Fungal Highly Reducing Polyketide Synthases Biosynthesize Salicylaldehydes That Are Precursors to Epoxycyclohexenol Natural Products.
ABSTRACT: Fungal highly reducing polyketide synthases (HRPKSs) are highly programmed multidomain enzymes that synthesize reduced polyketide structures. Recent reports indicated salicylaldehydes are synthesized by HRPKS biosynthetic gene clusters, which are unexpected based on known enzymology of HRPKSs. Using genome mining of a Trichoderma virens HRPKS gene cluster that encodes a number of redox enzymes, we uncover the strategy used by HRPKS pathways in the biosynthesis of aromatic products such as salicylaldehyde 4, which can be oxidatively modified to the epoxycyclohexanol natural product trichoxide 1. We show selective ?-hydroxyl groups in the linear HRPKS product are individually reoxidized to ?-ketones by short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase enzymes, which enabled intramolecular aldol condensation and aromatization. Our work expands the chemical space of natural products accessible through HRPKS pathways.
Project description:Fungal highly reducing polyketide synthases (HRPKSs) biosynthesize polyketides using a single set of domains iteratively. Product release is a critical step in HRPKS function to ensure timely termination and enzyme turnover. Nearly all of the HRPKSs characterized to date employ a separate thioesterase (TE) or acyltransferase enzyme for product release. In this study, we characterized two fungal HRPKSs that have fused C-terminal TE domains, a new domain architecture for fungal HRPKSs. We showed that both HRPKS-TEs synthesize aminoacylated polyketides in an ATP-independent fashion. The KU42 TE domain selects cysteine and homocysteine and catalyzes transthioesterification using the side-chain thiol group as the nucleophile. In contrast, the KU43 TE domain selects leucine methyl ester and performs a direct amidation of the polyketide, a reaction typically catalyzed by nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) domains. The characterization of these HRPKS-TE enzymes showcases the functional diversity of HRPKS enzymes and provides potential TE domains as biocatalytic tools to diversify HRPKS structures.
Project description:Zaragozic acid A (1) is a potent cholesterol lowering, polyketide natural product made by various filamentous fungi. The reconstitution of enzymes responsible for the initial steps of the biosynthetic pathway of 1 is accomplished using an engineered fungal heterologous host. These initial steps feature the priming of a benzoic acid starter unit onto a highly reducing polyketide synthase (HRPKS), followed by oxaloacetate extension and product release to generate a tricarboxylic acid containing product 2. The reconstitution studies demonstrated that only three enzymes, HRPKS, citrate synthase, and hydrolase, are needed in A. nidulans to produce the structurally complex product.
Project description:Fungal polyketides have significant biological activities, yet the biosynthesis by highly reducing polyketide synthases (HRPKSs) remains enigmatic. An uncharacterized group of HRPKSs was found to contain a C-terminal domain with significant homology to carnitine O-acyltransferase (cAT). Characterization of one such HRPKS (Tv6-931) from Trichoderma virens showed that the cAT domain is capable of esterifying the polyketide product with polyalcohol nucleophiles. This process is readily reversible, as confirmed through the holo ACP-dependent transesterification of the released product. The methyltransferase (MT) domain of Tv6-931 can perform two consecutive ?-methylation steps on the last ?-keto intermediate to yield an ?,?-gem-dimethyl product, a new programing feature among HRPKSs. Recapturing of the released product by cAT domain is suggested to facilitate complete gem-dimethylation by the MT.
Project description:We report the development of a multicatalytic, one-pot, asymmetric Michael/Stetter reaction between salicylaldehydes and electron-deficient alkynes. The cascade proceeds via amine-mediated Michael addition followed by an N-heterocyclic carbene-promoted intramolecular Stetter reaction. A variety of salicylaldehydes, doubly activated alkynes, and terminal, electrophilic allenes participate in a one-step or two-step protocol to give a variety of benzofuranone products in moderate to good yields and good to excellent enantioselectivities. The origin of enantioselectivity in the reaction is also explored; E/Z geometry of the reaction intermediate as well as the presence of catalytic amounts of catechol additive are found to influence reaction enantioselectivity.
Project description:An efficient and convenient protocol for the synthesis of 2<i>H</i>-chromenones has been developed. In the presence of <i><sup>t</sup></i>BuOK in DMF, good to excellent yields of various chromenones were obtained from the corresponding salicylaldehydes and arylacetonitriles. No protection of inert gas atmosphere is required here.
Project description:Fungal highly reducing polyketide synthases (HRPKSs) are an enigmatic group of multidomain enzymes that catalyze the biosynthesis of structurally diverse compounds. This variety stems from their intrinsic programming rules, which permutate the use of tailoring domains and determine the overall number of iterative cycles. From genome sequencing and mining of the producing strain Eupenicillium brefeldianum ATCC 58665, we identified an HRPKS involved in the biosynthesis of an important protein transport-inhibitor Brefeldin A (BFA), followed by reconstitution of its activity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and in vitro. Bref-PKS demonstrated an NADPH-dependent reductive tailoring specificity that led to the synthesis of four different octaketide products with varying degrees of reduction. Furthermore, contrary to what is expected from the structure of BFA, Bref-PKS is found to be a nonaketide synthase in the absence of an associated thiohydrolase Bref-TH. Such chain-length control by the partner thiohydrolase was found to be present in other HRPKS systems and highlights the importance of including tailoring enzyme activities in predicting fungal HRPKS functions and their products.
Project description:A method that allows salicylaldehydes to be efficiently transformed into meta-arylated phenol derivatives through a cascade oxidation/arylation/protodecarboxylation sequence is presented. We demonstrate that the aldehyde functional group can be used as a convenient removable directing group to control site selectivity in C-H activation. Aldehydes are easily introduced into the starting materials and the group is readily cleaved after the C-H functionalization event.
Project description:Fungal polyketide synthases (PKSs) can function collaboratively to synthesize natural products of significant structural diversity. Here we present a new mode of collaboration between a highly reducing PKS (HRPKS) and a PKS-nonribosomal peptide synthetase (PKS-NRPS) in the synthesis of oxaleimides from the Penicillium species. The HRPKS is recruited in the synthesis of an olefin-containing free amino acid, which is activated and incorporated by the adenylation domain of the PKS-NRPS. The precisely positioned olefin from the unnatural amino acid is proposed to facilitate a scaffold rearrangement of the PKS-NRPS product to forge the maleimide and succinimide cores of oxaleimides.
Project description:The Takai olefination (or Takai reaction) is a method for the conversion of aldehydes to vinyl iodides, and has seen widespread implementation in organic synthesis. The reaction is usually noted for its high (<i>E</i>)-selectivity; however, herein we report the highly (<i>Z</i>)-selective Takai olefination of salicylaldehyde derivatives. Systematic screening of related substrates led to the identification of key factors responsible for this surprising inversion of selectivity, and enabled the development of a modified mechanistic model to rationalise these observations.
Project description:Two intramolecular interactions, i.e., (1) hydrogen bond and (2) substituent effect, were analyzed and compared. For this purpose, the geometry of 4- and 5-X-substituted salicylaldehyde derivatives (X = NO(2), H or OH) was optimized by means of B3LYP/6-311 + G(d,p) and MP2/aug-cc-pVDZ methods. The results obtained allowed us to show that substituents (NO(2) or OH) in the para or meta position with respect to either OH or CHO in H-bonded systems interact more strongly than in the case of di-substituted species: 4- and 3-nitrophenol or 4- and 3-hydroxybenzaldehyde by ~31%. The substituent effect due to the intramolecular charge transfer from the para-counter substituent (NO(2)) to the proton-donating group (OH) is ~35% greater than for the interaction of para-OH with the proton-accepting group (CHO). The total energy of H-bonding for salicylaldehyde, and its derivatives, is composed of two contributions: ~80% from the energy of H-bond formation and ~20% from the energy associated with reorganization of the electron structure of the systems in question.