Raptor/mTORC1 Acts as a Modulatory Center to Regulate Anti-bacterial Immune Response in Rockfish.
ABSTRACT: The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is an evolutionarily highly conserved atypical serine/threonine protein kinase, which regulates cell growth, proliferation, apoptosis, autophagy, and metabolism. As a regulatory protein, Raptor is awfully important for the stability and function of mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1). However, the studies about how Raptor/mTORC1 participates in and regulates immune response in lower vertebrates are still limited. In this study, we investigated the regulation of immune response by the Raptor/mTORC1 signaling pathway in rockfish Sebastes schlegelii. Sebastes schlegelii Raptor (Ss-Raptor) is a highly conserved protein during the evolution, in both primary and tertiary structure. Ss-Raptor mRNA was widely distributed in various tissues of rockfish and has a relative higher expression in spleen and blood. After infected by Micrococcus luteus or Listonella anguillarum, mRNA expression of Ss-Raptor rapidly increased within 48 h. Once Raptor/mTORC1 signaling was blocked by rapamycin, expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1? and IL-8 was severely impaired, suggesting potential regulatory role of Raptor/mTORC1 signaling in the innate immune response of rockfish. In addition, Raptor/mTORC1 pathway participated in lymphocyte activation of rockfish through promoting 4EBP1 and S6 phosphorylation. Inhibition of Raptor/mTORC1 signaling crippled the lymphocyte expansion during primary adaptive immune response, manifesting by the decrease of lymphoid organ weight and lymphocyte numbers. More importantly, inhibition of Raptor/mTORC1 signaling impaired the lymphocyte mediated cytotoxic response, and made the fish more vulnerable to the bacterial infection. Together, our results suggested that Raptor and its tightly regulated mTORC1 signaling acts as modulatory center to regulate both innate and lymphocyte-mediated adaptive immune response during bacterial infection. This research has shed new light on regulatory mechanism of teleost immune response, and provide helpful evidences to understand the evolution of immune system.
Project description:Here we report Illumina-based whole genome sequencing of three rockfish species of Sebastes in northwest Pacific. The whole genomic DNA was used to prepare 350-bp pair-end libraries and the high-throughput sequencing yielded 128.5, 137.5, and 124.8 million mapped reads corresponding to 38.54, 41.26, and 37.43?Gb sequence data for S. schlegelii, S. koreanus, and S. nudus, respectively. The k-mer analyses revealed genome sizes were 846.4, 832.5, and 813.1?Mb and the sequencing coverages were 45×, 49×, and 46× for three rockfish, respectively. Comparative genomic analyses identified 46,624 genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Phylogenetic analysis revealed closer relationships of the three species, compared to other six rockfish species. Demographic analysis identified contrasting changes between S. schlegelii and other two species, suggesting drastically different response to climate changes. The reported genome data in this study are valuable for further studies on comparative genomics and evolutionary biology of rockfish species.
Project description:The recent miniaturization of acoustic tracking devices has allowed fishery managers and scientists to collect spatial and temporal data for sustainable fishery management. The spatial and temporal dimensions of fish behavior (movement and/or vertical migrations) are particularly relevant for rockfishes (Sebastes spp.) because most rockfish species are long-lived and have high site fidelity, increasing their vulnerability to overexploitation. In this study, we describe the short-term (with a tracking period of up to 46 d) spatial behavior, as determined by acoustic tracking, of the black rockfish Sebastes schlegelii, a species subject to overexploitation in the Yellow Sea of China. The average residence index (the ratio of detected days to the total period from release to the last detection) in the study area was 0.92 ± 0.13, and most of the tagged fish were detected by only one region of the acoustic receiver array, suggesting relatively high site fidelity to the study area. Acoustic tracking also suggested that this species is more frequently detected during the day than at night in our study area. However, the diel detection periodicity (24 h) was only evident for certain periods of the tracking time, as revealed by a continuous wavelet transform. The habitat selection index of tagged S. schlegelii suggested that S. schlegelii preferred natural reefs, mixed sand/artificial reef bottoms and mixed bottoms of boulder, cobble, gravel and artificial reefs. The preference of this species for the artificial reefs that were recently deployed in the study area suggests that artificial seascapes may be effective management tools to attract individuals. The vertical movement of tagged S. schlegelii was mostly characterized by bottom dwelling behavior, and there was high individual variability in the vertical migration pattern. Our results have important implications for S. schlegelii catchability, the implementation of marine protected areas, and the identification of key species habitats, and our study provides novel information for future studies on the sustainability of this important marine resource in eastern China.
Project description:Acute change in water temperature causes heavy economic losses in the aquaculture industry. The present study investigated the metabolic and molecular effects of acute thermal stress on black rockfish (Sebastes schlegelii). Gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF-MS)-based metabolomics was used to investigate the global metabolic response of black rockfish at a high water temperature (27°C), low water temperature (5°C) and normal water temperature (16°C). Metabolites involved in energy metabolism and basic amino acids were significantly increased upon acute exposure to 27°C (P < 0.05), and no change in metabolite levels occurred in the low water temperature group. However, certain fatty acid levels were elevated after cold stress (P < 0.05), and this effect was not observed in the 27°C group, suggesting that acute high and low temperature exposures caused different physiological responses. Using quantitative real-time PCR, we analyzed the expression of ubiquitin (ub), hypoxia-inducible factor (hif), lactate dehydrogenase (ldh), and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (acac). Higher expression levels of ub, hif, and ldh (P < 0.05) were observed in the high water temperature group, but no changes in these expression levels occurred in the low water temperature group. Our findings provide a potential metabolic profile for black rockfish when exposed to acute temperature stress and provide some insights into host metabolic and molecular responses to thermal stress.
Project description:Black rockfish (Sebastes schlegelii) is an economically important viviparous marine teleost in Japan, Korea, and China. It is characterized by internal fertilization, long-term sperm storage in the female ovary, and a high abortion rate. For better understanding the mechanism of fertilization and gestation, it is essential to establish a reference genome for viviparous teleosts. Herein, we used a combination of Pacific Biosciences sequel, Illumina sequencing platforms, 10× Genomics, and Hi-C technology to obtain a genome assembly size of 848.31?Mb comprising 24 chromosomes, and contig and scaffold N50 lengths of 2.96 and 35.63?Mb, respectively. We predicted 39.98% repetitive elements, and 26,979 protein-coding genes. S. schlegelii diverged from Gasterosteus aculeatus ?32.1-56.8 million years ago. Furthermore, sperm remained viable within the ovary for up to 6?months. The glucose transporter SLC2 showed significantly positive genomic selection, and carbohydrate metabolism-related KEGG pathways were significantly up-regulated in ovaries after copulation. In vitro suppression of glycolysis with sodium iodoacetate reduced sperm longevity significantly. The results indicated the importance of carbohydrates in maintaining sperm survivability. Decoding the S. schlegelii genome not only provides new insights into sperm storage; additionally, it is highly valuable for marine researchers and reproduction biologists.
Project description:Redescriptions of two pennellid copepods, Peniculus minuticaudae Shiino, 1956 and Peniculus truncatus Shiino, 1956, are provided, based on postmetamorphic adult females collected from marine ranched fishes captured at Tongyeong marine living resources research & conservation center, Korea. Peniculus minuticaudae was collected from the soft fin rays of black scraper Thamnaconus modestus. It can be distinguished from the other two closely related congeners Peniculus ostraciontis Yamaguti, 1939 and Peniculus truncatus by having a well developed triangular-shaped abdomen; the abdomen is rudimentary in other two species. This is thefirst report of the occurrence of Peniculus minuticaudae in Korea. Peniculus truncatus was collected from the dorsal fin of Korean rockfish Sebastes schlegelii. It can be distinguished from Peniculus minuticaudae by the combination of a rudimentary abdomen, long neck and setae on leg 1 and from Peniculus ostraciontis by the long neck, slender trunk, and setae on leg 1. It is also shown that Peniculus truncatus captured from the same host in Korea was misidentified as Peniculus ostraciontis and hence, this is thesecond record of the occurrence of Peniculus truncatus in Korea. A key is provided for the 14 nominal species of Peniculus.
Project description:Naïve T cells respond to antigen stimulation by exiting from quiescence into clonal expansion and functional differentiation, but the control mechanism is elusive. Here we describe that Raptor/mTORC1-dependent metabolic reprogramming is a central determinant of this transitional process. Loss of Raptor abrogates T cell priming and Th2 cell differentiation, although Raptor function is less important for continuous proliferation of actively cycling cells. mTORC1 coordinates multiple metabolic programs in T cells including glycolysis, lipid synthesis and oxidative phosphorylation to mediate antigen-triggered exit from quiescence. mTORC1 further links glucose metabolism to the initiation of Th2 differentiation by orchestrating cytokine receptor expression and cytokine responsiveness. Activation of Raptor/mTORC1 integrates T cell receptor (TCR) and CD28 co-stimulatory signals in antigen-stimulated T cells. Our studies identify a Raptor/mTORC1-dependent pathway linking signal-dependent metabolic reprogramming to quiescence exit, and this in turn coordinates lymphocyte activation and fate decisions in adaptive immunity. We used microarrays to explore the gene expression profiles differentially expressed in CD4+ T-cells from wild-type (WT) and CD4(cre) x Raptor(fl/fl) mice before and after stimulation with anti CD3/CD28 antibodies.
Project description:The rapamycin-sensitive mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) promotes protein synthesis, cell growth, and cell proliferation in response to growth factors and nutritional cues. To elucidate the poorly defined mechanisms underlying mTORC1 regulation, we have studied the phosphorylation of raptor, an mTOR-interacting partner. We have identified six raptor phosphorylation sites that lie in two centrally localized clusters (cluster 1, Ser(696)/Thr(706) and cluster 2, Ser(855)/Ser(859)/Ser(863)/Ser(877)) using tandem mass spectrometry and generated phosphospecific antibodies for each of these sites. Here we focus primarily although not exclusively on raptor Ser(863) phosphorylation. We report that insulin promotes mTORC1-associated phosphorylation of raptor Ser(863) via the canonical PI3K/TSC/Rheb pathway in a rapamycin-sensitive manner. mTORC1 activation by other stimuli (e.g. amino acids, epidermal growth factor/MAPK signaling, and cellular energy) also promote raptor Ser(863) phosphorylation. Rheb overexpression increases phosphorylation on raptor Ser(863) as well as on the five other identified sites (e.g. Ser(859), Ser(855), Ser(877), Ser(696), and Thr(706)). Strikingly, raptor Ser(863) phosphorylation is absolutely required for raptor Ser(859) and Ser(855) phosphorylation. These data suggest that mTORC1 activation leads to raptor multisite phosphorylation and that raptor Ser(863) phosphorylation functions as a master biochemical switch that modulates hierarchical raptor phosphorylation (e.g. on Ser(859) and Ser(855)). Importantly, mTORC1 containing phosphorylation site-defective raptor exhibits reduced in vitro kinase activity toward the substrate 4EBP1, with a multisite raptor 6A mutant more strongly defective that single-site raptor S863A. Taken together, these data suggest that complex raptor phosphorylation functions as a biochemical rheostat that modulates mTORC1 signaling in accordance with environmental cues.
Project description:Rockfish (Sebastes spp.) are a common marine fish in nearshore and continental shelf environments in the North Pacific Ocean. They are frequently identified in coastal archaeological sites in western North America; however, the morphological similarity of rockfish species limits conventional zooarchaeological identifications to the genus level. This study applies ancient DNA analysis to 96 archaeological rockfish specimens from four sites on separate islands in an archipelago on western Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada. Two of the archaeological sites are located within a marine protected area specifically designed to facilitate the recovery of inshore rockfish populations; two sites are located outside this boundary and remain subject to considerable fishing pressure. Using mitochondrial 16S and control region DNA sequences, we identify at least twelve different rockfish species utilized during the past 2,500 years. Identification of rockfish at closely spaced and contemporaneously occupied sites confirms that a variety of Sebastes species were consistently exploited at each site, with more exposed areas having a higher number of species present. Identification results indicate that four of the twelve species did not occur within the conservation area boundary and, instead, were found in sites where commercial and recreational fishing continues to be permitted. This study demonstrates that ancient DNA identifications of archaeological assemblages can complement and expand perspective on modern day fisheries conservation and management in this National Park Reserve and First Nations ancestral territory.
Project description:mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1; mammalian target of rapamycin [mTOR] in complex with raptor) is a key regulator of protein synthesis and cell growth in response to nutrient amino acids. Here we report that inositol polyphosphate multikinase (IPMK), which possesses both inositol phosphate kinase and lipid kinase activities, regulates amino acid signaling to mTORC1. This regulation is independent of IPMK's catalytic function, instead reflecting its binding with mTOR and raptor, which maintains the mTOR-raptor association. Thus, IPMK appears to be a physiologic mTOR cofactor, serving as a determinant of mTORC1 stability and amino acid-induced mTOR signaling. Substances that block IPMK-mTORC1 binding may afford therapeutic benefit in nutrient amino acid-regulated conditions such as obesity and diabetes.
Project description:Naive T cells respond to antigen stimulation by exiting from quiescence and initiating clonal expansion and functional differentiation, but the control mechanism is elusive. Here we describe that Raptor-mTORC1-dependent metabolic reprogramming is a central determinant of this transitional process. Loss of Raptor abrogated T cell priming and T helper 2 (Th2) cell differentiation, although Raptor function is less important for continuous proliferation of actively cycling cells. mTORC1 coordinated multiple metabolic programs in T cells including glycolysis, lipid synthesis, and oxidative phosphorylation to mediate antigen-triggered exit from quiescence. mTORC1 further linked glucose metabolism to the initiation of Th2 cell differentiation by orchestrating cytokine receptor expression and cytokine responsiveness. Activation of Raptor-mTORC1 integrated T cell receptor and CD28 costimulatory signals in antigen-stimulated T cells. Our studies identify a Raptor-mTORC1-dependent pathway linking signal-dependent metabolic reprogramming to quiescence exit, and this in turn coordinates lymphocyte activation and fate decisions in adaptive immunity.