Structural and functional analysis of four family 84 glycoside hydrolases from the opportunistic pathogen Clostridium perfringens.
ABSTRACT: The opportunistic pathogen Clostridium perfringens possesses the ability to colonize the protective mucin layer in the gastrointestinal tract. To assist this, the C. perfringens genome contains a battery of genes encoding glycoside hydrolases (GHs) that are likely active on mucin glycans, including four genes encoding family 84 GHs: CpGH84A (NagH), CpGH84B (NagI), CpGH84C (NagJ) and CpGH84D (NagK). To probe the potential advantage gained by the expansion of GH84 enzymes in C. perfringens, we undertook the structural and functional characterization of the CpGH84 catalytic modules. Here, we show that these four CpGH84 catalytic modules act as ?-N-acetyl-D-glucosaminidases able to hydrolyze N- and O-glycan motifs. CpGH84A and CpGH84D displayed a substrate specificity restricted to terminal ?-1,2- and ?-1,6-linked N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (GlcNAc). CpGH84B and CpGH84C appear more promiscuous with activity on terminal ?-1,2-, ?-1,3- and ?-1,6-linked GlcNAc; both possess some activity toward ?-1,4-linked GlcNAc, but this is dependent upon which monosaccharide it is linked to. Furthermore, all the CpGH84s have different optimum pHs ranging from 5.2 to 7.0. Consistent with their ?-N-acetyl-D-glucosaminidase activities, the structures of the four catalytic modules revealed similar folds with a catalytic site including a conserved -1 subsite that binds GlcNAc. However, nonconserved residues in the vicinity of the +1 subsite suggest different accommodation of the sugar preceding the terminal GlcNAc, resulting in subtly different substrate specificities. This structure-function comparison of the four GH84 catalytic modules from C. perfringens reveals their different biochemical properties, which may relate to how they are deployed in the bacterium's niche in the host.
Project description:Asn-linked oligosaccharides are extensively modified during transit through the secretory pathway, first by trimming of the nascent glycan chains and subsequently by initiating and extending multiple oligosaccharide branches from the trimannosyl glycan core. Trimming and branching pathway steps are highly ordered and hierarchal based on the precise substrate specificities of the individual biosynthetic enzymes. A key committed step in the synthesis of complex-type glycans is catalyzed by N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase II (MGAT2), an enzyme that generates the second GlcNAc?1,2- branch from the trimannosyl glycan core using UDP-GlcNAc as the sugar donor. We determined the structure of human MGAT2 as a Mn2+-UDP donor analog complex and as a GlcNAcMan3GlcNAc2-Asn acceptor complex to reveal the structural basis for substrate recognition and catalysis. The enzyme exhibits a GT-A Rossmann-like fold that employs conserved divalent cation-dependent substrate interactions with the UDP-GlcNAc donor. MGAT2 interactions with the extended glycan acceptor are distinct from other related glycosyltransferases. These interactions are composed of a catalytic subsite that binds the Man-?1,6- monosaccharide acceptor and a distal exosite pocket that binds the GlcNAc-?1,2Man-?1,3Man?- substrate "recognition arm." Recognition arm interactions are similar to the enzyme-substrate interactions for Golgi ?-mannosidase II, a glycoside hydrolase that acts just before MGAT2 in the Asn-linked glycan biosynthetic pathway. These data suggest that substrate binding by MGAT2 employs both conserved and convergent catalytic subsite modules to provide substrate selectivity and catalysis. More broadly, the MGAT2 active-site architecture demonstrates how glycosyltransferases create complementary modular templates for regiospecific extension of glycan structures in mammalian cells.
Project description:The enzymatic hydrolysis of alpha-mannosides is catalyzed by glycoside hydrolases (GH), termed alpha-mannosidases. These enzymes are found in different GH sequence-based families. Considerable research has probed the role of higher eukaryotic "GH38" alpha-mannosides that play a key role in the modification and diversification of hybrid N-glycans; processes with strong cellular links to cancer and autoimmune disease. The most extensively studied of these enzymes is the Drosophila GH38 alpha-mannosidase II, which has been shown to be a retaining alpha-mannosidase that targets both alpha-1,3 and alpha-1,6 mannosyl linkages, an activity that enables the enzyme to process GlcNAc(Man)(5)(GlcNAc)(2) hybrid N-glycans to GlcNAc(Man)(3)(GlcNAc)(2). Far less well understood is the observation that many bacterial species, predominantly but not exclusively pathogens and symbionts, also possess putative GH38 alpha-mannosidases whose activity and specificity is unknown.Here we show that the Streptococcus pyogenes (M1 GAS SF370) GH38 enzyme (Spy1604; hereafter SpGH38) is an alpha-mannosidase with specificity for alpha-1,3 mannosidic linkages. The 3D X-ray structure of SpGH38, obtained in native form at 1.9 A resolution and in complex with the inhibitor swainsonine (K(i) 18 microM) at 2.6 A, reveals a canonical GH38 five-domain structure in which the catalytic "-1" subsite shows high similarity with the Drosophila enzyme, including the catalytic Zn(2+) ion. In contrast, the "leaving group" subsites of SpGH38 display considerable differences to the higher eukaryotic GH38s; features that contribute to their apparent specificity.Although the in vivo function of this streptococcal GH38 alpha-mannosidase remains unknown, it is shown to be an alpha-mannosidase active on N-glycans. SpGH38 lies on an operon that also contains the GH84 hexosaminidase (Spy1600) and an additional putative glycosidase. The activity of SpGH38, together with its genomic context, strongly hints at a function in the degradation of host N- or possibly O-glycans. The absence of any classical signal peptide further suggests that SpGH38 may be intracellular, perhaps functioning in the subsequent degradation of extracellular host glycans following their initial digestion by secreted glycosidases.
Project description:NAG-thiazoline is a strong competitive inhibitor of GH20 β-N-acetyl- hexosaminidases and GH84 β-N-acetylglucosaminidases. Here, we focused on the design, synthesis and inhibition potency of a series of new derivatives of NAG-thiazoline modified at the C-6 position. Dimerization of NAG-thiazoline via C-6 attached triazole linkers prepared by click chemistry was employed to make use of multivalency in the inhibition. Novel compounds were tested as potential inhibitors of β-N-acetylhexosaminidases from Talaromyces flavus, Streptomyces plicatus (both GH20) and β-N-acetylglucosaminidases from Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron and humans (both GH84). From the set of newly prepared NAG-thiazoline derivatives, only C-6-azido-NAG-thiazoline displayed inhibition activity towards these enzymes; C-6 triazole-substituted NAG-thiazolines lacked inhibition activity against the enzymes used. Docking of C-6-azido-NAG-thiazoline into the active site of the tested enzymes was performed. Moreover, a stability study with GlcNAc-thiazoline confirmed its decomposition at pH < 6 yielding 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-1-thio-α/β-D-glucopyranoses, which presumably dimerize oxidatively into S-S linked dimers; decomposition products of NAG-thiazoline are void of inhibitory activity.
Project description:N-acetylphosphoglucosamine mutase (AGM1) is a key component of the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway that produces UDP-GlcNAc, an essential precursor for a wide range of glycans in eukaryotes. AGM belongs to the ?-d-phosphohexomutase metalloenzyme superfamily and catalyzes the interconversion of N-acetylglucosamine-6-phosphate (GlcNAc-6P) to N-acetylglucosamine-1-phosphate (GlcNAc-1P) through N-acetylglucosamine-1,6-bisphosphate (GlcNAc-1,6-bisP) as the catalytic intermediate. Although there is an understanding of the phosphoserine-dependent catalytic mechanism at enzymatic and structural level, the identity of the requisite catalytic base in AGM1/phosphoglucomutases is as yet unknown. Here, we present crystal structures of a Michaelis complex of AGM1 with GlcNAc-6P and Mg2+, and a complex of the inactive Ser69Ala mutant together with glucose-1,6-bisphosphate (Glc-1,6-bisP) that represents key snapshots along the reaction co-ordinate. Together with mutagenesis, these structures reveal that the phosphate group of the hexose-1,6-bisP intermediate may act as the catalytic base.
Project description:Inhibition of Golgi alpha-mannosidase II (GMII), which acts late in the N-glycan processing pathway, provides a route to blocking cancer-induced changes in cell surface oligosaccharide structures. To probe the substrate requirements of GMII, oligosaccharides were synthesized that contained an alpha(1,3)- or alpha(1,6)-linked 1-thiomannoside. Surprisingly, these oligosaccharides were not observed in X-ray crystal structures of native Drosophila GMII (dGMII). However, a mutant enzyme in which the catalytic nucleophilic aspartate was changed to alanine (D204A) allowed visualization of soaked oligosaccharides and led to the identification of the binding site for the alpha(1,3)-linked mannoside of the natural substrate. These studies also indicate that the conformational change of the bound mannoside to a high-energy B 2,5 conformation is facilitated by steric hindrance from, and the formation of strong hydrogen bonds to, Asp204. The observation that 1-thio-linked mannosides are not well tolerated by the catalytic site of dGMII led to the synthesis of a pentasaccharide containing the alpha(1,6)-linked Man of the natural substrate and the beta(1,2)-linked GlcNAc moiety proposed to be accommodated by the extended binding site of the enzyme. A cocrystal structure of this compound with the D204A enzyme revealed the molecular interactions with the beta(1,2)-linked GlcNAc. The structure is consistent with the approximately 80-fold preference of dGMII for the cleavage of substrates containing a nonreducing beta(1,2)-linked GlcNAc. By contrast, the lysosomal mannosidase lacks an equivalent GlcNAc binding site and kinetic analysis indicates oligomannoside substrates without non-reducing-terminal GlcNAc modifications are preferred, suggesting that selective inhibitors for GMII could exploit the additional binding specificity of the GlcNAc binding site.
Project description:Lytic transglycosylases (LTs) are a class of enzymes important for the recycling and metabolism of peptidoglycan (PG). LTs cleave the β-1,4-glycosidic bond between N-acetylmuramic acid (MurNAc) and GlcNAc in the PG glycan strand, resulting in the concomitant formation of 1,6-anhydro-N-acetylmuramic acid and GlcNAc. No LTs reported to date have utilized chitins as substrates, despite the fact that chitins are GlcNAc polymers linked via β-1,4-glycosidic bonds, which are the known site of chemical activity for LTs. Here, we demonstrate enzymatically that LtgA, a non-canonical, substrate-permissive LT from Neisseria meningitidis utilizes chitopentaose ((GlcNAc)5) as a substrate to produce three newly identified sugars: 1,6-anhydro-chitobiose, 1,6-anhydro-chitotriose, and 1,6-anhydro-chitotetraose. Although LTs have been widely studied, their complex reactions have not previously been visualized in the crystalline state because macromolecular PG is insoluble. Here, we visualized the cleavage of the glycosidic bond and the liberation of GlcNAc-derived residues by LtgA, followed by the synthesis of atypical 1,6-anhydro-GlcNAc derivatives. In addition to the newly identified anhydro-chitin products, we identified trapped intermediates, unpredicted substrate rearrangements, sugar distortions, and a conserved crystallographic water molecule bound to the catalytic glutamate of a high-resolution native LT. This study enabled us to propose a revised alternative mechanism for LtgA that could also be applicable to other LTs. Our work contributes to the understanding of the mechanisms of LTs in bacterial cell wall biology.
Project description:Glycoside hydrolases (GHs) play fundamental roles in the decomposition of lignocellulosic biomaterials. Here, we report the full-length structure of a cellulase from Bacillus licheniformis (BlCel5B), a member of the GH5 subfamily 4 that is entirely dependent on its two ancillary modules (Ig-like module and CBM46) for catalytic activity. Using X-ray crystallography, small-angle X-ray scattering and molecular dynamics simulations, we propose that the C-terminal CBM46 caps the distal N-terminal catalytic domain (CD) to establish a fully functional active site via a combination of large-scale multidomain conformational selection and induced-fit mechanisms. The Ig-like module is pivoting the packing and unpacking motions of CBM46 relative to CD in the assembly of the binding subsite. This is the first example of a multidomain GH relying on large amplitude motions of the CBM46 for assembly of the catalytically competent form of the enzyme.
Project description:In order to clarify the structural role of subsite B of hen egg-white lysozyme in hydrolytic activity towards a carbohydrate substrate, we analysed the structures of Trp-62-->Gly and Asp-101-->Gly mutant hen lysozymes, which have no side chain at positions 62 or 101, complexed with a substrate analogue, (N-acetyl-d-glucosamine)3 [(GlcNAc)3], using X-ray crystallography. The overall protein structures in the mutant lysozyme complexes were almost identical to those in the wild type. In the crystals of all the mutant complexes, the (GlcNAc)3 molecule, which is an inhibitor of wild-type lysozyme, had no inhibitory effect, but was hydrolysed as a substrate. One of the products, (GlcNAc)2, the reducing end of which is an alpha-anomer, was bound in an unproductive binding mode, protruding from the active-site cleft, and was able to act as an inhibitor. Hydrolysis of the synthetic substrate by the mutants occurred in a beta-anomer-retaining manner, and so the alpha-anomer product was converted from the beta-anomer product. Thus the interactions of Asp-101 and Trp-62 in subsite B are not essential for the catalytic mechanism, but co-operatively enhance the affinity of the substrate in the productive binding mode, other than the inhibitor in the unproductive mode.
Project description:Bacteria in a biofilm are enmeshed in a self-synthesized extracellular polysaccharide matrix (PGA), which is a linear polymer of beta(1,6)-linked N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) residues. Dispersin B (DspB), a soluble glycoside hydrolase produced by the periodontal pathogen Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans degrades PGA. The enzyme DspB is an alpha/beta TIM-barrel protein and belongs to family 20 glycosyl hydrolases members. The enzyme activity of DspB with regard to its substrate specificity towards beta(1,6)-linked GlcNAc polymers and its endo/exo character was investigated through ligand docking and the hydrolysis of synthetic oligosaccharides. Ligand docking analysis suggested that beta(1,6)-linked GlcNAc oligosaccharide bound to the active site better that beta(1,4)-linked GlcNAc oligosaccharide. Our combined results indicate that DspB is an exo-acting enzyme that hydrolyzes beta(1,6)-linked N-acetylglucosamine oligomers.
Project description:The microwave-assisted heating reaction of N-acetyl glucosamine (GlcNAc) in sulfolane is described. The reaction produces two major products that are assignable to 1,6-anhydro-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-?-d-glucopyranose (AGPNAc) and 1,6-anhydro-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-?-d-glucofuranose (AGFNAc). In order to reveal a general feature of the system, the 3, 5, and 10 min reactions were performed at 140, 160, 180, 200, and 220 °C to clarify the time course changes in the conversion of GlcNAc and the yields of the two produced 1,6-anhydrosugars. Temperature is a crucial factor that significantly affects the conversion of GlcNAc. The yields of AGPNAc and AGFNAc are also drastically changed depending on the reaction conditions. The 5-min reaction at 200 °C is shown to be the optimal condition to generate the 1,6-anhydrosugars with a high efficiency in which AGPNAc and AGFNAc are produced in the yields of 21% and 44%, respectively. Consequently, the microwave-assisted heating reaction of GlcNAc in sulfolane is shown to be a simple and promising pathway to generate 1,6-anhydrosugars consisting of amino monosaccharide backbones, which have high potentials as raw materials leading to biological oligosaccharides and biomimetic polysaccharides.