In Vivo, Proteomic, and In Silico Investigation of Sapodilla for Therapeutic Potential in Gastrointestinal Disorders.
ABSTRACT: This study aims to delineate the effects of Manilkara zapota Linn. (Sapodilla) fruit chloroform (Mz.CHCl3) and aqueous (Mz.Aq) extracts tested through different techniques. Antidiarrheal activity and intestinal fluid accumulation were examined by using castor oil-induced diarrhea and castor oil fluid accumulation models. Isolated rabbit jejunum tissues were employed for in vitro experiments. Antimotility and antiulcer were performed through charcoal meal transient time and ethanol-induced ulcer assay, molecular studies were conducted through proteomic analysis, and virtual screening was performed by using a discovery studio visualizer (DSV). Mz.CHCl3 and Mz.Aq extracts attributed dose-dependent (50-300?mg/kg) protection (20-100%) against castor oil-induced diarrhea and dose-dependently (50-300?mg/kg) inhibited intestinal fluid secretions in mice. Mz.CHCl3 and Mz.Aq extracts produce relaxation of spontaneous and K+ (80?Mm) induced contractions in isolated tissue preparations and decreased the distance moved by charcoal in the gastrointestinal transit model in rats. It showed gastroprotective effect in ulcerative stomach of rats and decreased levels of IL-18 quantified by proteomic analysis. Histopathological results showed ethanol-induced significant gastric injury, leading to cloudy swelling, hydropic degeneration, apoptosis, and focal necrosis in all gastric zones using hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining. Moreover, ethanol increased the activation and the expression of tumor necrotic factor (TNF-?), cyclooxygenase (COX-2), and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (p-NF?B). In silico results were comparative to in vitro results evaluated through virtual screening. Moreover, ethanol increased the activation and expression of tumor necrotic factor, cyclooxygenase, and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells. This study exhibits the gastroprotective effect of Manilkara zapota extracts in the peritoneal cavity using a proteomic and in silico approach which reveals different energy values against target proteins, which mediate the gastrointestinal functions.
Project description:Objectives:This study was designed to investigate various gastrointestinal effects of Manilkara zapota (Sapodilla), exploring its anti-diarrheal, anti-secretary, anti-spasmodic, anti-ulcer and anti-motility potential. Materials and Methods:Antidiarrheal and anti-secretary activities were investigated using castor oil induced diarrhea and castor oil induced fluid accumulation. Isolated rabbit jejunum tissues (antispasmodic) were employed for in vitro experiments. Antiulcer, antimotility and molecular docking were performed using ethanol-HCl induced ulcer assay, charcoal meal transit time and Auto Doc Vina. Results:Mz.Cr exhibited protection against castor oil-induced diarrhea (P<0.05 vs. saline group) and dose-dependently inhibited intestinal fluid secretions (P<0.001 vs. castor oil group). Mz.Cr caused relaxation of spontaneous and K+ (80 Mm)-induced contractions with EC50 values of 0.11mg/ml (0.08-0.1, n=4) and 0.16 mg/ml (0.09-0.2, n=4) respectively (* P<0.05** P<0.01 *** P<0.001). It showed protective effect against gastric ulcers induced by ethanol-HCl (P<0.001 vs. saline group). Mz.Cr reduced distance travelled by charcoal meal (P<0.001 vs. saline group). Plant constituents: caffeoylquinic acid and methyl 4-O-galloylchlorogenate showed high binding affinities (E-value?-6.5 Kcal/mol) against histaminergic H2 receptors, H+/K+ ATPase pump and voltage gated L-type calcium channels, while possesses moderate affinities (E-value?8 Kcal/mol) against histaminergic H1, muscarinic M1, M3 and mu-opioid, whereas lower affinities (E-value?9.5 Kcal/mol) vs. calmodulin, adrenergic ?1, phosphodiesterase enzyme and dopaminergic D2 receptors. Lupeol-3-acetate and ?-amyrin-3-(3'-dimethyl) butyrate observed weak affinities. Conclusion:In present study, M. zapota is reported to exhibits anti-diarrheal, anti-secretory, anti-spasmodic, anti-motility, anti-ulcer effects and computational binding affinities against gastrointestinal targets.
Project description:Manilkara zapota (L.) P. Royen, called sapodilla, or locally known as ciku, belongs to the family Sapotaceae. We found that Manilkara zapota leaf water extract has cytotoxic effect against human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cell line in our earlier study. Therefore, this study aimed to explore the anticancer properties of Manilkara zapota leaf water extract in HepG2 cells. We also aimed to unravel yet undiscovered mechanisms and identified several expressed genes whose functions in cytotoxicity activity of Manilkara zapota leaf water extract in HepG2 cells have not been well-studied. The apoptosis and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) activities were analyzed using Annexin V-propidium iodide staining and dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate, respectively, by NovoCyte Flow Cytometer. Bax and Bcl-2 expression were assessed using Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. The associated molecular pathways were evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR. Overall analyses revealed that Manilkara zapota leaf water extract can increase percentage of early apoptotic cells, induce the formation of ROS, upregulate c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1 (JNK1) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and reduce Akt1 and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) transcriptional activities. Our data suggest that Manilkara zapota leaf water extract can suppress the growth of HepG2 cells via modulation of ERK1/2/Akt1/JNK1 transcriptional expression.
Project description:Manilkara zapota (L.) P. Royen (family: Sapotaceae) is commonly called sapodilla, or locally known as ciku. The detailed mechanisms underlying Manilkara zapota leaf methanol extract against HeLa human cervical cancer cells have yet to be investigated. Therefore, our present study is designed to investigate the ability to induce apoptosis and the underlying mechanisms of Manilkara zapota leaf methanol extract inducing cytotoxicity in HeLa cells. The apoptotic cell death was assessed using Annexin V-propidium iodide staining. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondrial membrane potential activities were measured using dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate and MitoLite Orange, respectively, by NovoCyte Flow Cytometer. Bax and Bcl-2 expression were evaluated using Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Caspase-3 activity was determined using a colorimetric assay. The associated biological interaction pathways were evaluated using quantitative real-time PCR. Our data showed that HeLa cells were relatively more sensitive to Manilkara zapota leaf methanol extract than other cancer cell lines studied. Overall analyses revealed that Manilkara zapota leaf methanol extract can inhibit the viability of HeLa cells, induce mitochondrial ROS generation, and inhibit nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) transcriptional activities. Our results suggested that Manilkara zapota leaf methanol extract might represent a potential anticervical cancer agent.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Ficus palmata (Fig), are distributed in different parts of the world, and are used in traditional medicine to treat various ailments including inflammation, tumor, epilepsy, jaundice, influenza and bacillary dysentery. The present study aimed to evaluate the antidiarrheal, antisecretary, antispasmodic, antiulcer and anti motility properties of Ficus palmata. METHODS:In-vivo, in-vitro and in-silico techniques were used to investigate various gastrointestinal effects of Ficus palmata. Antidiarrheal, antisecretary, antispasmodic, antiulcer, anti motility and molecular docking were performed using castor oil induced diarrhea and fluid accumulation, isolated tissue preparations, ethanol-HCl induced ulcer assay, charcoal meal transit time and Auto Doc Vina. RESULTS:Ficus palmata crude extract (Fp.Cr) exhibited protection against castor oil-induced diarrhea in mice and dose-dependently inhibited intestinal fluid secretions. Fp.Cr caused relaxation of spontaneous and K+ (80?Mm)-induced contractions in isolated rabbit jejunum preparations. It showed protective effect against gastric ulcers induced by ethanol-hydrochloric acid in rats. Fp.Cr reduced distance travelled by charcoal meal in the gastrointestinal transit model in mice. The plant constituents: psoralenoside and bergapten showed high binding affinities (E-value ? -?6.5 Kcal/mol) against histaminergic H1, calmodulin and voltage gated L-type calcium channels, while showed moderate affinities (E-value ?7 Kcal/mol) against dopaminergic D2, adrenergic ?1, muscranic M3, mu-opioid, whereas revealed lower affinities (E-value ?9.5 Kcal/mol) vs. muscranic M1, histaminergic H2 and H+/K+ ATPase pump. Germanicol acetate and psoralene exhibited weak affinities against aforementioned targets. CONCLUSION:This study reveals that Ficus palmata possesses anti-diarrheal, anti-secretory, anti-spasmodic, anti-motility and anti-ulcer activities. The various constituents reveal different binding affinities against target proteins, which mediate the gastrointestinal functions.
Project description:Looking for a biotechnical potential, aqueous extracts of leaves of 12 native species used in the Mayan traditional medicine of the coastal dune and mangrove of Yucatan (Mexico) were selected to evaluate their biological activities. Rhizophora mangle and Manilkara zapota showed the highest free radical scavenging activity (3.94 ± 0.19 and 6.42 ± 0.32 ?g/mL, respectively), and the highest antihypertensive activity was obtained from Solanum donianum (0.38 ?g/mL). The anti-hyperglycemic activity of these species was also tested; the highest activities were registered with R. mangle. The antimicrobial activity of Malvaviscus arboreus, S. donianum, M. zapota, and R. mangle at 10% (w/v) was positive against six human pathogenic bacteria and Bonellia macrocarpa against one pathogenic fungus. Solanum donianum, M. zapota, B. macrocarpa, and R. mangle were positive against two pathogenic plant fungi. These results show that the aqueous extracts of five native plants of the Yucatan coast have potential as antioxidants, ACE inhibitors, ?-amylase and ?-glucosidase inhibitors, and as antimicrobials, which make their exploration for utilization in the agricultural and pharmaceutical industries a possibility.
Project description:iThe plastome of <i>Manilkara zapota</i> is found to be 158,386?bp long with the typical quadripartite structure of angiosperms, contains two inverted repeats (IRs) of 26,099?bp each, a large single-copy (LSC) region of 87,745?bp, and a small single-copy (SSC) region of 18,443?bp. The plastome contains 114 genes, consisting of 80 unique protein-coding genes, 30 unique tRNA genes, and 4 unique rRNA genes. The overall A/T content in the plastome of M. zapota is 63.00%. The phylogenetic analysis indicated that <i>M. zapota</i> is close to <i>Sideroxylon wightianum</i> within Sapotaceae in this study.
Project description:High-resolution mass spectrometry equipped with electrospray ionization (ESI) and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) sources was used to enhance the characterization of phytochemicals of ethanol extracts of <i>Manilkara zapota</i> L. leaves (ZLE). Sugar compounds, dicarboxylic acids, compounds of phenolic acids and flavonoids groups, and other phytochemicals were detected from the leaves. Antioxidant activity and inhibition potentiality of ZLE against ?-glucosidase enzyme, and elastase enzyme activities were evaluated in in vitro analysis. ZLE significantly inhibited activities of ?-glucosidase enzyme at a lower concentration (IC<sub>50</sub> 2.51 ± 0.15 µg/mL). Glucose uptake in C2C12 cells was significantly enhanced by 42.13 ± 0.15% following the treatment with ZLE at 30 µg/mL. It also exhibited potential antioxidant activities and elastase enzyme inhibition activity (IC<sub>50</sub> 27.51 ± 1.70 µg/mL). Atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry (APCI-MS) detected more <i>m/z</i> peaks than electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), and both ionization techniques illustrated the biological activities of the detected compounds more thoroughly compared to single-mode analysis. Our findings suggest that APCI along with ESI is a potential ionization technique for metabolite profiling, and ZLE has the potential in managing diabetes by inhibiting ?-glucosidase activity and enhancing glucose uptake.
Project description:An endophytic fungus Pestalotiopsis microspora isolated from the fruits of Manilkara zapota was cultured in potato dextrose broth media. Chromatographic separation of the EtOAc extract of the broth and mycelium led to the isolation of a new azaphilonoid named pitholide E (1), in addition to previously identified pitholide B (2), pitholide D (3), pestalotin (LL-P880?) (4), PC-2 (5), LL-P880? (6), tyrosol (7) and 4-oxo-4H-pyran-3-acetic acid (8). An endophytic fungus P. microspora from M. zapota and the isolation of compounds 1-5, 7 and 8 from P. microspora are reported here for the first time.
Project description:The complete chloroplast genome sequences of <i>Manilkara zapota</i> (Linn.) van Royen in Xishuangbanna, Yunnan province were reported in this study. The length of the sequence was 159,853 bp long with the large single copy (LSC) region of 89,632 bp, the small single copy (SSC) region of 18,747 bp, and two inverted repeat (IR) regions of 27,737 bp. The plastome contained 125 genes, including 84 protein-coding, 8 ribosomal RNA, and 33 transfer RNA genes. The overall GC content was 37.0%. Phylogenetic analysis of 12 representative plastomes within the order Ebenales suggests that <i>M. zapota</i> (Linn.) van Royen is closely related to the species in family Ebenaceae.
Project description:As a widely used traditional medicine, Galla Chinensis is rich in tannins. However, there are few detailed studies about pharmaceutical preparations of Galla Chinensis tannin extract (GTE). In the present experiments, for better application and to investigate the possibility that Galla Chinensis tannin extract can be used as an antidiarrheal drug, we prepared Galla Chinensis oral solution (GOS).GOS was prepared with GTE, and its physicochemical and microbiological stability was evaluated. The oral acute toxicity of GOS was calculated by the 50% lethal dose (LD50). The antidiarrheal activity was determined in a castor oil-induced diarrhea model in mice through diarrhea symptoms, fluid accumulation ratio, and percentage of distance moved by charcoal meal.The tannin content of GTE was 47.75%. GOS could endure a high temperature without a significant decrease of tannin content. After storage for six months, the tannin content of GOS was still more than 90%. GOS was determined to be nontoxic. Meanwhile, GOS showed significant antidiarrheal activity in a castor oil-induced diarrhea model in mice (P < 0.01).The results suggested that GOS is an effective and stable antidiarrheal drug that can be used to complement other therapies.