CDKN3 promotes cell proliferation, invasion and migration by activating the AKT signaling pathway in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
ABSTRACT: In China, esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), capable of direct invasion and early metastasis, exhibits high mortality. Identification of the molecular basis driving ESCC progression and development of new diagnostic biomarkers are urgently needed. Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 3 (CDKN3) performs crucial roles in the modulation of tumor development. The present study aimed to explore the functions and underlying mechanism of CDKN3 in regulating ESCC cell proliferation and invasion. The expression levels of CDKN3 in ESCC cells were evaluated by reverse transcription-quantitative PCR. Cell counting kit-8 and colony forming assays were used to evaluate cell viability. Wound-healing assay was performed to explore cell migration. Transwell invasion analysis was conducted to investigate the invasive capacity of ESCC cells. Protein levels were detected by western blot assay. The results demonstrated that the expression of CDKN3 was significantly upregulated in ESCC tissues, as predicted using the UALCAN and Gene Expression Omnibus databases. PCR and western blot assays confirmed that CDKN3 was upregulated in ESCC cell lines. Functional assays revealed that CDKN3 knockdown with small interfering RNA decreased the ability of ESCC cells to proliferate, invade and migrate and suppressed G1/S transition. Further mechanistic analyses demonstrated that CDKN3 promoted cell proliferation and invasion by activating the AKT signaling pathway in ESCC cells. To the best of our knowledge, the present study is the first to identify the functions of CDKN3 in ESCC and provide evidence that CDKN3 regulates tumor progression by activating the AKT signaling pathway. Therefore, CDKN3 may serve as a potential effective therapeutic target for ESCC treatment.
Project description:Background and aims. Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 3 (CDKN3) has been found playing a varying role in carcinogenesis, but its biological function in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is unclear. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the role of CDKN3 in ESCC. Materials and Methods: Real-time PCR and Western blot was performed in 15 pairs of ESCC tissues and adjacent normal esophageal tissues. Then cell proliferation ability, cloning ability, cell cycle status and migration and invasion ability were explored in CDKN3 overexpressed TE1 cell line and CDKN3 siRNA transfected TE1 and KYSE70 cell lines. Finally, cell cycle related proteins CyclinD1, CDK4, pAKT, P53, P21, and P27 were tested by Western blot. Results: mRNA level was higher in 11 ESCC tissues compared to adjacent normal tissues, and an increased protein expression was further detected in 8 of those 11 ESCC tissues. Functional assays showed that CDKN3 overexpression promoted ESCC cell proliferation, colony formation, migration and invasion, and facilitated G1/S transition. Opposite results were also got after transfected with CDKN3 siRNA. Cell cycle associated protein pAKT, CyclinD1, CDK4 and P27 were upregulated and P53, P21 and were downregulated under CDKN3 overexpression. All the protein levels were found changed in the opposite direction when CDKN3 expression was disturbed by siRNA. Conclusions: Our study suggested that CDKN3 acted as an oncogene in human ESCC and may accelerate the G1/S transition by affecting CyclinD-CDK4 complex via regulating pAKT-p53-p21 axis and p27 independent of AKT.
Project description:The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 3 (CDKN3) gene, involved in mitosis, is upregulated in cervical cancer (CC). We investigated CDKN3 mRNA as a survival biomarker and potential therapeutic target for CC. CDKN3 mRNA was measured in 134 CC and 25 controls by quantitative PCR. A 5-year survival study was conducted in 121 of these CC patients. Furthermore, CDKN3-specific siRNAs were used to investigate whether CDKN3 is involved in proliferation, migration, and invasion in CC-derived cell lines (SiHa, CaSki, HeLa). CDKN3 mRNA was on average 6.4-fold higher in tumors than in controls (p = 8 x 10-6, Mann-Whitney). A total of 68.2% of CC patients over expressing CDKN3 gene (fold change ? 17) died within two years of diagnosis, independent of the clinical stage and HPV type (Hazard Ratio = 5.0, 95% CI: 2.5-10, p = 3.3 x 10-6, Cox proportional-hazards regression). In contrast, only 19.2% of the patients with lower CDKN3 expression died in the same period. In vitro inactivation of CDKN3 decreased cell proliferation on average 67%, although it had no effect on cell migration and invasion. CDKN3 mRNA may be a good survival biomarker and potential therapeutic target in CC.
Project description:Mitosis is controlled by a network of kinases and phosphatases. We screened a library of small interfering RNAs against a genome-wide set of phosphatases to comprehensively evaluate the role of human phosphatases in mitosis. We found four candidate spindle checkpoint phosphatases, including the tumor suppressor CDKN3. We show that CDKN3 is essential for normal mitosis and G1/S transition. We demonstrate that subcellular localization of CDKN3 changes throughout the cell cycle. We show that CDKN3 dephosphorylates threonine-161 of CDC2 during mitotic exit and we visualize CDC2(pThr-161) at kinetochores and centrosomes in early mitosis. We performed a phosphokinome-wide mass spectrometry screen to find effectors of the CDKN3-CDC2 signaling axis. We found that one of the identified downstream phosphotargets, CK? phosphorylated at serine 209, localizes to mitotic centrosomes and controls the spindle checkpoint. Finally, we show that CDKN3 protein is down-regulated in brain tumors. Our findings indicate that CDKN3 controls mitosis through the CDC2 signaling axis. These results have implications for targeted anticancer therapeutics.
Project description:CDKN3 (cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 3), a dual specificity protein phosphatase, dephosphorylates cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) and thus functions as a key negative regulator of cell cycle progression. Deregulation or mutations of CDNK3 have been implicated in various cancers. However, the role of CDKN3 in Bcr-Abl-mediated chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) remains unknown. Here we found that CDKN3 acts as a tumor suppressor in Bcr-Abl-mediated leukemogenesis. Overexpression of CDKN3 sensitized the K562 leukemic cells to imanitib-induced apoptosis and dramatically inhibited K562 xenografted tumor growth in nude mouse model. Ectopic expression of CDKN3 significantly reduced the efficiency of Bcr-Abl-mediated transformation of FDCP1 cells to growth factor independence. In contrast, depletion of CDKN3 expression conferred resistance to imatinib-induced apoptosis in the leukemic cells and accelerated the growth of xenograph leukemia in mice. In addition, we found that CDKN3 mutant (CDKN3-C140S) devoid of the phosphatase activity failed to affect the K562 leukemic cell survival and xenografted tumor growth, suggesting that the phosphatase of CDKN3 was required for its tumor suppressor function. Furthermore, we observed that overexpression of CDKN3 reduced the leukemic cell survival by dephosphorylating CDK2, thereby inhibiting CDK2-dependent XIAP expression. Moreover, overexpression of CDKN3 delayed G1/S transition in K562 leukemic cells. Our results highlight the importance of CDKN3 in Bcr-Abl-mediated leukemogenesis, and provide new insights into diagnostics and therapeutics of the leukemia.
Project description:The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 3 (CDKN3) has been perceived as a tumour suppressor. Paradoxically, CDKN3 is often overexpressed in human cancer. It was unclear if CDKN3 overexpression is linked to alternative splicing variants or mutations that produce dominant-negative CDKN3.We analysed CDKN3 expression and its association with patient survival in three cohorts of lung adenocarcinoma. We also examined CDKN3 mutations in the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and the Moffitt Cancer Center's Total Cancer Care (TCC) projects. CDKN3 transcripts were further analysed in a panel of cell lines and lung adenocarcinoma tissues. CDKN3 mRNA and protein levels in different cell cycle phases were examined.CDKN3 is overexpressed in non small cell lung cancer. High CDKN3 expression is associated with poor overall survival in lung adenocarcinoma. Two CDKN3 transcripts were detected in all samples. These CDKN3 transcripts represent the full length CDKN3 mRNA and a normal transcript lacking exon 2, which encodes an out of frame 23-amino acid peptide with little homology to CDKN3. CDKN3 mutations were found to be very rare. CDKN3 mRNA and protein were elevated during the mitosis phase of cell cycle.CDKN3 overexpression is prognostic of poor overall survival in lung adenocarcinoma. CDKN3 overexpression in lung adenocarcinoma is not attributed to alternative splicing or mutation but is likely due to increased mitotic activity, arguing against CDKN3 as a tumour suppressor.
Project description:Currently, it reported that TAF1L gene mutation is found in a number of carcinomas, but its pathophysiological function has not been well studied. We focused on investigating expressive levels of TAF1L gene and protein in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) with two tissue microarrays, forty fresh paired ESCC and paracancer samples using immunohistochemistry, real-time PCR or Western blot in this study. Furthermore, we executed TAF1L silence with siRNA in ESCC cell lines to evaluate effects of TAF1L expression on cell proliferation, migration and invasion of ESCC via CCK-8, wound healing and transwell chamber assays. Moreover, key proteins related to ESCC development were also analyzed by Western blot. Results from this study showed that the expression of TAF1L mRNA and protein in ESCC tissues were significantly higher than that in matched paracancer tissues. However, its abnormal expression was not associated with other clinic features, such as the age, gender and pathological grade, except of TNM-N stage. Furthermore, the proliferation, migration and invasion of ESCC cells were inhibited after TAF1L gene silencing. As a consequence, the expression of c-Myc and phosphorylated Akt in esophageal squamous cell line after TAF1L-siRNA treatment were inversely decreased, while p53 was increased significantly, compared those to control group. Taken together, the results from this study suggest that TAF1L gene might be served as an oncogene, and its overexpression could accelerate to the tumorigenesis of ESCC via promoting the malignant cell proliferation and tumor metastasis.
Project description:Steroid receptor coactivator-3 (SRC-3), a transcriptional coactivator for nuclear receptors and other transcription factors, plays an important role in the genesis and progression of several cancers. However, studies investigated the role of SRC-3 in esophageal squamous cell carcinomas (ESCCs) are limited, and the role of SRC-3 in tumor progression remains unclear. We examined the expression of SRC-3 in 8 ESCC cell lines and 302 human ESCC tissues by qPCR, Western blot, and immunohistochemistry. In addition, ESCC cell lines were subjected to proliferation and invasion assays, tumorigenicity assay, flow cytometry assay, qPCR, Western blot, and Chromatin Immunoprecipitation assay to investigate the role of SRC-3 in cancer progression. SRC-3 was overexpressed in 48% of cases and correlated with poor overall (P = 0.0076) and progression-free (P = 0.0069) survival of surgically resected ESCC patient. Cox regression analysis revealed that SRC-3 is an independent prognostic marker. Furthermore, we found that activation of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)/AKT) was involved in the SRC-3 on the cell growth and invasiveness in two ESCC cell lines, Eca109 and EC18 cells. SRC-3 overexpression is clinically and functionally relevant to the progression of human ESCC, and might be a useful molecular target for ESCC prognosis and treatment.
Project description:Lung cancer is among the major causes of cancer deaths, and the survival rate of lung cancer patients is extremely low. Recent studies have demonstrated that the gene CDKN3 is related to neoplasia, but in the literature severe controversy exists over whether it is involved in cancer progression or, conversely, tumor inhibition. In this study, we investigated the expression of CDKN3 and its association with prognosis in lung adenocarcinoma (ADC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) using datasets in Lung Cancer Explorer (LCE; http://qbrc.swmed.edu/lce/). We found that CDKN3 was up-regulated in ADC and SCC compared to normal tissues. We also found that CDKN3 was expressed at a higher level in SCC than in ADC, which was further validated through meta-analysis (coefficient = 2.09, 95% CI = 1.50-2.67, P < 0.0001). In addition, based on meta-analysis for the prognostic value of CDKN3, we found that higher CDKN3 expression was associated with poorer survival outcomes in ADC (HR = 1.65, 95% CI = 1.39-1.96, P < 0.0001), but not in SCC (HR = 1.10, 95% CI = 0.84-1.44, P = 0.494). Our findings indicate that CDKN3 may be a prognostic marker in ADC, though the detailed mechanism is yet to be revealed.
Project description:Background:The erythropoietin-producing hepatocellular (Eph) receptor A5 (EphA5) has been found to be overexpressed in some malignant tumors and is associated with disease prognosis. However, the role of EphA5 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is not clear. Methods:In the present study, we measured the expression of EphA5 in ESCC tissues and cell lines including KYSE150 and KYSE450 cells. siRNA transfection was used to interfere with EphA5 expression in ESCC cell lines. Cell viability, colony formation, scratch and invasion assays were performed to explore the roles of EphA5 in ESCC cell lines. Flow cytometry analysis was performed to investigate whether EphA5 could affect the cell apoptosis and cycle. The biomarkers related to epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and molecules associated with Wnt/??catenin signaling were also measured by western blot and immunofluorescence. Results:The protein and mRNA expression of EphA5 were significantly higher in fresh ESCC tissues and cell lines compared with normal control groups and human normal esophageal epithelial cells (HEEC). The cell viability assay and colony formation assay revealed that EphA5 knockdown enhanced the proliferation of KYSE150 and KYSE450 cells in vitro. The invasion and migration of ESCC cells were accelerated after EphA5 knockdown. The expression of EMT biomarkers was altered in ESCC cells transfected with siRNA targeting EphA5. Moreover, EphA5 downregulation enhanced the protein levels of ??catenin and p-GSK-3?Ser9, which play a key role in the Wnt/??catenin pathway. Conclusions:EphA5 knockdown promotes the proliferation of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma,enhances invasion and migration ability via epithelial-mesenchymal transition through activating Wnt/??catenin pathway.
Project description:Esophageal cancer is a lethal malignancy worldwide. Previously, low expression of metastasis suppressor Nm23H1 and tight junction (TJ) protein claudin-1 (CLDN1) have been known to correlate with poor prognosis in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). However, the molecular interaction between them has not been clarified. In the present study, we first examined the expression of Nm23H1 and CLDN1 in 74 surgical ESCC samples by immunohistochemistry (IHC) to verify their clinicopathologic significance. The biologic effects of Nm23H1 gene silencing or overexpression in ESCC cell lines were then studied by migration and invasion studies, and its regulation on CLDN1 expression was also investigated by western blot analysis. Moreover, the expression of Nm23H1 and CLDN1 at the same invasion front of ESCC tumors was verified by immunofluorescence. The results showed a significantly positive correlation between the expression of Nm23H1 and CLDN1 (?=0.296, P=0.011) in surgical specimens, especially for the 34 tumors with lymph-node metastasis (?=0.455, P=0.007). In ESCC cell lines, silencing of Nm23H1 expression markedly enhanced cell invasiveness, accompanied by increased Akt phosphorylation and decreased CLDN1 expression. Conversely, Nm23H1-expressed transfectants exhibited reduced invasiveness, decreased Akt phosphorylation and correspondingly increased CLDN1 expression. Regain of CLDN1 expression in ESCC cells significantly suppressed invasiveness, but did not influence the Akt phosphorylation. Moreover, treating Nm23H1-depleted cells with the AKT inhibitor MK2206 recovered CLDN1 expression, and diminished the invasiveness of ESCC cells. Finally, decreased expressions of both CLDN1 and E-cadherin were observed at the invasive front of the Nm23H1-negative tumors. Overall, our current study documented that reduced Nm23H1 expression activates the AKT signaling pathway, results in diminished CLDN1 expression and potentiates invasiveness of ESCC cells. Enhancement of Nm23H1 expression, inhibition of the AKT signaling pathway, or combined, might be a potential treatment strategy in selective ESCC patients.