Development of a Bioactive Polymeric Drug Eluting Coronary Stent Coating Using Electrospraying.
ABSTRACT: Drug-eluting stents are now routinely used in the treatment of acute coronary syndromes caused by coronary artery disease. Whilst the sustained release of anti-proliferative drugs from these devices has greatly reduced the need for repeat revascularisation procedures, this approach is not suitable for all patients and appears to delay regrowth of the endothelium, necessitating the use of prolonged dual anti-platelet therapy. Although the development of more advanced stent platforms and drug coatings has produced modest improvements in performance, these devices have not fully addressed the limitations experienced with their first-generation counterparts. In the present study, we developed a novel stent coating that provides controlled sirolimus release from a bioactive polymer (accelerate™ AT) that has previously been shown to support endothelial cell growth in vitro. A bespoke electrospray deposition process provided control over the coating thickness, surface roughness, drug load, and release kinetics. The resultant optimised coating combines rapid release of an anti-proliferative agent from a bioactive polymer coating that promotes re-endothelialisation, thereby offering potential protection against in-stent restenosis and thrombosis. This novel, dual-action coating therefore has significant therapeutic potential, with the enhanced control of drug load and release kinetics offered by electrospray deposition also opening up opportunities for more personalised treatment approaches. Further development and evaluation of these technologies in vitro and in vivo is therefore warranted.
Project description:Current drug eluting stent (DES) technology is not optimized with regard to the pharmacokinetics of drug delivery. A novel, absorbable-coating sirolimus-eluting stent (AC-SES) was evaluated for its capacity to deliver drug more evenly within the intimal area rather than concentrating drug around the stent struts and for its ability to match coating erosion with drug release. The coating consisted of absorbable poly-lactide-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) and crystalline sirolimus deposited by a dry-powder electrostatic process. The AC-SES demonstrated enhanced drug stability under simulated use conditions and consistent drug delivery balanced with coating erosion in a porcine coronary implant model. The initial drug burst was eliminated and drug release was sustained after implantation. The coating was absorbed within 90 days. Following implantation into porcine coronary arteries the AC-SES coating is distributed in the surrounding intimal tissue over the course of several weeks. Computational modeling of drug delivery characteristics demonstrates how distributed coating optimizes the load of drug immediately around each stent strut and extends drug delivery between stent struts. The result was a highly efficient arterial uptake of drug with superior performance to a clinical bare metal stent (BMS). Neointimal thickness (0.17±0.07 mm vs. 0.28±0.11 mm) and area percent stenosis (22±9% vs. 35±12%) were significantly reduced (p<0.05) by the AC-SES compared to the BMS 30 days after stent implantation in an overlap configuration in porcine coronary arteries. Inflammation was significantly reduced in the AC-SES compared to the BMS at both 30 and 90 days after implantation. Biocompatible, rapidly absorbable stent coatings enable the matching of drug release with coating erosion and provide for the controlled migration of coating material into tissue to reduce vicissitudes in drug tissue levels, optimizing efficacy and reducing potential toxicity.
Project description:The Orsiro Hybrid sirolimus-eluting stent is a newly developed third-generation drug-eluting stent, featuring a unique dual-polymer mix. An active bioabsorbable polymer delivers the anti-proliferative drug, sirolimus, via controlled release, while a passive biocompatible polymeric coating shields the metallic strut from surrounding tissue, preventing interaction. To date, the Orsiro Hybrid sirolimus-eluting stent has excelled in terms of late lumen loss at 9 months in a first-in-man single-arm trial. However, the efficacy and safety data for Orsiro Hybrid sirolimus-eluting stents in a broader population of all-comers are limited. The present study offers an angiographic and clinical comparison of the Orsiro Hybrid sirolimus-eluting stent and the Resolute Integrity zotarolimus-eluting stent in the treatment of patients with coronary artery disease.The ORIENT trial is a multicenter, randomized, open-label, parallel-arm study designed to demonstrate the non-inferiority of the Orsiro Hybrid sirolimus-eluting stent relative to the Resolute Integrity zotarolimus-eluting stent. A total of 375 patients with a spectrum of coronary artery disease will undergo prospective, random assignment to a Orsiro Hybrid sirolimus-eluting stent or Resolute Integrity zotarolimus-eluting stent (2:1 ratio), for a primary endpoint of in-stent late lumen loss at 9 months by quantitative coronary angiography. Secondary 12-month clinical endpoints are death, target lesion revascularization, target vessel revascularization, myocardial infarction, stent thrombosis and target lesion failure (a composite of cardiac death, target lesion revascularization and target vessel-related myocardial infarction).The ORIENT trial is the first study to date comparing the Orsiro Hybrid sirolimus-eluting stent with the Resolute Integrity zotarolimus-eluting stent for efficacy and safety in a population of all-comers with coronary artery disease.Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01826552.
Project description:This work reports on the development of a biodegradable dual-drug-eluting stent with sequential-like and sustainable drug-release of anti-platelet acetylsalicylic acid and anti-smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferative paclitaxel.To fabricate the biodegradable stents, poly-L-lactide strips are first cut from a solvent-casted film. They are rolled onto the surface of a metal pin to form spiral stents. The stents are then consecutively covered by acetylsalicylic acid and paclitaxel-loaded polylactide-polyglycolide nanofibers via electrospinning.Biodegradable stents exhibit mechanical properties that are superior to those of metallic stents. Biodegradable stents sequentially release high concentrations of acetylsalicylic acid and paclitaxel for more than 30 and 60 days, respectively. In vitro, the eluted drugs promote endothelial cell numbers on days 3 and 7, and reduce the proliferation of SMCs in weeks 2, 4, and 8. The stents markedly inhibit the adhesion of platelets on days 3, 7, and 14 relative to a non-drug-eluting stent. In vivo, the implanted stent is intact, and no stent thrombosis is observed in the stent-implanted vessels without the administration of daily oral acetylsalicylic acid. Promotion of endothelial recovery and inhibition of neointimal hyperplasia are also observed on the stented vessels.The work demonstrates the efficiency and safety of the biodegradable dual-drug-eluting stents with sequential and sustainable drug release to diseased arteries.
Project description:Silk fibroin (SF), a FDA-approved natural protein, is renowned for its great biocompatibility, biodegradability, and mechanical properties. SF-based nanoparticles provide new options for drug delivery with their tunable drug loading and release properties. To take advantage of the features of carrier polymers, we present a one-step electrospraying method that combines SF, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and therapeutic drugs without an emulsion process. A distinct core-shell structure was obtained with the PVA core and silk shell after the system was properly set up. The model drug, doxorubicin, was encapsulated in the core with a greater than 90% drug encapsulation efficiency. Controllable drug release profiles were achieved by alternating the PVA/SF ratio. Although the initial burst release of the drug was minimized by the SF coating, a large number of drug molecules remained entrapped by the carrier polymers. To promote and trigger drug release on demand, low intensity focused ultrasound (US) was applied. The US was especially advantageous for accelerating the drug diffusion and release. The apoptotic activity of MDA-MB-231 cells incubated with drug-loaded nanoparticles was found to increase with time. In addition, we also observed PVA/SF nanoparticles that could elicit a drug release in response to pH.
Project description:Drug-eluting stents (DES) have reduced in-stent-restenosis drastically. Yet, the stent surface material directly interacts with cascades of biological processes leading to an activation of cellular defense mechanisms. To prevent adverse clinical implications, to date almost every patient with a coronary artery disease is treated with statins. Besides their clinical benefit, statins exert a number of pleiotropic effects on endothelial cells (ECs). Since maintenance of EC function and reduction of uncontrolled smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation represents a challenge for new generation DES, we investigated the effect of atorvastatin (ATOR) on human coronary artery cells grown on biodegradable polymers. Our results show a cell type-dependent effect of ATOR on ECs and SMCs. We observed polymer-dependent changes in IC50 values and an altered ATOR-uptake leading to an attenuation of statin-mediated effects on SMC growth. We conclude that the selected biodegradable polymers negatively influence the anti-proliferative effect of ATOR on SMCs. Hence, the process of developing new polymers for DES coating should involve the characterization of material-related changes in mechanisms of drug actions.
Project description:In-stent restenosis remains an important clinical problem in the era of drug eluting stents. Development of clinical gene therapy protocols for the prevention and treatment of in-stent restenosis is hampered by the lack of adequate local delivery systems. Herein we describe a novel stent-based gene delivery platform capable of providing local arterial gene transfer with adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors. This system exploits the natural affinity of protein G (PrG) to bind to the Fc region of mammalian IgG, making PrG a universal adaptor for surface immobilization of vector-capturing antibodies (Ab). Our results: 1) demonstrate the feasibility of reversible immobilization of AAV2 vectors using vector tethering by AAV2-specific Ab appended to the stent surface through covalently attached PrG, 2) show sustained release kinetics of PrG/Ab-immobilized AAV2 vector particles into simulated physiological medium in vitro and site-specific transduction of cultured cells, 3) provide evidence of long-term (12 weeks) arterial expression of luciferase with PrG/Ab-tethered AAV2Luc, and 4) show anti-proliferative activity and anti-restenotic efficacy of stent-immobilized AAV2iNOS in the rat carotid artery model of stent angioplasty.
Project description:On demand release of anti-inflammatory drug or neurotropic factors have great promise for maintaining a stable chronic neural interface. Here we report the development of an electrically controlled drug release system based on conducting polymer and carbon nanotubes. Drug delivery research using carbon nanotubes (CNTs) has taken advantage of the ability of CNTs to load large amounts of drug molecules on their outer surface. However, the utility of the inner cavity of CNTs, which can increase the drug loading capacity, has not yet been explored. In this paper, the use of multi-wall CNTs as nanoreserviors for drug loading and controlled release is demonstrated. The CNTs are pretreated with acid sonication to open their ends and make their outer and inner surfaces more hydrophilic. When dispersed and sonicated in a solution containing the anti-inflammatory drug dexamethasone, experiments show that the pretreated CNTs are filled with the drug solution. To prevent the unwanted release of the drug, the open ends of the drug-filled CNTs are then sealed with polypyrrole (PPy) films formed through electropolymerization. The prepared electrode coating significantly reduced the electrode impedance, which is desired for neural recording and stimulation. More importantly, the coating can effectively store drug molecules and release the bioactive drug in a controlled manner using electrical stimulation. The dexamethasone released from the PPy/CNT film was able to reduce lipopolysaccharide induced microglia activation to the same degree as the added dexamethasone.
Project description:The use of first-generation drug-eluting stents (DES) has been associated with safety concerns such as very late stent thrombosis. Today, with the release of newer DES, there is a need for comparative studies of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) versus coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) to demonstrate their value in patients with high risk of restenosis such as diabetic patients. In a satellite symposium presented at EuroPCR 2014, the Cre8™ DES was discussed. The Cre8 device has a number of unique clinical features, including polymer-free technology, abluminal reservoir technology and bio-inducer surface that ensure effective neointima suppression and rapid endothelialisation. The efficacy of the Cre8 DES has been demonstrated in the International randomised comparison between DES Limus Carbostent and Taxus drug-eluting stents in the treatment of de novo coronary lesions (NEXT) randomised clinical study, with equivalent efficacy in the diabetic and general populations, a unique finding. Ongoing clinical studies such as Investig8 and the Tel Aviv Medical Center (TLVMC) Cre8 study have confirmed the efficacy of the device in patient populations with a high proportion of diabetic patients. The Demonstr8 randomised trial has shown almost complete Cre8 strut coverage at three months with a numerical advantage versus bare metal stent (bare metal stents [BMS] - comparator device) at one month. In addition, use of the Cre8 DES may enable a shorter duration of dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) following PCI. The Cre8 DES therefore represents a significant advance in stent technology and may be particularly useful in challenging clinical settings.
Project description:This article presents data related to the research article entitled "The effect of coating type on mechanical properties and controlled drug release of PCL/zein coated 45S5 bioactive glass scaffolds for bone tissue engineering" . We provide data on mechanical properties, in vitro bioactivity and drug release of bioactive glass (BG) scaffolds coated by poly (?-caprolactone) (PCL) and zein used as a controlled release device for tetracycline hydrochloride (TCH). By coating the BG scaffolds with PCL or PCL/zein blend the mechanical properties of the scaffolds were substantially improved, i.e., the compressive strength increased from 0.004±0.001 MPa (uncoated BG scaffolds) to 0.15±0.02 MPa (PCL/zein coated BG scaffolds). A dense bone-like apatite layer formed on the surface of PCL/zein coated scaffolds immersed for 14 days in simulated body fluid (SBF). The data describe control of drug release and in vitro degradation behavior of coating by engineering the concentration of zein. Thus, the developed scaffolds exhibit attractive properties for application in bone tissue engineering research.
Project description:Background:Local delivery of anti-cancer drugs through a stent is a very promising and anticipated treatment modality for patients who have obstructions in their gastrointestinal tract with malignant tumors. Anticancer drug release via stents, however, needs to be optimized with respect to drug delivery behavior for the stents to be effective for prolonged containment of tumor proliferation and stent re-obstruction. Local stent-based drug delivery has been tested using an effective anti-cancer drug, gemcitabine, but the release from the stent-coated polyurethane films is often too fast and the drug is depleted from the coated film virtually in a day. Methods:To moderate the drug release from a polyurethane film, a gemcitabine-incorporated polyurethane film was enveloped with a pure polyurethane film, with no drug loading, and with a silicone film by solution casting after activation of the silicone film surface with plasma treatment. Results:The pure polyurethane barrier film was effective; the interface of the two were indistinguishable on scanning electron microscopy, and the initial burst, i.e., the cumulative release in a day, decreased from 90 to 26%. The silicone film barrier, on the other hand, was defective as voids were seen using a scanning electron microscope, and micro-separation of the two layers was observed after the film was immersed in phosphate-buffered saline for 1 day during the in vitro drug release study. Conclusions:Enveloping a gemcitabine-releasing polyurethane film with a homo-polymer barrier film was quite effective for moderating the initial burst of gemcitabine, thus, prolonging the release time of the drug. Enveloping the polyurethane film with a silicone film was also possible after plasma treatment of the silicone film surface, but the two films eventually separated in the aqueous environment. More studies are needed to tune the drug release behavior of gemcitabine from the stent covering film before attempting a clinical application of an anti-cancer drug releasing stent.