Factors Affecting Stress Levels in Hospitalized Patients after Implementation of Fast-Track Protocol in Hepatopancreatobiliary Surgery.
ABSTRACT: Objective:The objective was to explore factors affecting stress levels in hospitalized patients after implementation of fast-track (FT) protocol in hepatopancreatobiliary surgery. Methods:This was a prospective cross-sectional study, where 90 patients were included. Exploration of environmental postoperative stress levels was conducted by serum adrenocorticotropic hormone and cortisol levels, the Intensive Care Unit Environmental Stressor Scale, and three self-reported Numeric Analog Scale questions, with regard to emotional/stress level, specifically "How sad do you feel right now?" "How stressed do you feel right now?" and "How optimistic do you feel right now, about the future?" at 3 time points: (T1) Before surgery, (T2) the day of surgery, and (T3) the 3rd postoperative day. The trial profile is conformed according to the CONSORT guidelines. Statistical analysis was carried out by SPSS software version 22 (IBM SPSS software, Chicago, Illinois, USA) at a significance level of 0.05. Results:Serum cortisol T2 levels were positively correlated with the day of removal the drainage tube (rho = 0.235, P = 0.027). Furthermore, serum cortisol T3 levels were positively correlated with age and body mass index and negatively with the day of drainage tube removal (rho = 0.231, P = 0.028, rho = 0.235, P = 0.026, and rho = -0.279, P = 0.008, respectively). Conclusions:The findings of this study highlight that after evaluation of stress levels; nurses could interfere and reduce stress levels, knowing the factors which cause the increased stress levels, after the implementation of FT protocols.
Project description:African-American adults are disproportionately affected by stress-related chronic conditions like high blood pressure (BP), and both environmental stress and genetic risk may play a role in its development.This study tested whether the dual risk of low neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) and glucocorticoid genetic sensitivity interacted to predict waking cortisol and BP.Cross-sectional waking cortisol and BP were collected from 208 African-American adults who were participating in a follow-up visit as part of the Positive Action for Today's Health trial. Three single-nucleotide polymorphisms were genotyped, salivary cortisol samples were collected, and neighborhood SES was calculated using 2010 Census data.The sample was mostly female (65 %), with weight classified as overweight or obese (M BMI = 32.74, SD = 8.88) and a mean age of 55.64 (SD = 15.21). The gene-by-neighborhood SES interaction predicted cortisol (B = 0.235, p = .001, r (2) = .036), but not BP. For adults with high genetic sensitivity, waking cortisol was lower with lower SES but higher with higher SES (B = 0.87). Lower neighborhood SES was also related to higher systolic BP (B = -0.794, p = .028).Findings demonstrated an interaction whereby African-American adults with high genetic sensitivity had high levels of waking cortisol with higher neighborhood SES, and low levels with lower neighborhood SES. This moderation effect is consistent with a differential susceptibility gene-environment pattern, rather than a dual-risk pattern. These findings contribute to a growing body of evidence that demonstrates the importance of investigating complex gene-environment relations in order to better understand stress-related health disparities.
Project description:Rumination is an involuntary cognitive process theorized to prolong arousal and inhibit proper emotion regulation. Most available research has examined individual differences in cognitive dispositions to ruminate about stress as a risk marker for psychopathology and other health problems. This intensive longitudinal study extended previous research by examining day-to-day associations of rumination about stress with objectively-measured actigraph-based sleep and diurnal salivary cortisol activity. Sixty-one healthy participants (Mage?=?20.91) completed up to five ecological momentary assessments (EMA) each day and wore actigraph wristwatches for eight days (N?=?488). On three of these days, participants provided five saliva samples assayed for cortisol (N?=?910). On average, greater daily stress levels were associated with shorter sleep duration and higher waking cortisol levels. In day-to-day analyses, greater daily stress levels, when combined with ruminating about daily stress more than usual, was associated with higher waking cortisol levels the following morning. Ruminating more than usual about daily stress, in the context of low-stress days, was also associated with flatter diurnal cortisol slopes the next day. These findings highlight the potential influences of daily stress, and rumination about stress, on sleep and diurnal cortisol activity - two important markers of health and well-being.
Project description:Chronic exposure to cortisol is associated with cardiovascular, metabolic, and psychiatric disorders. Although cortisol can be readily measured from peripheral sources such as blood, urine, or saliva, multiple samplings spanning several days to weeks are necessary to reliably assess chronic cortisol exposure levels (referred to as cortisol load). Although cortisol levels in hair have been proposed as a measure of cortisol load, measurement is cumbersome and many people are not candidates due to short hair length and use of hair dyes. To date, there are no blood biomarkers that capture cortisol load. To identify a blood biomarker capable of integrating one-month cortisol exposure levels, 75 healthy participants provided 30+ days of awakening and bedtime saliva cortisol and completed psychosocial measures of anxiety, depression, and stress. Mean daily awakening and bedtime cortisol levels were then compared to CpG methylation levels, gene expression, and genotypes of the stress response gene FKBP5 obtained from blood drawn on the last day of the study. We found a correlation between FKBP5 methylation levels and mean 30+day awakening and bedtime cortisol levels (|r|?0.32, p???0.006). We also observed a sex-specific correlation between bedtime cortisol levels and FKBP5 mRNA expression in female participants (r?=?0.42, p?=?0.005). Dividing the 30-day sampling period into four weekly bins showed that the correlations for both methylation and expression were not being driven by cortisol levels in the week preceding the blood draw. We also identified a female-specific association between FKBP5 mRNA expression and scores on the Beck Anxiety Inventory (r?=?0.37, p?=?0.013) and Beck Depression Inventory-II (r?=?0.32, p?=?0.033). Finally, DNA was genotyped at four SNPs, and variation in rs4713902 was shown to have an effect on FKBP5 expression under a codominant model (f?=?3.41, p?=?0.048) for females only. Our results suggest that blood FKBP5 DNA methylation and mRNA expression levels may be a useful marker for determining general or sex-specific 30-day cortisol load and justifies genome-wide approaches that can potentially identify additional cortisol markers with broader clinical utility.
Project description:Stress-related variation in the intrauterine milieu may impact brain development and emergent function, with long-term implications in terms of susceptibility for affective disorders. Studies in animals suggest limbic regions in the developing brain are particularly sensitive to exposure to the stress hormone cortisol. However, the nature, magnitude, and time course of these effects have not yet been adequately characterized in humans. A prospective, longitudinal study was conducted in 65 normal, healthy mother-child dyads to examine the association of maternal cortisol in early, mid-, and late gestation with subsequent measures at approximately 7 y age of child amygdala and hippocampus volume and affective problems. After accounting for the effects of potential confounding pre- and postnatal factors, higher maternal cortisol levels in earlier but not later gestation was associated with a larger right amygdala volume in girls (a 1 SD increase in cortisol was associated with a 6.4% increase in right amygdala volume), but not in boys. Moreover, higher maternal cortisol levels in early gestation was associated with more affective problems in girls, and this association was mediated, in part, by amygdala volume. No association between maternal cortisol in pregnancy and child hippocampus volume was observed in either sex. The current findings represent, to the best of our knowledge, the first report linking maternal stress hormone levels in human pregnancy with subsequent child amygdala volume and affect. The results underscore the importance of the intrauterine environment and suggest the origins of neuropsychiatric disorders may have their foundations early in life.
Project description:There is a growing interest concerning the relevance of salivary cortisone levels in stress-related research. However, studies investigating morning patterns and day-to-day variability of cortisone versus cortisol levels are lacking. Cortisol and cortisone analysis by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy (LC-MS/MS) has been widely used for routine laboratory measurements in the last years. The aim of this study was to develop an ultra-performance LC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous quantification of salivary cortisol and cortisone levels for assessing the temporal variability of these hormones. Saliva samples were collected from 18 healthy volunteers at 0, 15, and 30?min after awakening on each day for 1 week and analysed with the newly developed method. We used a novel atmospheric pressure ionization source, which resulted in high sensitivity and specificity for both cortisol and cortisone as well as higher peak values and signal-to-noise ratio as compared with the electrospray ionization source. Cortisone showed similar morning patterns as cortisol: a 25% and 49% increase in levels at 15 and 30?min after awakening, respectively. Most cortisone indices showed somewhat lower day-to-day variability and were less affected by state-related covariates. We recommend further exploration of the potential of salivary cortisone as a biomarker in stress-related research.
Project description:Stress-induced changes in cortisol can impact memory in various ways. However, the precise relationship between cortisol and recognition memory is still poorly understood. For instance, there is reason to believe that stress could differentially affect recollection-based memory, which depends on the hippocampus, and familiarity-based recognition, which can be supported by neocortical areas alone. Accordingly, in the current study we examined the effects of stress-related changes in cortisol on the processes underlying recognition memory. Stress was induced with a cold-pressor test after incidental encoding of emotional and neutral pictures, and recollection and familiarity-based recognition memory were measured one day later. The relationship between stress-induced cortisol responses and recollection was non-monotonic, such that subjects with moderate stress-related increases in cortisol had the highest levels of recollection. In contrast, stress-related cortisol responses were linearly related to increases in familiarity. In addition, measures of cortisol taken at the onset of the experiment showed that individuals with higher levels of pre-learning cortisol had lower levels of both recollection and familiarity. The results are consistent with the proposition that hippocampal-dependent memory processes such as recollection function optimally under moderate levels of stress, whereas more cortically-based processes such as familiarity are enhanced even with higher levels of stress. These results indicate that whether post-encoding stress improves or disrupts recognition memory depends on the specific memory process examined as well as the magnitude of the stress-induced cortisol response.
Project description:Anxiety, chronical stress, and depression during pregnancy are considered to affect the offspring, presumably through placental dysregulation. We have studied the term placentae of pregnancies clinically monitored with the Beck's Anxiety Inventory (BAI) and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). A cutoff threshold for BAI/EPDS of 10 classed patients into an Index group (>10, n = 23) and a Control group (<10, n = 23). Cortisol concentrations in hair (HCC) were periodically monitored throughout pregnancy and delivery. Expression differences of main glucocorticoid pathway genes, i.e., corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), 11?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD11B2), glucocorticoid receptor (NR3C1), as well as other key stress biomarkers (Arginine Vasopressin, AVP and O-GlcNAc transferase, OGT) were explored in medial placentae using real-time qPCR and Western blotting. Moreover, gene expression changes were considered for their association with HCC, offspring, gender, and birthweight. A significant dysregulation of gene expression for CRH, AVP, and HSD11B2 genes was seen in the Index group, compared to controls, while OGT and NR3C1 expression remained similar between groups. Placental gene expression of the stress-modulating enzyme 11?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD11B2) was related to both hair cortisol levels (Rho = 0.54; p < 0.01) and the sex of the newborn in pregnancies perceived as stressful (Index, p < 0.05). Gene expression of CRH correlated with both AVP (Rho = 0.79; p < 0.001) and HSD11B2 (Rho = 0.45; p < 0.03), and also between AVP with both HSD11B2 (Rho = 0.6; p < 0.005) and NR3C1 (Rho = 0.56; p < 0.03) in the Control group but not in the Index group; suggesting a possible loss of interaction in the mechanisms of action of these genes under stress circumstances during pregnancy.
Project description:The glucocorticoid hypothesis suggests that overexposure to stress may cause permanent upregulation of cortisol. Stress in youth may therefore influence cortisol levels even in older age. Using data from the 6-Day Sample, we investigated the effects of high stress in childhood, adolescence and early adulthood - as well as individual variables contributing to these measures; parental loss, social deprivation, school and home moves, illness, divorce and job instability - upon cortisol levels at age 77 years. Waking, waking +45?min (peak) and evening salivary cortisol samples were collected from 159 participants, and the 150 who were not using steroid medications were included in this study. After correcting for multiple comparisons, the only significant association was between early-adulthood job instability and later-life peak cortisol levels. After excluding participants with dementia or possible mild cognitive impairment, early-adulthood high stress showed significant associations with lower evening and mean cortisol levels, suggesting downregulation by stress, but these results did not survive correction for multiple comparisons. Overall, our results do not provide strong evidence of a relationship between stress in youth and later-life cortisol levels, but do suggest that some more long-term stressors, such as job instability, may indeed produce lasting upregulation of cortisol, persisting into the mid-to-late seventies.
Project description:Objectives:The study examined the typical diurnal cortisol trajectory and its differential associations with an intervention, the adult day services (ADS) use, among a sample of family caregivers who experienced high levels of daily stress. Method:On hundred and sixty-five caregivers of individuals with dementia completed an 8-day diary on daily stressors, positive events, sleep quality, and ADS use. The caregivers also provided five saliva samples on each diary day. Daily cortisol trajectories were modeled as a function of time elapsed since awakening, and three spline growth curve models were fit to the cortisol data. Based on the best-fitting linear spline model, the effect of daily ADS use was examined at both daily and person levels. Covariates included daily experiences and other caregiving characteristics. Results:On ADS days, caregivers had a steeper cortisol awakening response (CAR) slope and a steeper morning decline. ADS use remained significant after controlling for covariates at both daily and person levels. Discussion:The findings suggested potential biophysiological benefits of daily ADS use for a sample that was under chronic stress and high levels of daily stress.
Project description:Stress increases drug craving and relapse risk. The kappa opioid receptor gene (OPRK1) mediates stress responses. Here, we examined whether the OPRK1 rs6989250 C>G affects stress-induced cocaine craving and cortisol responses, subsequent cocaine relapse risk and the neural response to stress using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in cocaine dependence. Sixty-seven treatment-engaged, abstinent cocaine-dependent African-Americans were genotyped (CG: N=10; CC: N=57) and participated in a 3-day experiment in which they were exposed to personalized script-driven imagery of stress, drug cues and neutral scenarios, one condition per day, randomly assigned and counterbalanced across subjects. Repeated measures of craving and cortisol were obtained. The subjects were followed prospectively for 90 days to assess relapse risk. A follow-up preliminary fMRI experiment assessed neural responses to stress, drug cue and neutral conditions in matched CG (N=5) and CC (N=8) subgroups. We found greater stress-induced craving (P=0.019), higher cortisol during stress and cue relative to the neutral condition (P's<0.003), and increased cocaine relapse risk (P=0.0075) in the CG compared with the CC group. The CG relative to the CC group also showed greater activation of limbic and midbrain regions during stress and cues relative to the neutral condition with additional stress-induced activation in the right amygdala/hippocampus (P<0.05, whole-brain corrected). These results suggest that OPRK1 is associated with stress-induced craving and cortisol, hyperactive hypothalamus/thalamus-midbrain-cerebellum responses, and also associated with greater subsequent cocaine relapse risk. Future studies to replicate these findings in a larger sample size are warranted.