleft lip without cleft palate, anencephaly, spina bifida, hypoplastic left heart syndrome, pulmonary valve stenosis, and tetralogy of Fallot (aOR range, 1.2-1.6). Opioids were associated with tetralogy of Fallot, perimembranous ventricular septal defect, and ventricular septal defect with atrial septal defect (aOR range, 1.8-2.3), whereas use of both opioids and NSAIDs was associated with gastroschisis, cleft palate, spina bifida, hypoplastic left heart syndrome, and pulmonary valve stenosis (aOR range, 2.0-2.9). CONCLUSIONS:Compared to periconceptional use of acetaminophen, selected birth defects occurred more frequently among infants of women using NSAIDs and/or opioids. However, we could not definitely determine whether these risks relate to the drugs or to indications for treatment.
Project description:Preterm infants (PIs) often require respiratory support due to surfactant deficiency. Early weaning from mechanical ventilation to noninvasive respiratory support decreases ventilation-associated irreversible lung damage. This wean is particularly challenging in PIs with cleft lip and cleft palate due to anatomical difficulties encountered in maintaining an adequate seal for positive pressure ventilation. PI with a cleft lip and palate often fail noninvasive respiratory support and require continued intubation and mechanical ventilation. We are presenting the first case report of a PI with cleft lip and palate who was managed by biphasic nasal continuous positive airway pressure.
Project description:Mutations of human PHF8 cluster within its JmjC encoding exons and are linked to mental retardation (MR) and a cleft lip/palate phenotype. Sequence comparisons, employing structural insights, suggest that PHF8 contains the double stranded beta-helix fold and ferrous iron binding residues that are present in 2-oxoglutarate-dependent oxygenases. We report that recombinant PHF8 is an Fe(II) and 2-oxoglutarate-dependent N(epsilon)-methyl lysine demethylase, which acts on histone substrates. PHF8 is selective in vitro for N(epsilon)-di- and mono-methylated lysine residues and does not accept trimethyl substrates. Clinically observed mutations to the PHF8 gene cluster in exons encoding for the double stranded beta-helix fold and will therefore disrupt catalytic activity. The PHF8 missense mutation c.836C>T is associated with mild MR, mild dysmorphic features, and either unilateral or bilateral cleft lip and cleft palate in two male siblings. This mutant encodes a F279S variant of PHF8 that modifies a conserved hydrophobic region; assays with both peptides and intact histones reveal this variant to be catalytically inactive. The dependence of PHF8 activity on oxygen availability is interesting because the occurrence of fetal cleft lip has been demonstrated to increase with maternal hypoxia in mouse studies. Cleft lip and other congenital anomalies are also linked indirectly to maternal hypoxia in humans, including from maternal smoking and maternal anti-hypertensive treatment. Our results will enable further studies aimed at defining the molecular links between developmental changes in histone methylation status, congenital disorders and MR.
Project description:While there is some evidence that maternal exposure to ambient air pollution is associated with orofacial clefts in offspring, the epidemiologic studies have been largely equivocal. We evaluated whether maternal exposure to elevated county-level ambient fine particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ?2.5µm (PM2.5) and ozone during early gestation was associated with a higher prevalence of orofacial clefts.Birth data consisting of 4.7 million births from 2001 to 2007 were obtained from National Birth Defects Prevention Network for four states - Arizona, Florida, New York (excluding New York City), and Texas. The air pollution exposure assessment for gestational weeks 5-10 was based on county-level average concentrations of PM2.5 and ozone data generated using a Bayesian fusion model available through CDC's Environmental Public Health Tracking Network. Two outcomes were analyzed separately: cleft lip with or without cleft palate, cleft palate alone. In logistic regression analyses, we adjusted for factors that were suspected confounders or modifiers of the association between the prevalence of orofacial clefts and air pollution, i.e., infant sex, race-ethnicity, maternal education, smoking status during pregnancy, whether this was mother's first baby, maternal age.Each 10µg/m3 increase in PM2.5 concentration was significantly associated with cleft palate alone (OR =1.43, 95% CI: 1.11-1.86). There was no significant association between PM2.5 concentration and cleft lip with or without cleft palate. No associations were observed between ozone exposure and the two outcomes of orofacial clefts.Our study suggests that PM2.5 significantly increased the risk of cleft palate alone, but did not change the incidence of cleft lip with or without palate. Ozone levels did not correlate with incidence of orofacial clefts.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The objective of this prospective, multidisciplinary and multicenter study was to explore the effect of a cleft lip, associated or not with a cleft palate, on parents, on parent-infant relationship, and on the baby's relational development. It also highlighted how the type of cleft and the timing of the surgery could impact this effect. METHOD:158 infants, with Cleft lip with or without Palate, and their parents participated in this multicenter prospective cohort. Clinical evaluations were performed at 4 and 12?months postpartum. The impact on the parents and on the parent-infant relationship was evaluated by the Parenting Stress Index (PSI), the Edinburgh Post-partum Depression Scale (EPDS) and the Impact-on-Family Scale (IOFS). The relational development of the infant was assessed using the Alarm Distress Baby Scale (ADBB). The main criteria used to compare the infants were the severity of cleft and the time of surgery. RESULTS:The timing of surgery, the type of malformation or the care structure had no effect on social withdrawal behaviors of the child at 4 and 12?months postpartum (ADBB). Furthermore, early intervention significantly decreased maternal stress assessed with the PSI at 4?months. Parents for whom it had been possible to give a prenatal diagnosis were much better prepared to accept the waiting time between birth and the first surgical intervention (IOFS). Higher postpartum depression scores (EPDS) were found for both parents compared to the general population. CONCLUSION:A joint assessment of the mental health of both infants and parents is required in the follow-up of cleft lip and palate. Even if most families are remarkably resilient faced with this major cause of stress, a significant proportion of them could require help to deal with the situation, especially during this first year of follow-up. An assessment of the child's social withdrawal behaviour and of the parental stress and depression appears useful, in order to adapt care to infant and parent's needs. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00993993. Registered 10/14/2009 <.
Project description:Parent-infant social interactions start early in development, with infants showing active communicative expressions by just two months. A key question is how this social capacity develops. Maternal mirroring of infant expressions is considered an important, intuitive, parenting response, but evidence is sparse in the first two months concerning the conditions under which mirroring occurs and its developmental sequelae, including in clinical samples where the infant's social expressiveness may be affected. We investigated these questions by comparing the development of mother-infant interactions between a sample where the infant had cleft lip and a normal, unaffected, comparison sample. We videotaped dyads in their homes five times from one to ten weeks and used a microanalytic coding scheme for maternal and infant behaviours, including infant social expressions, and maternal mirroring and marking responses. We also recorded maternal gaze to the infant, using eye-tracking glasses. Although infants with cleft lip did show communicative behaviours, the rate of their development was slower than in comparison infants. This group difference was mediated by a lower rate of mirroring of infant expressions by mothers of infants with cleft lip; this effect was, in turn, partly accounted for by reduced gaze to the infant's mouth, although the clarity of infant social expressions (indexed by cleft severity) and maternal self-blame regarding the cleft were also influential. Results indicate the robustness of parent-infant interactions but also their sensitivity to specific variations in interactants' appearance and behaviour. Parental mirroring appears critical in infant social development, likely supported by the mirror neuron system and underlying clinical and, possibly, cultural differences in infant behaviour. These findings suggest new avenues for clinical intervention.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Orofacial clefts are common birth defects with a lack of strong evidence regarding their association with maternal nutrition. We aimed to determine whether a relationship exists between maternal nutrient or multivitamin intake and orofacial clefts. DESIGN:This is a prospective, population-based nationwide cohort study. SETTING:The study was conducted in 15 regional centres, consisting of local administrative units and study areas. PARTICIPANTS:A total of 98 787 eligible mother-child pairs of the Japan Environment and Children's Study were included. INTERVENTION:Exposures were maternal nutrition and the use of supplemental multivitamins in mothers. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES:Outcomes were the occurrence of any orofacial cleft at birth. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate the association between maternal multivitamin intake and the incidence of orofacial clefts. RESULTS:Of the 98 787 children, 69 (0.07%) were diagnosed with cleft lip alone, 113 (0.11%) were diagnosed with cleft lip and palate, and 52 (0.05%) were diagnosed with cleft palate within 1 month after birth. Regarding the total orofacial cleft outcome, statistically significant point estimates of relative risk ratios (RR) were determined for multivitamin intake before pregnancy (RR=1.71; 95% CI 1.06 to 2.77) and during the first trimester (RR=2.00; 95% CI 1.18 to 3.37), but the association was not significant for multivitamin intake after the first trimester (RR=1.34; 95% CI 0.59 to 3.01). Maternal micronutrient intake via food was not associated with the incidence of orofacial clefts in offspring. CONCLUSIONS:Intake of multivitamin supplements shortly before conception or during the first trimester of pregnancy was found to be associated with an increased incidence of orofacial clefts at birth. Pregnant women and those intending to become pregnant should be advised of the potential risks of multivitamin supplementation.