What Do Olympic Shooters Think about Physical Training Factors and Their Performance?
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Many aspects affect precision sports like shooting. Skills such as strength and balance are related to shooting performance and therefore, they should be trained. Thus, planned physical workouts can help to improve Olympic Shooting performance. The main objective of this study was to determine elite shooters' perspective about fitness trainings. METHODS:Eight elite international shooters were interviewed using a semi-structured script validated by an expert shooting committee. Their responses were transcribed and analyzed using qualitative methods. The following categories were obtained: fitness training importance on performance, fitness professional support, precompetitive fitness exercises' orientation and intensity, main motor abilities, recovery process, fitness evaluation and test and physical training influence on the psychological state. RESULTS:The results suggest that athletes consider physical training as a key factor in their performance. Shooters mainly train strength and endurance exercises, depending on the competitions schedule. However, no consensus exists regarding the professional in charge of fitness trainings, nor the recovery methods to minimize performance losses. In addition, general balance trainings or physical condition tests to evaluate the training progress do not seem to be used. CONCLUSION:We conclude that there should be greater control of fitness training and recovery processes in Olympic shooting.
Project description:The ability to stabilize the gun is crucial for performance in Olympic pistol shooting and is thought to be related to the shooters muscular strength. The present study examines the relation between performance and finger flexor force as well as shoulder abduction isometric force in senior male air pistol shooting. 46 Spanish national level shooters served as test subjects of the study. Two maximal force tests were carried out recording handgrip and deltoid force data under competition conditions, during the official training time at national Spanish championships. Performance was measured as the total score of 60 shots at competition. Linear regressions were calculated to examine the relations between performance and peak and average finger flexor forces, peak and average finger flexor forces relative to the BMI, peak and average shoulder abduction isometric forces, peak shoulder abduction isometric force relative to the BMI. The connection between performance and other variables such as age, weight, height, BMI, experience in years and training hours per week was also analyzed. Significant correlations were found between performance at competition and average and peak finger flexor forces. For the rest of the force variables no significant correlations were found. Significant correlations were also found between performance at competition and experience as well as training hours. No significant correlations were found between performance and age, weight, height or BMI. The study concludes that hand grip strength training programs are necessary for performance in air pistol shooting.
Project description:In 2018, the Olympic shooting regulations were modified to increase the number of women's shots from 40 to 60, equaling the number given to men. This research presented in this paper addresses two research issues: (1) has the performance of women's shooting changed as a result of this increase in the number of shots? and (2) with the equalized number of shots in place, do women and men perform differently? This study included 292 shooters who competed in the 2016 and/or 2018 European Championships who all obtained top-50 results. Our sample included balanced quotas for sports (50% pistol and 50% rifle) and by category (50% women and 50% men). Both championships were held in the same facilities and in the same month of the season, but with the difference that in 2016, women had 40 shots and in 2018 they had 60 shots. We observed that women's performances did not diminish for the pistol or the rifle category when their number of shots were increased. Men and women shot equally well with rifles, although the men's performance with pistols was higher than that of women. We concluded that sports in which physical strength is a minor factor, as in the case of shooting, should revise their regulations in the interest of greater gender equality in sports.
Project description:PURPOSE:The purpose of the present study was to test if caffeine ingestion affects rifle shooting accuracy in trained shooters. METHODS:Twenty trained shooters performed 4 shooting tests in a randomized, double-blinded, placebo controlled crossover design; 2 identical tests after placebo ingestion and 2 after ingestion of 300 mg caffeine. The tests consisted of 30 shots in prone position and 30 in standing position on a 10 ring electronic target, on a distance of 50 metres, without any time limit, at rest. RESULTS:Caffeine supplementation entailed a mean decrease in shooting performance by 11.8 points (95% CI: 6.7 to 17.0, effect size: 0.9). This was primarily a result of an 11.3 (95% CI: 7.2 to 15.4, effect size: 0.9) point decrease during shooting in standing position and not in prone position (0.6 point decrease, 95% CI: -2.1 to 3.2, effect size: 0.1). CONCLUSIONS:We conclude that prior ingestion of 300 mg caffeine impairs rifle shooting accuracy in trained shooters when performed in standing but not in prone position.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Understanding the relationships between physical fitness attributes and sport-specific technical skills may assist with the establishment of beneficial training interventions. The aim of this systematic review was to determine if physical fitness qualities were associated with performance of sport-specific technical skills in female, team-based ball players. METHODS:Five databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, SPORTDiscus, ProQuest, and Scopus) were searched for relevant studies up to April 15, 2019. Full-text articles investigating relationships between physical fitness and sport-specific technical skills in female, team-based ball players were included. Methodological quality of included studies was appraised using a modified Downs and Black checklist. Data synthesis was conducted to determine the summary of evidence based on the number of significantly associated relationships divided by the total relationships assessed. An individual relationship was defined as a reported result examining the association between a single physical fitness variable and a single sport-specific technical skill. RESULTS:Data synthesis of grouped female ball players from 41 included studies revealed three clear associations: (i) body composition and defensive technical skills (19/29; 66%), (ii) agility and movement with a ball (4/6; 67%), and (iii) coordination and movement with a ball (3/5; 60%). An uncertain association exists between cardiorespiratory fitness and defensive technical skills (2/5; 40%). No association or an unknown conclusion (< 5 relationships reported) exists between all remaining physical fitness attributes and sport-specific technical skills. Sub-analyses revealed clear associations between body composition and throwing/shooting (using hands) in junior ball players (15/15; 100%) and with movement with a ball in elite (6/9; 67%) and senior (6/6; 100%) ball players. Three uncertain associations were found between offensive technical skills and agility in elite ball players (3/8; 38%), and with speed in elite (6/14; 43%) and junior (7/18; 39%) female ball players. CONCLUSION:There is limited evidence available to demonstrate relationships between physical fitness qualities and sport-specific technical skills in female, team-based ball players. This lack of association is possibly due to reductionist methods in available literature and a lack of research in female ball players globally. REGISTRATION:CRD42017065339 (PROSPERO on 12 May 2017).
Project description:The objectives of this study were to (i) describe soccer training (e.g., volume, types), anthropometry, body composition, and physical fitness and (ii) compute associations between soccer training data and relative changes of anthropometry, body composition, and physical fitness during a soccer season in female elite young athletes. Seasonal training (i.e., day-to-day training volume/types) as well as variations in anthropometry (e.g., body height/mass), body composition (e.g., lean body/fat mass), and physical fitness (e.g., muscle strength/power, speed, balance) were collected from 17 female elite young soccer players (15.3 ± 0.5 years) over the training periods (i.e., preparation, competition, transition) of a soccer season that resulted in the German championship title in under-17 female soccer. Training volume/types, anthropometrics, body composition, and physical fitness significantly varied over a soccer season. During the two preparation periods, higher volumes in resistance and endurance training were performed (2.00 ? d ? 18.15; p < 0.05), while higher sprint and tactical training volumes were applied during the two competition periods (2.22 ? d ? 11.18; p < 0.05). Body height and lean body mass increased over the season (2.50 ? d ? 3.39; p < 0.01). In terms of physical fitness, significant performance improvements were found over the soccer season in measures of balance, endurance, and sport-specific performance (2.52 ? d ? 3.95; p < 0.05). In contrast, no statistically significant changes were observed for measures of muscle power/endurance, speed, and change-of-direction speed. Of note, variables of muscle strength (i.e., leg extensors) significantly decreased (d = 2.39; p < 0.01) over the entire season. Our period-specific sub-analyses revealed significant performance improvements during the first round of the season for measures of muscle power/endurance, and balance (0.89 ? d ? 4.01; p < 0.05). Moreover, change-of-direction speed significantly declined after the first round of the season, i.e., transition period (d = 2.83; p < 0.01). Additionally, significant medium-to-large associations were observed between training and anthropometrics/body composition/physical fitness (-0.541 ? r ? 0.505). Soccer training and/or growth/maturation contributed to significant variations in anthropometry, body composition, and physical fitness outcomes throughout the different training periods over the course of a soccer season in female elite young soccer players. However, changes in components of fitness were inconsistent (e.g., power, speed, strength). Thus, training volume and/or types should be carefully considered in order to develop power-, speed- or strength-related fitness measures more efficiently throughout the soccer season.
Project description:Crucial elements for police firearms training include mastering very specific psychophysiological responses associated with controlled breathing while shooting. Under high-stress situations, the shooter is affected by responses of the sympathetic nervous system that can impact respiration. This research focuses on how frontal oscillatory brainwaves and cardiovascular responses of trained police officers (N = 10) are affected during a virtual reality (VR) firearms training routine. We present data from an experimental study wherein shooters were interacting in a VR-based training simulator designed to elicit psychophysiological changes under easy, moderate and frustrating difficulties. Outcome measures in this experiment include electroencephalographic and heart rate variability (HRV) parameters, as well as performance metrics from the VR simulator. Results revealed that specific frontal areas of the brain elicited different responses during resting states when compared with active shooting in the VR simulator. Moreover, sympathetic signatures were found in the HRV parameters (both time and frequency) reflecting similar differences. Based on the experimental findings, we propose a psychophysiological model to aid the design of a biocybernetic adaptation layer that creates real-time modulations in simulation difficulty based on targeted physiological responses.
Project description:Training variants (type, intensity, and duration of exercise) can be selected according to individual aims and fitness assessment. Recently, various methods of resistance and endurance training have been used for muscle hypertrophy and VO2max improvement. Although several genetic variants are associated with elite athletic performance and muscle phenotypes, genetic background has not been used as variant for physical training. ACTN3 R577X is a well-studied genetic polymorphism. It is the only genotype associated with elite athletic performance in multiple cohorts. This association is strongly supported by mechanistic data from an Actn3-knockout mouse model. In this review, possible guidelines are discussed for effective utilization of ACTN3 R577X polymorphism for physical training.
Project description:Sensorimotor learning refers to improvements that occur through practice in the performance of sensory-guided motor behaviors. Leveraging novel technical capabilities of an immersive virtual environment, we probed the component kinematic processes that mediate sensorimotor learning. Twenty naïve subjects performed a simulated marksmanship task modeled after Olympic Trap Shooting standards. We measured movement kinematics and shooting performance as participants practiced 350 trials while receiving trial-by-trial feedback about shooting success. Spatiotemporal analysis of motion tracking elucidated the ballistic and refinement phases of hand movements. We found systematic changes in movement kinematics that accompanied improvements in shot accuracy during training, though reaction and response times did not change over blocks. In particular, we observed longer, slower, and more precise ballistic movements that replaced effort spent on corrections and refinement. Collectively, these results leverage developments in immersive virtual reality technology to quantify and compare the kinematics of movement during early learning of full-body sensorimotor orienting.
Project description:The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of implementing motor imagery (MI) during specific tennis high intensity intermittent training (HIIT) sessions on groundstroke performance in young elite tennis players. Stroke accuracy and ball velocity of forehand and backhand drives were evaluated in ten young tennis players, immediately before and after having randomly performed two HIIT sessions. One session included MI exercises during the recovery phases, while the other included verbal encouragements for physical efforts and served as control condition. Results revealed that similar cardiac demand was observed during both sessions, while implementing MI maintained groundstroke accuracy. Embedding MI during HIIT enabled the development of physical fitness and the preservation of stroke performance. These findings bring new insight to tennis and conditioning coaches in order to fulfil the benefits of specific playing HIIT sessions, and therefore to optimise the training time.
Project description:Background:Executive function (EF) plays an important role in controlling human actions. Shooting is a closed motor skill, characterized by high anti-interference ability and high mental intensity. However, the beneficial effects of closed exercises such as shooting on EF remain unclear. Methods:We utilized an expert-novice paradigm and the Flanker task to examine the EF of shooting athletes. Participants were assigned into the novice group, expert group, or control group, based on the level of training and competition experience. Reaction time (RT) and accuracy of performance across the three groups were compared. Results:For the simple task, the control group showed a longer RT than the novice group, for all three inter-stimulus interval (ISI) conditions. Significant differences between the control and the expert groups were observed only at 300-ms and 400-ms ISIs. For the complex task, the control group exhibited a higher RT than the novice and expert groups at the 300- and 400-ms ISIs. Conclusions:The self-control during performing closed motor skills in the environment determines that shooters have proficient anti-interference ability. This ability is uncorrelated with task type, but most likely is affected by reserved task response time.