Clinical Characteristics of Gliosarcoma and Outcomes From Standardized Treatment Relative to Conventional Glioblastoma.
ABSTRACT: Background: Gliosarcoma (GS) is a rare histopathologic variant of glioblastoma (GBM) characterized by a biphasic growth pattern consisting of both glial and sarcomatous components. Reports regarding its relative prognosis compared to conventional GBM are conflicting and although GS is treated as conventional GBM, supporting evidence is lacking. The aim of this study was to characterize demographic trends, clinical outcomes and prognostic variables of GS patients receiving standardized therapy and compare these to conventional GBM. Methods: Six hundred and eighty GBM patients, treated with maximal safe resection followed by radiotherapy with concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide at a single institution, were retrospectively reevaluated by reviewing histopathological records and tumor tissue for identification of GS patients. Clinico-pathological- and tumor growth characteristics were obtained via assessment of medical records and imaging analysis. Kaplan-Meier survival estimates were compared with log-rank testing, while Cox-regression modeling was tested for prognostic factors in GS patients. Results: The cohort included 26 primary gliosarcoma (PGS) patients (3.8%) and 7 secondary gliosarcoma (SGS) patients (1.0%). Compared to conventional GBM tumors, PGS tumors were significantly more often MGMT-unmethylated (73.9%) and located in the temporal lobe (57.7%). GS tumors often presented dural contact, while extracranial metastasis was only found in 1 patient. No significant differences were found between PGS and conventional GBM in progression-free-survival (6.8 and 7.6 months, respectively, p = 0.105) and in overall survival (13.4 and 15.7 months, respectively, p = 0.201). Survival following recurrence was not significantly different between PGS, SGS, and GBM. Temporal tumor location and MGMT status were found associated with PGS survival (p = 0.036 and p = 0.022, respectively). Conclusion: Despite histopathological and location difference between GS and GBM tumors, the patients present similar survival outcome from standardized treatment. These findings support continued practice of radiation and temozolomide for GS patients.
Project description:To determine the characteristics, treatments and outcomes of patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) or gliosarcoma (GS) and metastases outside of the central nervous system (CNS).PubMed and Web of Science searches for peer-reviewed articles pertaining to GBM/ GS patients with metastatic dissemination were conducted using the keywords gliosarcoma, glioblastoma, GBM, metastasis, metastases and metastatic. Additionally, we performed hand search following the references from the selected papers. Cases with metastases to the CNS were excluded and evaluated in a separate study.109 articles published between 1928 and 2013 were eligible. They reported on 150 patients. We observed a remarkable increase in the number of cases per decade over time. Median overall survival from diagnosis of metastasis (OSM+) was 6.0 ± 0.8 months and median overall survival from initial diagnosis (OSID) 13 ± 2.4 months. On univariate analyses, gender, age, the histological subtype, the time interval between initial diagnosis and diagnosis of metastasis and pulmonary involvement did not influence OSM+. We did not observe any substantial treatment progress. A comparison of the present cohort with 84 GBM/ GS patients with exclusive CNS dissemination suggests that metastases outside the CNS are related to a slightly more favorable outcome.The occurrence of extra-CNS metastasis from GBM/ GS is associated with a dismal prognosis, however it seems to compare slightly favorable to CNS dissemination. Crucial treatment progress has not been achieved over recent decades. A central registry should be considered to consecutively gain more information about the ideal therapeutic approach.
Project description:AIMS:To determine the efficacy of methylguanine methyltransferase (MGMT) depletion + BCNU [1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1- nitrosourea: carmustine] therapy and the impact of methylation status in adults with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and gliosarcoma. METHODS:Methylation analysis was performed on GBM patients with adequate tissue samples. Patients with newly diagnosed GBM or gliosarcoma were eligible for this Phase III open-label clinical trial. At registration, patients were randomized to Arm 1, which consisted of therapy with O(6)-benzylguanine (O(6)-BG) + BCNU 40 mg/m(2) (reduced dose) + radiation therapy (RT) (O6BG + BCNU arm), or Arm 2, which consisted of therapy with BCNU 200 mg/m(2) + RT (BCNU arm). RESULTS:A total of 183 patients with newly diagnosed GBM or gliosarcoma from 42 U.S. institutions were enrolled in this study. Of these, 90 eligible patients received O(6)-BG + BCNU + RT and 89 received BCNU + RT. The trial was halted at the first interim analysis in accordance with the guidelines for stopping the study due to futility (<40 % improvement among patients on the O6BG + BCNU arm). Following adjustment for stratification factors, there was no significant difference in overall survival (OS) or progression-free survival (PFS) between the two groups (one sided p = 0.94 and p = 0.88, respectively). Median OS was 11 [95 % confidence interval (CI) 8-13] months for patients in the O6BG + BCNU arm and 10 (95 % CI 8-12) months for those in the BCNU arm. PFS was 4 months for patients in each arm. Adverse events were reported in both arms, with significantly more grade 4 and 5 events in the experimental arm. CONCLUSIONS:The addition of O(6)-BG to the standard regimen of radiation and BCNU for the treatment patients with newly diagnosed GBM and gliosarcoma did not provide added benefit and in fact caused additional toxicity.
Project description:Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are characterized by their self-renewing potential and by their ability to differentiate and phenocopy the original tumor in orthotopic xenografts. Long-term propagation of glioblastoma (GBM) cells in serum-containing medium results in loss of the CSCs and outgrowth of cells genetically and biologically divergent from the parental tumors. In contrast, the use of a neurosphere assay, a serum-free culture for selection, and propagation of central nervous system-derived stem cells allows the selection of a subpopulation containing CSCs. Gliosarcoma (GS), a morphological variant comprising approximately 2% of GBMs, present a biphasic growth pattern, composed of glial and metaplastic mesenchymal components. To assess whether the neurosphere assay would allow the amplification of a subpopulation of cells with "gliosarcoma stem cell" properties, capable of propagating both components of this malignancy, we have generated neurospheres and serum cultures from primary GS and GBM surgical specimens. Neurosphere cultures from GBM and GS samples expressed neural stem cell markers Sox2, Musashi1, and Nestin. In contrast to the GBM neurosphere lines, the GS neurospheres were negative for the stem cell marker CD133. All neurosphere lines generated high-grade invasive orthotopic tumor xenografts, with histological features strikingly similar to the parental tumors, demonstrating that these cultures indeed are enriched in CSCs. Remarkably, low-passage GS serum cultures retained the expression of stem cell markers, the ability to form neurospheres, and tumorigenicity. The GS experimental tumors phenocopied the parental tumor, exhibiting biphasic glial and mesenchymal components, constituting a clinically relevant model to investigate mesenchymal differentiation in GBMs.
Project description:Gliosarcoma is a rare histopathologic variant of glioblastoma traditionally associated with a poor prognosis. While gliosarcoma may represent a distinct clinical entity given its unique histologic composition and molecular features, its relative prognostic significance remains uncertain. While treatment of gliosarcoma generally encompasses the same standardized approach used in glioblastoma, supporting evidence is limited given its rarity. Here, we characterized 32 cases of gliosarcoma and retrospectively evaluated survival relative to 451 glioblastoma patients diagnosed during the same era within the same institution. Overall, we identified 22 primary gliosarcomas, representing 4.7% of WHO Grade IV primary glioblastomas, and 10 secondary gliosarcomas. With median age of 62, patients were predominately Caucasian (87.5%) and male (65.6%). Tumors with available molecular profiling were primarily MGMT-unmethylated (87.5%), IDH-1-preserved (100%) and EGFR wild-type (100%). Interestingly, while no significant median survival difference between primary gliosarcoma and glioblastoma was observed across the entire cohort (11.0 vs. 14.8 months, p?=?0.269), median survival was worse for gliosarcoma specifically among patients who received modern temozolomide-based (TMZ) chemoradiotherapy (11.0 vs. 17.3 months, p?=?0.006). Matched-pair analysis also trended toward worse median survival among gliosarcomas (11.0 vs. 19.6 months, log-rank p?=?0.177, Breslow p?=?0.010). While adjuvant radiotherapy (HR 0.206, p?=?0.035) and TMZ-based chemotherapy (HR 0.531, p?=?0.000) appeared protective, gliosarcoma emerged as a significantly poor prognostic factor on multivariate analysis (HR 3.27, p?=?0.012). Collectively, our results suggest that gliosarcoma may still portend worse prognosis even with modern trimodality therapy.
Project description:Background:Glioblastoma (GBM) in children is rare. Pediatric GBM have a distinct molecular profile as compared to adult GBM. There are relatively few studies of pediatric GBMs and no standard of care on adjuvant therapy. We aimed to evaluate the clinical outcome and molecular profile of pediatric GBM. Methods and Materials:Between 2004 and 2013, 66 consecutive children with histologically proven GBM were identified from our database. The majority of the children underwent maximal safe resection followed by focal radiotherapy with concurrent and adjuvant temozolomide. Immunohistochemical staining was performed for p53, MIB-1 labeling index, MGMT overexpression, and EGFR amplification and isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH1) R132H point mutation. Survival and impact of possible prognostic factors on outcomes were analyzed. Result:Median survival was 15 months. The overall survival rate at 1 year was 62%, at 2 years was 30%, and at 3 years was 27%. Patients with thalamic tumors (P < .001), incompletely resected tumors (P < .00001), and tumors with MIB-1 labeling index >25% (P < .002) had poor overall survival rates. p53 was overexpressed in 74% of patients, MGMT promoter methylation was seen in 37% of patients, IDH1 mutation was seen in 4% of patients, and no patients had EGFR amplification. MGMT methylation and p53 overexpression did not impact survival. Conclusions:Clinical outcome of pediatric GBM is similar to that reported for adult GBM. The frequency of p53 overexpression is higher than in adult GBM, while MGMT methylation, IDH1 mutations and EGFR amplification is lower than in adult GBM. MGMT methylation and p53 expression status do not have any prognostic significance.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Consistently reported prognostic factors for glioblastoma (GBM) are age, extent of surgery, performance status, IDH1 mutational status, and MGMT promoter methylation status. We aimed to integrate biological and clinical prognostic factors into a nomogram intended to predict the survival time of an individual GBM patient treated with a standard regimen. In a previous study we showed that the methylation status of the DGKI promoter identified patients with MGMT-methylated tumors that responded poorly to the standard regimen. We further evaluated the potential prognostic value of DGKI methylation status.<h4>Methods</h4>399 patients with newly diagnosed GBM and treated with a standard regimen were retrospectively included in this study. Survival modelling was performed on two patient populations: intention-to-treat population of all included patients (population 1) and MGMT-methylated patients (population 2). Cox proportional hazard models were fitted to identify the main prognostic factors. A nomogram was developed for population 1. The prognostic value of DGKI promoter methylation status was evaluated on population 1 and population 2.<h4>Results</h4>The nomogram-based stratification of the cohort identified two risk groups (high/low) with significantly different median survival. We validated the prognostic value of DGKI methylation status for MGMT-methylated patients. We also demonstrated that the DGKI methylation status identified 22% of poorly responding patients in the low-risk group defined by the nomogram.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Our results improve the conventional MGMT stratification of GBM patients receiving standard treatment. These results could help the interpretation of published or ongoing clinical trial outcomes and refine patient recruitment in the future.
Project description:Gliosarcoma (GS) is a rare variant (2%) of glioblastoma (GBM) that poses clinical genomic challenges because of its poor prognosis and limited genomic information. To gain a comprehensive view of the genomic alterations in GS and to understand the molecular etiology of GS, we applied whole-exome sequencing analyses for 28 GS cases (6 blood-matched fresh-frozen tissues for the discovery set, 22 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues for the validation set) and copy-number variation microarrays for 5 blood-matched fresh-frozen tissues. TP53 mutations were more prevalent in the GS cases (20/28, 70%) compared to the GBM cases (29/90, 32%), and the GS patients with TP53 mutations showed a significantly shorter survival (multivariate Cox analysis, hazard ratio=23.9, 95% confidence interval, 2.87-199.63, P=0.003). A pathway analysis showed recurrent alterations in MAPK signaling (EGFR, RASGRF2 and TP53), phosphatidylinositol/calcium signaling (CACNA1s, PLCs and ITPRs) and focal adhesion/tight junction (PTEN and PAK3) pathways. Genomic profiling of the matched recurrent GS cases detected the occurrence of TP53 mutations in two recurrent GS cases, which suggests that TP53 mutations play a role in treatment resistance. Functionally, we found that TP53 mutations are associated with the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process of sarcomatous components of GS. We provide the first comprehensive genome-wide genetic alternation profiling of GS, which suggests novel prognostic subgroups in GS patients based on their TP53 mutation status and provides new insight in the pathogenesis and targeted treatment of GS.
Project description:AbstractGlioblastoma (GBM) is the most common CNS tumor. Patients with recurrent GBM have few treatment options and dismal prognosis. O-methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase (MGMT) is correlated with resistance to standard of care treatment with temozolomide and poor patient outcomes. Dianhydrogalactitol (VAL-083) is a bi-functional alkylating agent with a distinct mechanism-of-action differentiating it from other alkylating agents used in the treatment of GBM and other CNS tumors. VAL-083 readily crosses the blood-brain barrier and accumulates in brain tumor tissue. VAL-083 has demonstrated MGMT-independent cytotoxicity in multiple GBM cell-lines and cancer stem cells and is able to overcome TMZ-resistance demonstrating a different mechanism of action. In multiple prior NCI-sponsored clinical trials VAL-083 showed promise against CNS tumors. We recently concluded a phase I/II clinical trial studying VAL-083 in recurrent GBM patients failing temozolomide and bevacizumab, and data suggests a potential for VAL-083 to offer clinically meaningful survival benefits in patients who have failed or are unlikely to respond to currently available chemotherapeutic regimens. In the phase I portion of the trial, VAL-083, 40 mg/m/day x 3 every 21 days was well-tolerated and this dose was selected for study in the phase II expansion phase. We are initiating multiple clinical trials targeting adult patients with chemoresistant GBM due to MGMT expression. Enrollment is anticipated to be initiated in early 2017. These trials include i) a pivotal, randomized Phase 3 study measuring survival outcome compared to “physician’s choice” control, which, if successful, would serve as the basis for a New Drug Application (NDA) submission for VAL-083. The control arm will consist of a limited number of salvage chemotherapies currently utilized in bevacizumab-failed GBM. ii) A single-arm, biomarker-driven, Phase 2 study to determine if treatment of MGMT-unmethylated recurrent GBM with VAL-083 improves overall survival at 9 months, compared to historical control in bevacizumab-naïve patients (clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT02717962). iii) A single arm Phase 2 study to confirm the tolerability of DelMar’s dosing regimen in combination with radiotherapy and to explore the activity of VAL-083 in newly diagnosed MGMT-unmethylated GBM patients whose tumors are known to express high MGMT levels. The results of these studies may support a new treatment paradigm in chemotherapeutic regimens for the treatment of GBM. Enrollment updates and study design details will be presented at the meeting.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Temozolomide (TMZ) has been the standard-of-care chemotherapy for glioblastoma (GBM) patients for more than a decade. Despite this long time in use, significant questions remain regarding how best to optimize TMZ therapy for individual patients. Understanding the relationship between TMZ response and factors such as number of adjuvant TMZ cycles, patient age, patient sex, and image-based tumor features, might help predict which GBM patients would benefit most from TMZ, particularly for those whose tumors lack O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter methylation. METHODS AND FINDINGS:Using a cohort of 90 newly-diagnosed GBM patients treated according to the standard of care, we examined the relationships between several patient and tumor characteristics and volumetric and survival outcomes during adjuvant chemotherapy. Volumetric changes in MR imaging abnormalities during adjuvant therapy were used to assess TMZ response. T1Gd volumetric response is associated with younger patient age, increased number of TMZ cycles, longer time to nadir volume, and decreased tumor invasiveness. Moreover, increased adjuvant TMZ cycles corresponded with improved volumetric response only among more nodular tumors, and this volumetric response was associated with improved survival outcomes. Finally, in a subcohort of patients with known MGMT methylation status, methylated tumors were more diffusely invasive than unmethylated tumors, suggesting the improved response in nodular tumors is not driven by a preponderance of MGMT methylated tumors. CONCLUSIONS:Our finding that less diffusely invasive tumors are associated with greater volumetric response to TMZ suggests patients with these tumors may benefit from additional adjuvant TMZ cycles, even for those without MGMT methylation.
Project description:Abstract Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and aggressive primary brain cancer. Current standard-of-care includes surgery, radiation and treatment with temozolomide (TMZ), however nearly all tumors recur and the prognosis for recurrent GBM is dismal. Resistance to TMZ is correlated with expression of the DNA repair enzyme O6-methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase (MGMT), which is highly expressed in a majority of GBM tumors. Dianhydrogalactitol (VAL-083) is a first-in-class bi-functional DNA-targeting agent that exhibited activity against GBM in NCI-sponsored clinical trials both as a single agent and in combination with radiotherapy. VAL-083 readily crosses the blood-brain barrier and accumulates in brain tumor tissue. We have demonstrated that VAL-083 targets N7-Guanine and rapidly induces interstrand DNA cross-links, leading to DNA double-strand breaks, S/G2 cell-cycle arrest and cell death in GBM cell lines and GBM cancer stem cells (CSCs) in vitro. This unique N7-guanine targeting mechanism not only circumvents MGMT-mediated chemo-resistance but also maintains cytotoxic activity in cancer cells deficient in mismatch repair (MMR). These data suggest VAL-083 may offer a superior chemotherapeutic alternative in the treatment of MGMT-unmethylated or MMR deficient GBM. Here, we provide an update of ongoing clinical trials with VAL-083 in MGMT-unmethylated GBM: i) a single-arm, biomarker-driven, Phase II study to determine if VAL-083 treatment of MGMT-unmethylated adult GBM patients at first recurrence/progression, prior to bevacizumab improves survival compared to historical lomustine control (clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT02717962); ii) a single-arm, biomarker-driven, Phase II study to confirm the tolerability and efficacy of VAL-083 in combination with radiotherapy in newly diagnosed MGMT-unmethylated GBM patients (clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT03050736). The results of these studies may support a new treatment paradigm in for the treatment of MGMT-unmethylated GBM.