Perinatal protein restriction with postnatal catch-up growth leads to elevated p66Shc and mitochondrial dysfunction in the adult rat liver.
ABSTRACT: Epidemiological data suggest an inverse relationship between birth weight and long-term metabolic deficits, which is exacerbated by postnatal catch-up growth. We have previously demonstrated that rat offspring subject to maternal protein restriction (MPR) followed by catch-up growth exhibit impaired hepatic function and ER stress. Given that mitochondrial dysfunction is associated with various metabolic pathologies, we hypothesized that altered expression of p66Shc, a gatekeeper of oxidative stress and mitochondrial function, contributes to the hepatic defects observed in MPR offspring. To test this hypothesis, pregnant Wistar rats were fed a control (20% protein) diet or an isocaloric low protein (8%; LP) diet throughout gestation. Offspring born to control dams received a control diet in postnatal life, while MPR offspring remained on a LP diet (LP1) or received a control diet post weaning (LP2) or at birth (LP3). At four months, LP2 offspring exhibited increased protein abundance of both p66Shc and the cis-trans isomerase PIN1. This was further associated with aberrant markers of oxidative stress (i.e. elevated 4-HNE, SOD1 and SOD2, decreased catalase) and aerobic metabolism (i.e., increased phospho-PDH and LDHa, decreased complex II, citrate synthase and TFAM). We further demonstrated that tunicamycin-induced ER stress in HepG2 cells led to increased p66Shc protein abundance, suggesting that ER stress may underlie the programmed effects observed in vivo. In summary, because these defects are exclusive to adult LP2 offspring, it is possible that a low protein diet during perinatal life, a period of liver plasticity, followed by catch-up growth is detrimental to long-term mitochondrial function.
Project description:Substantial evidence indicated that catch-up growth could increase the susceptibility to obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes mellitus in adulthood. However, investigations into the "programming" effects of catch-up growth on gut microbiota in the offspring are limited. C57/BL6 mice were fed on either low protein (LP) or normal chow (NC) diet throughout gestation and lactation. Then, the offspring were randomly weaned to either NC or high fat (HF) diet until 32 weeks of age, generating four experimental groups: NC-NC, NC-HF, LP-NC, and LP-HF. Metabolic parameters and gut microbiota were examined in the offspring. It showed that the NC-HF and LP-HF offspring displayed higher body weight (P < 0.05), impaired glucose tolerance (P < 0.001), and elevated serum lipids (P < 0.05) at 32 weeks of age. Both the operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and the Shannon indexes (P < 0.05) showed significantly lower microbial diversity in NC-HF and LP-HF offspring. There were significant variations in the compositions of gut microbiota in the NC-HF and LP-HF offspring, compared with NC-NC offspring (P < 0.05). Furthermore, it indicated Lactobacillus percentage was negatively associated with blood glucose concentrations of intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (r = -0.886, P = 0.019). In conclusion, catch-up growth predisposes the offspring to gut microbiota perturbation, obesity, impaired glucose tolerance, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia. Our study is novel in showing the "programming" effects of nutrition-induced catch-up growth on gut microbiota and metabolic diseases in later life.
Project description:BACKGROUND: A link between early mismatched nutritional environment and development of components of the metabolic syndrome later in life has been shown in epidemiological and animal data. The aim of this study was to investigate whether an early mismatched nutrition produced by catch-up growth after fetal protein restriction could induce the appearance of hypertension and/or atherosclerosis in adult male mice. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Wild-type C57BL6/J or LDLr-/- dams were fed a low protein (LP) or a control (C) diet during gestation. Catch-up growth was induced in LP offspring by feeding dams with a control diet and by culling the litter to 4 pups against 8 in controls. At weaning, male mice were fed either standard chow or an obesogenic diet (OB), leading to 4 experimental groups. Blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) were assessed in conscious unrestrained wild-type mice by telemetry. Atherosclerosis plaque area was measured in aortic root sections of LDLr-/- mice. We found that: (1) postnatal OB diet increased significantly BP (P<0.0001) and HR (P<0.008) in 3-month old OB-C and OB-LP offspring, respectively; (2) that maternal LP diet induced a significant higher BP (P<0.009) and HR (P<0.004) and (3) an altered circadian rhythm in addition to higher plasma corticosterone concentration in 9 months-old LP offspring; (4) that, although LP offspring showed higher plasma total cholesterol than control offspring, atherosclerosis assessed in aortic roots of 6-mo old mice featured increased plaque area due to OB feeding but not due to early mismatched nutrition. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results indicate a long-term effect of early mismatched nutrition on the appearance of hypertension independently of obesity, while no effect on atherosclerosis was noticed at this age.
Project description:This study was performed to identify transcriptional alterations in male intrauterine growth restricted (IUGR) rats during and at the end of nephrogenesis in order to generate hypotheses which molecular mechanisms contribute to adverse kidney programming. IUGR was induced by low protein (LP) diet throughout pregnancy, bilateral uterine vessel ligation (LIG), or intrauterine stress (IUS) by sham operation. Offspring of unimpaired dams served as controls. Significant acute kidney damage was ruled out by negative results for proteins indicative of ER-stress, autophagy, apoptosis, or infiltration with macrophages. Renal gene expression was examined by transcriptome microarrays, demonstrating 53 (LP, n =?12; LIG, n =?32; IUS, n =?9) and 134 (LP, n =?10; LIG, n =?41; IUS, n =?83) differentially expressed transcripts on postnatal days (PND) 1 and 7, respectively. Reduced Pilra (all IUGR groups, PND 7), Nupr1 (LP and LIG, PND 7), and Kap (LIG, PND 1) as well as increased Ccl20, S100a8/a9 (LIG, PND 1), Ifna4, and Ltb4r2 (IUS, PND 7) indicated that inflammation-related molecular dysregulation could be a "common" feature after IUGR of different origins. Network analyses of transcripts and predicted upstream regulators hinted at proinflammatory adaptions mainly in LIG (arachidonic acid-binding, neutrophil aggregation, toll-like-receptor, NF-kappa B, and TNF signaling) and dysregulation of AMPK and PPAR signaling in LP pups. The latter may increase susceptibility towards obesity-associated kidney damage. Western blots of the most prominent predicted upstream regulators confirmed significant dysregulation of RICTOR in LP (PND 7) and LIG pups (PND 1), suggesting that mTOR-related processes could further modulate kidney programming in these groups of IUGR pups. KEY MESSAGES: Inflammation-related transcripts are dysregulated in neonatal IUGR rat kidneys. Upstream analyses indicate renal metabolic dysregulation after low protein diet. RICTOR is dysregulated after low protein diet and uterine vessel ligation.
Project description:Poor fetal growth and associated prepubertal growth acceleration are linked to increased risk of cardiometabolic dysfunction in later life, but whether obesity is integral to 'catch-up' growth and its ensuing risks are unknown. In microswine offspring exposed to perinatal maternal protein restriction (MPR), we measured body and organ sizes (during MPR); linear growth and weight gain (birth to 5 months of age); feed intake and utilization efficiency (5-14 weeks); and body composition at 6 and 11 weeks of age (by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, DEXA). During MPR, low protein offspring (LPO) showed asymmetric growth restriction with reduced body weight (Wt):length (Lth) at birth and elevated heart Wt:liver Wt ratio by 2 weeks of age. In LPO, after slow early postnatal growth (0-5 weeks), subsequent linear growth on ad libitum normal feed was absolutely accelerated (cm/week; P < 0.001) over 6-11 weeks but normal thereafter, whereas absolute weight gain (kg/week) was similar to controls but accelerated relative to lower LPO nadir weights. Concurrently, rates of fat and lean tissue accrual in LPO over 6-11 weeks were similar to normal protein offspring in absolute terms (g/5 weeks) but increased relative to lower mass at 6 weeks, yielding normal lean:Lth but reduced fat:Lth ratios at 11 weeks. LPO had higher relative feed intake (g/kg/meal) in both sexes and higher feed efficiency in females over 5-11 weeks of age. Findings suggest that postnatal linear growth acceleration preserved thinness in juvenile LPO. Given separately reported abnormalities of vascular (Bagby et al., 2011) and adipocyte function in juvenile LPO, (DuPriest et al., 2011) findings demonstrate that perinatal MPR programs catch-up growth and cardiovascular abnormalities independently of obesity.
Project description:Maternal protein restriction is associated with increased risk of insulin resistance and inflammation in adulthood offspring. Here, we investigated whether maternal protein restriction could alter the risk of metabolic syndrome in postweaning high-fat (HF)-diet-challenged offspring, with focus on epididymal adipose tissue gene expression profile. Female ICR mice were fed a control (C) or a low-protein (LP) diet for two weeks before mating and throughout gestation and lactation, and their male offspring were fed an HF diet for 22 weeks (C/HF and LP/HF groups). A subset of offspring of control dams was fed a low-fat control diet (C/C group). In response to postweaning HF diet, serum insulin level and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were increased in control offspring. Maternal LP diet decreased HOMA-IR and adipose tissue inflammation, and increased serum adiponectin level in the HF-diet-challenged offspring. Accordingly, functional analysis revealed that differentially expressed genes (DEGs) enriched in cytokine production were downregulated in the LP/HF group compared to the C/HF group. We also observed the several annotated gene ontology terms associated with innate immunity and phagocytosis in down-regulated DEGs between LP/HF and C/C groups. In conclusion, maternal protein restriction alleviated insulin resistance and inflammation in young offspring mice fed a HF diet but may impair development of immune system in offspring.
Project description:Maternal protein deficiency during the critical development period of the progeny disturbs mitochondrial metabolism in the brainstem, which increases the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases in the first-generation (F1) offspring, but is unknown if this effect persists in the second-generation (F2) offspring. The study tested whether mitochondrial health and oxidative balance will be restored in F2 rats. Male and female rats were divided into six groups according to the diet fed to their mothers throughout gestation and lactation periods. These groups were: (1) normoprotein (NP) and (2) low-protein (LP) rats of the first filial generation (F1-NP and F1-LP, respectively) and (3) NP and (4) LP rats of the second filial generation (F2-NP and F2-LP, respectively). After weaning, all groups received commercial chow and a portion of each group was sacrificed on the 30th day of life for determination of mitochondrial and oxidative parameters. The remaining portion of the F1 group was mated at adulthood and fed an NP or LP diet during the periods of gestation and lactation, to produce progeny belonging to (5) F2R-NP and (6) F2R-LP group, respectively. Our results demonstrated that male F1-LP rats suffered mitochondrial impairment associated with an 89% higher production of reactive species (RS) and 137% higher oxidative stress biomarkers, but that the oxidative stress was blunted in female F1-LP animals despite the antioxidant impairment. In the second generation following F0 malnutrition, brainstem antioxidant defenses were restored in the F2-LP group of both sexes. However, F2R-LP offspring, exposed to LP in the diets of the two preceding generations displayed a RS overproduction with a concomitant decrease in mitochondrial bioenergetics. Our findings demonstrate that nutritional stress during the reproductive life of the mother can negatively affect mitochondrial metabolism and oxidative balance in the brainstem of F1 progeny, but that restoration of a normal diet during the reproductive life of those individuals leads toward a mitochondrial recovery in their own (F2) progeny. Otherwise, if protein deprivation is continued from the F0 generation and into the F1 generation, the F2 progeny will exhibit no recovery, but instead will remain vulnerable to further oxidative damage.
Project description:Objectives: Placental steroid metabolism is linked to the fetal hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis. Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) might alter this cross-talk and lead to maternal stress, in turn contributing to the pathogenesis of anxiety-related disorders of the offspring, which might be mediated by fetal overexposure to, or a reduced local enzymatic protection against maternal glucocorticoids. So far, direct evidence of altered levels of circulating/local glucocorticoids is scarce. Liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) allows quantitative endocrine assessment of blood and tissue. Using a rat model of maternal protein restriction (low protein [LP] vs. normal protein [NP]) to induce IUGR, we analyzed fetal and maternal steroid levels via LC-MS/MS along with the local expression of 11beta-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase (Hsd11b). Methods: Pregnant Wistar dams were fed a low protein (8%, LP; IUGR) or an isocaloric normal protein diet (17%, NP; controls). At E18.5, the expression of Hsd11b1 and 2 was determined by RT-PCR in fetal placenta and brain. Steroid profiling of maternal and fetal whole blood, fetal brain, and placenta was performed via LC-MS/MS. Results: In animals with LP-induced reduced body (p < 0.001) and placental weights (p < 0.05) we did not observe any difference in the expressional Hsd11b1/2-ratio in brain or placenta. Moreover, LP diet did not alter corticosterone (Cort) or 11-dehydrocorticosterone (DH-Cort) levels in dams, while fetal whole blood levels of Cort were significantly lower in the LP group (p < 0.001) and concomitantly in LP brain (p = 0.003) and LP placenta (p = 0.002). Maternal and fetal progesterone levels (whole blood and tissue) were not influenced by LP diet. Conclusion: Various rat models of intrauterine stress show profound alterations in placental Hsd11b2 gatekeeper function and fetal overexposure to corticosterone. In contrast, LP diet in our model induced IUGR without altering maternal steroid levels or placental enzymatic glucocorticoid barrier function. In fact, IUGR offspring showed significantly reduced levels of circulating and local corticosterone. Thus, our LP model might not represent a genuine model of intrauterine stress. Hypothetically, the observed changes might reflect a fetal attempt to maintain anabolic conditions in the light of protein restriction to sustain regular brain development. This may contribute to fetal origins of later neurodevelopmental sequelae.
Project description:Taurine ameliorates changes occurring in newborn skeletal muscle as a result of gestational protein restriction in C57BL/6 mice, but taurine supplementation effects may be exaggerated in C57BL/6 mice due to their inherent excessive taurinuria. We examined if maternal taurine supplementation could ameliorate changes in gene expression levels, properties of mitochondria, myogenesis, and nutrient transport and sensing, in male newborn skeletal muscle caused by a maternal low protein (LP) diet in Wistar rats. LP diet resulted in an 11% non-significant decrease in birth weight, which was not rescued by taurine supplementation (LP-Tau). LP-Tau offspring had signifi-cantly lower birth weight compared to controls. Gene expression profiling revealed 895 significantly changed genes, mainly an LP-induced down-regulation of genes involved in protein translation. Taurine fully or partially rescued 32% of these changes, but with no distinct pattern as to which genes were rescued. Skeletal muscle taurine content in LP-Tau offspring was increased, but no changes in mRNA levels of the taurine synthesis pathway were observed. Taurine transporter mRNA levels, but not protein levels, were increased by LP diet. Nutrient sensing pathways were largely unaffected in LP or LP-Tau groups, although taurine supplementation caused an unexpected decrease in total Akt and AMPK protein levels. PAT4 amino acid transporter mRNA was increased by LP, and normalized by taurine supplementation. In conclusion, gestational protein restriction in rats decreased genes involved in protein translation in newborn skeletal muscle and led to changes in nutrient transporters. Taurine partly rescued these changes, hence underscoring the im-portance of taurine in development. We used microarrays to detail changes in global programme of gene expression in newborn offspring skeletal muscle brains from rats subjected to either a control diet, a low protein diet or a low protein diet + taurine supplementation Overall design: Pregnant Wistar rats were put on a control diet, a low protein diet or a low protein diet with taurine supplementation in the drinking water (2% w/v) starting day 1 of gestation. Newborn hind leg skeletal muscle from three male offspring of each dam was excised and pooled, followed by RNA extraction and hybridization on Affymetrix microarrays. Offspring from four dams from each group was used for the experiment resulting in a total number of samples of 12
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Here, we have demonstrated that gestational low-protein (LP) intake offspring present lower birth weight, reduced nephron numbers, renal salt excretion, arterial hypertension, and renal failure development compared to regular protein (NP) intake rats in adulthood. We evaluated the expression of various miRNAs and predicted target genes in the kidney in gestational 17-days LP (DG-17) fetal metanephros to identify molecular pathways involved in the proliferation and differentiation of renal embryonic or fetal cells.<h4>Methods</h4>Pregnant Wistar rats were classified into two groups based on protein supply during pregnancy: NP (regular protein diet, 17%) or LP diet (6%). Renal miRNA sequencing (miRNA-Seq) performed on the MiSeq platform, RT-qPCR of predicted target genes, immunohistochemistry, and morphological analysis of 17-DG NP and LP offspring were performed using previously described methods.<h4>Results</h4>A total of 44 miRNAs, of which 19 were up and 25 downregulated, were identified in 17-DG LP fetuses compared to age-matched NP offspring. We selected 7 miRNAs involved in proliferation, differentiation, and cellular apoptosis. Our findings revealed reduced cell number and Six-2 and c-Myc immunoreactivity in metanephros cap (CM) and ureter bud (UB) in 17-DG LP fetuses. Ki-67 immunoreactivity in CM was 48% lesser in LP compared to age-matched NP fetuses. Conversely, in LP CM and UB, ?-catenin was 154%, and 85% increased, respectively. Furthermore, mTOR immunoreactivity was higher in LP CM (139%) and UB (104%) compared to that in NP offspring. TGF?-1 positive cells in the UB increased by approximately 30% in the LP offspring. Moreover, ZEB1 metanephros-stained cells increased by 30% in the LP offspring. ZEB2 immunofluorescence, although present in the entire metanephros, was similar in both experimental groups.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Maternal protein restriction changes the expression of miRNAs, mRNAs, and proteins involved in proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis during renal development. Renal ontogenic dysfunction, caused by maternal protein restriction, promotes reduced reciprocal interaction between CM and UB; consequently, a programmed and expressive decrease in nephron number occurs in the fetus.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Islets from adult rat possess weak antioxidant defense leading to unbalance between superoxide dismutase (SOD) and hydrogen peroxide-inactivating enzymatic activities, catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) rending them susceptible to oxidative stress. We have shown that this vulnerability is influenced by maternal diet during gestation and lactation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS:The present study investigated if low antioxidant activity in islets is already observed at birth and if maternal protein restriction influences the development of islet antioxidant defenses. Rats were fed a control diet (C group) or a low protein diet during gestation (LP) or until weaning (LPT), after which offspring received the control diet. We found that antioxidant enzymatic activities varied with age. At birth and after weaning, normal islets possessed an efficient GPX activity. However, the antioxidant capacity decreased thereafter increasing the potential vulnerability to oxidative stress. Maternal protein malnutrition changed the antioxidant enzymatic activities in islets of the progeny. At 3 months, SOD activity was increased in LP and LPT islets with no concomitant activation of CAT and GPX. This unbalance could lead to higher hydrogen peroxide production, which may concur to oxidative stress causing defective insulin gene expression due to modification of critical factors that modulate the insulin promoter. We found indeed that insulin mRNA level was reduced in both groups of malnourished offspring compared to controls. Analyzing the expression of such critical factors, we found that c-Myc expression was strongly increased in islets from both protein-restricted groups compared to controls. CONCLUSION AND SIGNIFICANCE:Modification in antioxidant activity by maternal low protein diet could predispose to pancreatic islet dysfunction later in life and provide new insights to define a molecular mechanism responsible for intrauterine programming of endocrine pancreas.