ADAR1 function affects HPV replication and is associated to recurrent human papillomavirus-induced dysplasia in HIV coinfected individuals.
ABSTRACT: Infection by human papillomavirus (HPV) alters the microenvironment of keratinocytes as a mechanism to evade the immune system. A-to-I editing by ADAR1 has been reported to regulate innate immunity in response to viral infections. Here, we evaluated the role of ADAR1 in HPV infection in vitro and in vivo. Innate immune activation was characterized in human keratinocyte cell lines constitutively infected or not with HPV. ADAR1 knockdown induced an innate immune response through enhanced expression of RIG-I-like receptors (RLR) signaling cascade, over-production of type-I IFNs and pro-inflammatory cytokines. ADAR1 knockdown enhanced expression of HPV proteins, a process dependent on innate immune function as no A-to-I editing could be identified in HPV transcripts. A genetic association study was performed in a cohort of HPV/HIV infected individuals followed for a median of 6 years (range 0.1-24). We identified the low frequency haplotype AACCAT significantly associated with recurrent HPV dysplasia, suggesting a role of ADAR1 in the outcome of HPV infection in HIV+ individuals. In summary, our results suggest that ADAR1-mediated innate immune activation may influence HPV disease outcome, therefore indicating that modification of innate immune effectors regulated by ADAR1 could be a therapeutic strategy against HPV infection.
Project description:ADAR1-dependent A-to-I editing has recently been recognized as a key process for marking dsRNA as self, therefore, preventing innate immune activation and affecting the development and resolution of immune-mediated diseases and infections. Here, we have determined the role of ADAR1 as a regulator of innate immune activation and modifier of viral susceptibility in primary myeloid and lymphoid cells. We show that ADAR1 knockdown significantly enhanced interferon, cytokine and chemokine production in primary macrophages that function as antiviral paracrine factors, rendering them resistant to HIV-1 infection. ADAR1 knockdown induced deregulation of the RLRs-MAVS signaling pathway, by increasing MDA5, RIG-I, IRF7 and phospho-STAT1 expression, an effect that was partially rescued by pharmacological blockade of the pathway. In summary, our results demonstrate a role of ADAR1 in regulating innate immune function in primary macrophages, suggesting that macrophages may play an essential role in disease associated to ADAR1 dysfunction. We also show that viral inhibition is exclusively dependent on innate immune activation consequence of ADAR1 knockdown, pointing towards ADAR1 as a potential target to boost antiviral immune response.
Project description:Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is a double-stranded DNA virus that exhibits two alternative life cycles: latency and lytic reactivation. During lytic reactivation, host innate immune responses are activated to restrict viral replication. Here, we report that adenosine deaminase acting on RNA 1 (ADAR1) is required for optimal KSHV lytic reactivation from latency. Knockdown of ADAR1 in KSHV latently infected cells inhibits viral gene transcription and viral replication during KSHV lytic reactivation. ADAR1 deficiency also significantly increases type I interferon production during KSHV reactivation. This increased interferon response is dependent on activation of the RIG-I-like receptor (RLR) pathway. Depletion of ADAR1 together with either RIG-I, MDA5, or MAVS reverses the increased IFN? production and rescues KSHV lytic replication. These data suggest that ADAR1 serves as a proviral factor for KSHV lytic reactivation and facilitates DNA virus reactivation by dampening the RLR pathway-mediated innate immune response.
Project description:The ADAR RNA-editing enzymes deaminate adenosine bases to inosines in cellular RNAs. Aberrant interferon expression occurs in patients in whom ADAR1 mutations cause Aicardi-Goutières syndrome (AGS) or dystonia arising from striatal neurodegeneration. Adar1 mutant mouse embryos show aberrant interferon induction and die by embryonic day E12.5. We demonstrate that Adar1 embryonic lethality is rescued to live birth in Adar1; Mavs double mutants in which the antiviral interferon induction response to cytoplasmic double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) is prevented. Aberrant immune responses in Adar1 mutant mouse embryo fibroblasts are dramatically reduced by restoring the expression of editing-active cytoplasmic ADARs. We propose that inosine in cellular RNA inhibits antiviral inflammatory and interferon responses by altering RLR interactions. Transfecting dsRNA oligonucleotides containing inosine-uracil base pairs into Adar1 mutant mouse embryo fibroblasts reduces the aberrant innate immune response. ADAR1 mutations causing AGS affect the activity of the interferon-inducible cytoplasmic isoform more severely than the nuclear isoform.
Project description:Excessive inflammation resulting from activation of the innate immune system significantly contributes to ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI). Inflammatory reactions in both IRI and infections share the same signaling pathways evoked by danger/pathogen associated molecular pattern molecules. The cytosolic retinoid-inducible gene I(RIG-I)-like RNA receptor (RLR) RNA sensing pathway mediates type I IFN production during viral infection and the sensing of viral RNA is regulated by adenosine deaminase acting on RNA 1 (ADAR1). Using a model of liver IRI, we provide evidence that ADAR1 also regulates cytosolic RNA-sensing pathways in the setting of ischemic stress. Suppression of ADAR1 significantly enhanced inflammation and liver damage following IRI, which was accompanied by significant increases in type I IFN through cytosolic RNA-sensing pathways. In addition, knocking ADAR1 down in hepatocytes exaggerates inflammatory signaling to dsRNA or endotoxin and results in over production of type I IFN, which could be abolished by the interruption of RIG-I. Therefore, we identified a novel ADAR1-dependent protective contribution through which hepatocytes guard against aberrant cytosolic RLR-RNA-sensing pathway mediated inflammatory reaction in response to acute liver IR. ADAR1 protects against over activation of viral RNA-sensing pathways in non-infectious tissue stress.
Project description:T cells play a crucial role in the adaptive immune system, and their maturation process is tightly regulated. Adenosine deaminase acting on RNA 1 (ADAR1) is the enzyme responsible for adenosine-to-inosine RNA editing in dsRNAs, and loss of ADAR1 activates the innate immune sensing response via melanoma differentiation-associated protein 5 (MDA5), which interprets unedited dsRNA as non-self. Although ADAR1 is highly expressed in the thymus, its role in the adaptive immune system, especially in T cells, remains elusive. Here, we demonstrate that T cell-specific deletion of Adar1 in mice causes abnormal thymic T cell maturation including impaired negative selection and autoimmunity such as spontaneous colitis. This is caused by excessive expression of interferon-stimulated genes, which reduces T cell receptor (TCR) signal transduction, due to a failure of RNA editing in ADAR1-deficient thymocytes. Intriguingly, concurrent deletion of MDA5 restores thymocyte maturation and prevents colitis. These findings suggest that prevention of MDA5 sensing of endogenous dsRNA by ADAR1-mediated RNA editing is required for preventing both innate immune responses and T cell-mediated autoimmunity.
Project description:Adenosine deaminases that act on RNA (ADARs) convert adenosine residues to inosine in double-stranded RNA. In vivo, ADAR1 is essential for the maintenance of hematopoietic stem/progenitors. Whether other hematopoietic cell types also require ADAR1 has not been assessed. Using erythroid- and myeloid-restricted deletion of Adar1, we demonstrate that ADAR1 is dispensable for myelopoiesis but is essential for normal erythropoiesis. Adar1-deficient erythroid cells display a profound activation of innate immune signaling and high levels of cell death. No changes in microRNA levels were found in ADAR1-deficient erythroid cells. Using an editing-deficient allele, we demonstrate that RNA editing is the essential function of ADAR1 during erythropoiesis. Mapping of adenosine-to-inosine editing in purified erythroid cells identified clusters of hyperedited adenosines located in long 3'-untranslated regions of erythroid-specific transcripts and these are ADAR1-specific editing events. ADAR1-mediated RNA editing is essential for normal erythropoiesis.
Project description:Adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) editing of dsRNA by ADAR proteins is a pervasive epitranscriptome feature. Tens of thousands of A-to-I editing events are defined in the mouse, yet the functional impact of most is unknown. Editing causing protein recoding is the essential function of ADAR2, but an essential role for recoding by ADAR1 has not been demonstrated. ADAR1 has been proposed to have editing-dependent and editing-independent functions. The relative contribution of these in vivo has not been clearly defined. A critical function of ADAR1 is editing of endogenous RNA to prevent activation of the dsRNA sensor MDA5 (Ifih1). Outside of this, how ADAR1 editing contributes to normal development and homeostasis is uncertain.We describe the consequences of ADAR1 editing deficiency on murine homeostasis. Adar1 E861A/E861A Ifih1 -/- mice are strikingly normal, including their lifespan. There is a mild, non-pathogenic innate immune activation signature in the Adar1 E861A/E861A Ifih1 -/- mice. Assessing A-to-I editing across adult tissues demonstrates that outside of the brain, ADAR1 performs the majority of editing and that ADAR2 cannot compensate in its absence. Direct comparison of the Adar1 -/- and Adar1 E861A/E861A alleles demonstrates a high degree of concordance on both Ifih1 +/+ and Ifih1 -/- backgrounds, suggesting no substantial contribution from ADAR1 editing-independent functions.These analyses demonstrate that the lifetime absence of ADAR1-editing is well tolerated in the absence of MDA5. We conclude that protein recoding arising from ADAR1-mediated editing is not essential for organismal homeostasis. Additionally, the phenotypes associated with loss of ADAR1 are the result of RNA editing and MDA5-dependent functions.
Project description:Cells sense pathogen-derived double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) as nonself. To avoid autoimmune activation by self dsRNA, cells utilize A-to-I editing by adenosine deaminase acting on RNA 1 (ADAR1) to disrupt dsRNA structures. Considering that viruses have evolved to exploit host machinery, A-to-I editing could benefit innate immune evasion by viruses. Borna disease virus (BoDV), a nuclear-replicating RNA virus, may require escape from nonself RNA-sensing and immune responses to establish persistent infection in the nucleus; however, the strategy by which BoDV evades nonself recognition is unclear. Here, we evaluated the involvement of ADARs in BoDV infection. The infection efficiency of BoDV was markedly decreased in both ADAR1 and ADAR2 knockdown cells at the early phase of infection. Microarray analysis using ADAR2 knockdown cells revealed that ADAR2 reduces immune responses even in the absence of infection. Knockdown of ADAR2 but not ADAR1 significantly reduced the spread and titer of BoDV in infected cells. Furthermore, ADAR2 knockout decreased the infection efficiency of BoDV, and overexpression of ADAR2 rescued the reduced infectivity in ADAR2 knockdown cells. However, the growth of influenza A virus, which causes acute infection in the nucleus, was not affected by ADAR2 knockdown. Moreover, ADAR2 bound to BoDV genomic RNA and induced A-to-G mutations in the genomes of persistently infected cells. We finally demonstrated that BoDV produced in ADAR2 knockdown cells induces stronger innate immune responses than those produced in wild-type cells. Taken together, our results suggest that BoDV utilizes ADAR2 to edit its genome to appear as "self" RNA in order to maintain persistent infection in the nucleus.IMPORTANCE Cells use the editing activity of adenosine deaminase acting on RNA proteins (ADARs) to prevent autoimmune responses induced by self dsRNA, but viruses can exploit this process to their advantage. Borna disease virus (BoDV), a nuclear-replicating RNA virus, must escape nonself RNA sensing by the host to establish persistent infection in the nucleus. We evaluated whether BoDV utilizes ADARs to prevent innate immune induction. ADAR2 plays a key role throughout the BoDV life cycle. ADAR2 knockdown reduced A-to-I editing of BoDV genomic RNA, leading to the induction of a strong innate immune response. These data suggest that BoDV exploits ADAR2 to edit nonself genomic RNA to appear as self RNA for innate immune evasion and establishment of persistent infection.
Project description:The ADAR RNA editing enzymes deaminate adenosine bases to inosines in cellular RNAs, recoding open reading frames. Human ADAR1 mutations cause Aicardi-Goutieres Syndrome (AGS) and Adar1 mutant mice showing an aberrant interferon response and death by embryonic day E12.5 model the human disease. Searches have not identified key ADAR1 RNA editing sites recoding immune/haematopoietic proteins but editing is widespread in Alu sequences. We show that Adar1 embryonic lethality is rescued in Adar1; Mavs double mutant mice in which general antiviral responses to cytoplasmic dsRNA are prevented. We propose that inosine bases are epigenetic marks identifying cellular RNA as innate immune ÒselfÓ. Consistent with this idea we show that an editing-active cytoplasmic ADAR is required to prevent aberrant immune responses in Adar1 mutant mouse embryo fibroblasts. No dramatic increase in repetitive transcripts is observed. AGS mutations in ADAR1 affect editing by the interferon-inducible cytoplasmic ADAR1 isoform. RNA-seq expression profiling in Adar1 and Adar1/Mavs knockout mice embryos.
Project description:The blossom of immunotherapy in melanoma highlights the need to delineate mechanisms of immune resistance. Recently, we have demonstrated that the RNA editing protein, adenosine deaminase acting on RNA-1 (ADAR1) is down-regulated during metastatic transition of melanoma, which enhances melanoma cell proliferation and tumorigenicity. Here we investigate the role of ADAR1 in melanoma immune resistance.Importantly, knockdown of ADAR1 in human melanoma cells induces resistance to tumor infiltrating lymphocytes in a cell contact-dependent mechanism. We show that ADAR1, in an editing-independent manner, regulates the biogenesis of miR-222 at the transcription level and thereby Intercellular Adhesion Molecule 1 (ICAM1) expression, which consequently affects melanoma immune resistance. ADAR1 thus has a novel, pivotal, role in cancer immune resistance. Corroborating with these results, the expression of miR-222 in melanoma tissue specimens was significantly higher in patients who had no clinical benefit from treatment with ipilimumab as compared to patients that responded clinically, suggesting that miR-222 could function as a biomarker for the prediction of response to ipilimumab.These results provide not only novel insights on melanoma immune resistance, but also pave the way to the development of innovative personalized tools to enable optimal drug selection and treatment.