Two-Year Follow-up of a Sequential Mixed-Mode Experiment in the U.S. National Monitoring the Future Study.
ABSTRACT: This study examines the two-year follow up (data collected in 2016 at modal age 21/22) of an original mixed-mode longitudinal survey experiment (data collected at modal age 19/20 in 2014). The study compares participant retention in the experimental conditions to retention in the standard Monitoring the Future (MTF) control condition (participants who completed an in-school baseline survey in 12th grade in 2012 or 2013 and were selected to participate in the first follow-up survey by mail in 2014, N=2,451). A supplementary sample who completed the 12th grade baseline survey in 2012 or 2013 but were not selected to participate in the main MTF follow-up (N=4,950) were recruited and randomly assigned to one of three experimental conditions: 1: Mail Push, 2: Web Push, 3: Web Push + Email in 2014 and again in 2016. Results from the first experiment indicated that Condition 3 (Web Push + Email) was promising based on similar response rates and lower costs (Patrick et al. 2018). The current study examines how experimental condition and type of 2014 response were associated with response in 2016, the extent to which response mode and device type changed from 2014 to 2016, and cumulative cost comparisons across conditions. Results indicated that responding via web in 2014 was associated with greater odds of participation again in 2016 regardless of condition; respondents tended to respond in the same mode although the "push" condition did move respondents toward web over paper; device type varied between waves; and the cumulative cost savings of Web Push + Email grew larger compared to the MTF Control. The web push strategy is therefore promising for maintaining respondent engagement while reducing cost.
Project description:<h4>Aims</h4>The experiment tested the effects of a web-push survey research protocol, compared with the standard mailed paper-and-pencil protocol, among young adults aged 19-30 years in the 'Monitoring the Future' (MTF) longitudinal study.<h4>Design, setting and participants</h4>The US-based MTF study has measured substance use trends among young adults in panel samples followed biennially, using consistent mailed survey procedures from 1977 to 2017. In 2018, young adult participants in the MTF longitudinal component scheduled to be surveyed at ages 19-30 in 2018 (from high school senior cohorts of 2006-17, n = 14?709) were randomly assigned to receive the standard mail/paper survey procedures or new web-push procedures.<h4>Measurements</h4>Primary outcomes were responding to the survey and prevalence estimates for past 30-day use of alcohol, cigarettes, marijuana and illicit drugs.<h4>Findings</h4>The web-push response rate was 39.07% [95% confidence interval (CI) = 37.889, 40.258]; this was significantly better than the standard MTF response rate of 35.12% (95% CI = 33.964, 36.285). After adjusting for covariates, the web-push condition was associated with a 19% increase in the odds of responding compared with standard MTF (adjusted odds ratio = 1.188; 95% CI = 1.096, 1.287). Substance use prevalence estimates were very similar and differences became negligible when using attrition weights and controlling for socio-demographic characteristics.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The web-push protocol produced a higher response rate than the mailed pencil and paper protocol in the Monitoring the Future panel study, without substantially affecting estimates of substance use once attrition weights and socio-demographic variables were factored in.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:The objective of this study was to compare response rates, respondents' characteristics, and substantive results for CAHPS surveys administered using web and mail protocols. DATA SOURCES:Patients who had one or more primary care visits in the preceding 6 months. STUDY DESIGN/DATA COLLECTION METHODS:Patients for whom primary care practices had email addresses were randomized to one of four survey administration protocols: web via a portal invitation; web via an email invitation; combination of web and mail; and mail only. Another sample of patients without known email addresses was surveyed by mail. Samples of nonrespondents to the Internet and mail protocols were surveyed by telephone. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS:Response rates to surveys administered using the Internet protocols were lower than for the surveys administered by mail (20 percent vs over 40 percent). However, characteristics of respondents and survey answers were very similar across protocols. Respondents without email addresses were older, less educated, and more likely to be male than those with email addresses, and there were a few differences in their responses. There was little evidence of nonresponse bias in either the mail or web protocols. CONCLUSION:In this well-educated patient population, web protocols had lower response rates, but substantive results very similar to those from mail protocols.
Project description:The goal of this study was to determine response rates and associated costs of different survey methods among colorectal cancer (CRC) survivors.We assembled a cohort of 16,212 individuals diagnosed with CRC (2010-2014) from six health plans, and randomly selected 4000 survivors to test survey response rates across four mixed-mode survey administration protocols (in English and Spanish): arm 1, mailed survey with phone follow-up; arm 2, interactive voice response (IVR) followed by mail; arm 3; email linked to web-based survey with mail follow-up; and arm 4, email linked to web-based survey followed by IVR.Our overall response rate was 50.2%. Arm 1 had the highest response rate (59.9%), followed by arm 3 (51.9%), arm 2 (51.2%), and arm 4 (37.9%). Response rates were higher among non-Hispanic whites in all arms than other racial/ethnic groups (p < 0.001), among English (51.5%) than Spanish speakers (36.4%) (p < 0.001), and among higher (53.7%) than lower (41.4%) socioeconomic status (p < 0.001). Survey arms were roughly comparable in cost, with a difference of only 8% of total costs between the most (arm 2) and least (arm 3) expensive arms.Mailed surveys followed by phone calls achieved the highest response rate; email invitations and online surveys cost less per response. Electronic methods, even among those with email availability, may miss important populations including Hispanics, non-English speakers, and those of lower socioeconomic status.Our results demonstrate effective methods for capturing patient-reported outcomes, inform the relative benefits/disadvantages of the different methods, and identify future research directions.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:The standard data-collection procedure in the Norwegian national patient experience survey programme is post-discharge mail surveys, which include a pen-and-paper questionnaire with the option to answer electronically. A purely electronic protocol has not previously been explored in Norway. The aim of this study was to compare response rates, background characteristics, data quality and main study results for a survey of patient experiences with general practitioners (GPs) administered by the standard mail data-collection procedure and a web-based approach. DESIGN:Cross-sectional survey. SETTING:GP offices in Norway. PARTICIPANTS:The sample consisted of 6999 patients aged 16 years and older registered with a GP in November 2018. INTERVENTION:Based on a three-stage sampling design, 6999 patients of GPs aged 16 or older were randomised to one of two survey administration protocols: Group A, who were mailed an invitation with both a pen-and-paper including an electronic response option (n=4999) and Group B, who received an email invitation with electronic response option (n=2000). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Response rates, background characteristics, data quality and main study results. RESULTS:The response rate was markedly higher for the mail survey (42.6%) than for the web-based survey (18.3%). A few of the background variables differed significantly between the two groups, but the data quality and patient-reported experiences were similar. CONCLUSIONS:Web-based surveys are faster and less expensive than standard mail surveys, but their low response rates and coverage problems threaten their usefulness and legitimacy. Initiatives to increase response rates for web-based data collection and strategies for tailoring data collection to different groups should be key elements in future research.
Project description:BACKGROUND:National trends in adolescent's marijuana risk perceptions are traditionally used as a predictor of concurrent and future trends in adolescent marijuana use. We test the validity of this practice during a time of rapid marijuana policy change. METHODS:Two repeated cross-sectional U.S. nationally-representative surveys of 8th, 10th, and 12th-graders: Monitoring the Future (MTF) (1991-2015; N?=?1,181,692) and National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) (2002-2014; N?=?113,317). We examined trends in the year-to-year prevalence of perceiving no risk of harm in using marijuana regularly, and prevalence of regular marijuana use within the previous month. A piecewise linear regression model tested for a change in the relationship between trends. Similar analyses examined any past-month use and controlled for demographic characteristics. RESULTS:Among MTF 12th-graders, the prevalence of regular marijuana use and risk perceptions changed similarly between 1991 and 2006 but diverged sharply afterward. The prevalence of regular marijuana use increased by ?1 percentage point to 6.03% by 2015. In contrast, the proportion of 12th-graders that perceived marijuana as posing no risk increased over 11 percentage points to 21.39%. A similar divergence was found among NSDUH 12th-graders and other grades, for any past month marijuana use, and when controlling demographic characteristics. CONCLUSIONS:An increase in adolescent marijuana use has not accompanied recent rapid decreases in marijuana risk perceptions. Policy makers may consider broader prevention strategies in addition to targeting marijuana risk perceptions. Further monitoring of predictors of marijuana use trends is needed as states legalize recreational marijuana use.
Project description:Introduction:The patient portal may be an effective method for administering surveys regarding participant research experiences but has not been systematically studied. Methods:We evaluated 4 methods of delivering a research participant perception survey: mailing, phone, email, and patient portal. Participants of research studies were identified (n=4013) and 800 were randomly selected to receive a survey, 200 for each method. Outcomes included response rate, survey completeness, and cost. Results:Among those aged <65 years, response rates did not differ between mail, phone, and patient portal (22%, 29%, 30%, p>0.07). Among these methods, the patient portal was the lowest-cost option. Response rates were significantly lower using email (10%, p<0.01), the lowest-cost option. In contrast, among those aged 65+ years, mail was superior to the electronic methods (p<0.02). Conclusions:The patient portal was among the most effective ways to reach research participants, and was less expensive than surveys administered by mail or telephone.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:The 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23) was included in Japan's national immunisation programme for older adults in 2014. While vaccination coverage has increased following the implementation of the national immunisation programme, little is known about the factors that have influenced changes in PPSV23 uptake in Japan. This study aimed to investigate the effects of municipality-level activities implemented to improve vaccine uptake during the fiscal year 2015 (April 2015-March 2016). DESIGN:Community-based national survey. A postal and web-based nationwide survey was sent to all municipalities in Japan in June 2016 (n=1741). The survey included questions regarding PPSV23 coverage, out-of-pocket costs by individuals for vaccination and community-level activities implemented to improve and promote PPSV23 uptake. Municipality-level and prefecture-level variables (eg, unemployment rates, average per capita income) retrieved from published sources were also incorporated to explore the impact of social determinants on vaccine uptake. SETTING:Japan. PARTICIPANTS:Municipal vaccination officers. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES:The primary study outcome was PPSV23 coverage among adults aged 65 years in Japanese municipalities. RESULTS:A total of 1010 municipalities (58.0%) responded to the survey. The median PPSV23 coverage among responding municipalities was 41.8%. Vaccine coverage increased by 18.7% (16.7%-20.7%)%) in municipalities that sent a direct mail notification to the target population of adults compared with municipalities that did not send any notification. Vaccine coverage decreased by 3.02% (2.4%-3.6%)%) for every 1000 JPY increase in out-of-pocket costs. Municipality-level unemployment rates and average per capita income were negatively associated with PPSV23 coverage. CONCLUSIONS:This nationwide survey provides insight into factors that may influence PPSV23 coverage in Japanese municipalities. Reduced out-of-pocket costs and direct mail notifications to the target population were associated with higher PPSV23 coverage in Japanese municipalities.
Project description:With the public's increased use of the Internet, the use of email as a means of communication between patients and physicians will likely increase. Yet, despite evidence of increased interest by patients, e-mail use by physicians for clinical care has been slow.To examine the factors associated with physician-patient e-mail, and report on the physicians' adherence to recognized guidelines for e-mail communication.Cross-sectional survey (March-May, 2005) of all primary care physicians (n = 10253), and a 25% stratified, random sample of all ambulatory clinical specialists (n = 3954) in the state of Florida. Physicians were surveyed on email use with patients, adherence to recognized guidelines, and demographics.The 4203 physicians completed the questionnaire (a 28.2% participation rate). Of these, 689 (16.6%) had personally used e-mail to communicate with patients. Only 120 (2.9%) used e-mail with patients frequently. In univariate analysis, e-mail use correlated with physician age (decreased use: age > 61; P = .014), race (decreased use: Asian background; P < .001), medical training (increased use: family medicine, P = .001; or surgical specialty, P = .007; but not internal medicine, P = .112), practice size (> 50 physicians, P < .001), and geographic location (urban 17.2% vs. rural, 7.9%; P < .001). Multivariate modeling showed that only practice size greater than 50 (OR = 1.94; 95% CI = 1.01-3.79) and Asian-American race (OR = 0.26; 95% CI = 0.14-0.49) were related to e-mail use with patients. Remarkably, only 46 physicians (6.7%) adhered to at least half of the 13 selected guidelines for e-mail communication.This large survey of physicians, practicing in ambulatory settings, shows only modest advances in the adoption of e-mail communication, and little adherence to recognized guidelines for e-mail correspondence. Further efforts are required to educate both patients and physicians on the advantages and limitations of e-mail communication, and to remove fiscal and legal barriers to its adoption.
Project description:Tobacco companies are restricted from engaging in many traditional forms of marketing. Direct marketing is one way tobacco companies can reach consumers while complying with regulation and avoiding negative public perception. There is little research on this type of opt-in marketing, which includes mail marketing, email marketing, web marketing, and mobile marketing, and its impact is not well understood. This study examined 6990 tobacco company emails received by individuals living in the state of Minnesota, US between January 2010 and May 2015 to determine email frequency by brand. These emails were gathered as part of ongoing surveillance of tobacco industry direct marketing. A subset of these emails received between October 2014 and May 2015 (n = 1646) were content analyzed to identify the purpose of the email communication along with type of product promoted. Tobacco companies use email to communicate with consumers on a regular basis. This communication was observed to be as frequent as nine times per month. Emails are most commonly used to promote contests (54.1%), content on tobacco company websites (39.1%), and tobacco coupons (15.7%). Email promotion of menthol-flavored tobacco products was common and was associated with promotion of coupons. Emails promoting menthol had a 1.9 times higher prevalence of also promoting coupons (95% CI: 1.52-2.37). Little is known about tobacco company email marketing and this study fills an identified research gap. A deeper understanding of this type of marketing is needed in order to counter tobacco industry messaging and advance tobacco control.
Project description:To evaluate the utility of offering physicians electronic options as alternatives to completing mail questionnaires.A survey of colorectal cancer screening practices of Alabama primary care physicians, conducted May-June 2010.In the follow-up to a mail questionnaire, physicians were offered options of completing surveys by telephone, fax, email, or online.Detailed records were kept on the timing and mode of completion of surveys.Eighty-eight percent of surveys were returned by mail, 10 percent were returned by fax, and only 2 percent were completed online; none were completed by telephone or email.Offering fax options increases response rates, but providing other electronic options does not.