Structure-Guided Design of a Fluorescent Probe for the Visualization of FtsZ in Clinically Important Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Bacterial Pathogens.
ABSTRACT: Addressing the growing problem of antibiotic resistance requires the development of new drugs with novel antibacterial targets. FtsZ has been identified as an appealing new target for antibacterial agents. Here, we describe the structure-guided design of a new fluorescent probe (BOFP) in which a BODIPY fluorophore has been conjugated to an oxazole-benzamide FtsZ inhibitor. Crystallographic studies have enabled us to identify the optimal position for tethering the fluorophore that facilitates the high-affinity FtsZ binding of BOFP. Fluorescence anisotropy studies demonstrate that BOFP binds the FtsZ proteins from the Gram-positive pathogens Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium, Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus agalactiae, and Streptococcus pneumoniae with Kd values of 0.6-4.6?µM. Significantly, BOFP binds the FtsZ proteins from the Gram-negative pathogens Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Acinetobacter baumannii with an even higher affinity (Kd?=?0.2-0.8?µM). Fluorescence microscopy studies reveal that BOFP can effectively label FtsZ in all the above Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens. In addition, BOFP is effective at monitoring the impact of non-fluorescent inhibitors on FtsZ localization in these target pathogens. Viewed as a whole, our results highlight the utility of BOFP as a powerful tool for identifying new broad-spectrum FtsZ inhibitors and understanding their mechanisms of action.
Project description:We screened 615 gram-positive isolates from 150 healthy children for the presence of the erm(A), erm(B), erm(C), erm(F), and mef(A) genes. The mef(A) genes were found in 20 (9%) of the macrolide-resistant isolates, including Enterococcus spp., Staphylococcus spp., and Streptococcus spp. Sixteen of the 19 gram-positive isolates tested carried the other seven open reading frames (ORFs) described in Tn1207.1, a genetic element carrying mef(A) recently described in Streptococcus pneumoniae. The three Staphylococcus spp. did not carry orf1 to orf3. A gram-negative Acinetobacter junii isolate also carried the other seven ORFs described in Tn1207.1. A Staphylococcus aureus isolate, a Streptococcus intermedius isolate, a Streptococcus sp. isolate, and an Enterococcus sp. isolate had their mef(A) genes completely sequenced and showed 100% identity at the DNA and amino acid levels with the mef(A) gene from S. pneumoniae.
Project description:Eravacycline is a novel, fully synthetic fluorocycline antibiotic being developed for the treatment of serious infections, including those caused by resistant Gram-positive pathogens. Here, we evaluated the in vitro activities of eravacycline and comparator antimicrobial agents against a recent global collection of frequently encountered clinical isolates of Gram-positive bacteria. The CLSI broth microdilution method was used to determine in vitro MIC data for isolates of Enterococcus spp. (n?=?2,807), Staphylococcus spp. (n?=?4,331), and Streptococcus spp. (n?=?3,373) isolated primarily from respiratory, intra-abdominal, urinary, and skin specimens by clinical laboratories in 37 countries on three continents from 2013 to 2017. Susceptibilities were interpreted using both CLSI and EUCAST breakpoints. There were no substantive differences (a >1-doubling-dilution increase or decrease) in eravacycline MIC90 values for different species/organism groups over time or by region. Eravacycline showed MIC50 and MIC90 results of 0.06 and 0.12??g/ml, respectively, when tested against Staphylococcus aureus, regardless of methicillin susceptibility. The MIC90 values of eravacycline for Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus haemolyticus were equal (0.5??g/ml). The eravacycline MIC90s for Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium were 0.06??g/ml and were within 1 doubling dilution regardless of the vancomycin susceptibility profile. Eravacycline exhibited MIC90 results of ?0.06??g/ml when tested against Streptococcus pneumoniae and beta-hemolytic and viridans group streptococcal isolates. In this surveillance study, eravacycline demonstrated potent in vitro activity against frequently isolated clinical isolates of Gram-positive bacteria (Enterococcus, Staphylococcus, and Streptococcus spp.), including isolates collected over a 5-year period (2013 to 2017), underscoring its potential benefit in the treatment of infections caused by common Gram-positive pathogens.
Project description:The value of the ?-lactam antibiotics for the control of bacterial infection has eroded with time. Three Gram-positive human pathogens that were once routinely susceptible to ?-lactam chemotherapy-Streptococcus pneumoniae, Enterococcus faecium, and Staphylococcus aureus-now are not. Although a fourth bacterium, the acid-fast (but not Gram-positive-staining) Mycobacterium tuberculosis, has intrinsic resistance to earlier ?-lactams, the emergence of strains of this bacterium resistant to virtually all other antibiotics has compelled the evaluation of newer ?-lactam combinations as possible contributors to the multidrug chemotherapy required to control tubercular infection. The emerging molecular-level understanding of these resistance mechanisms used by these four bacteria provides the conceptual framework for bringing forward new ?-lactams, and new ?-lactam strategies, for the future control of their infections.
Project description:Rapid identification from positive blood cultures is standard of care (SOC) in many clinical microbiology laboratories. The GenMark Dx ePlex Blood Culture Identification Gram-Positive (BCID-GP) Panel is a multiplex nucleic acid amplification assay based on competitive DNA hybridization and electrochemical detection using eSensor technology. This multicenter study compared the investigational-use-only (IUO) BCID-GP Panel to other methods of identification of 20 Gram-positive bacteria, four antimicrobial resistance genes, and both Pan Candida and Pan Gram-Negative targets that are unique to the BCID-GP Panel. Ten microbiology laboratories throughout the United States collected residual, deidentified positive blood culture samples for analysis. Five laboratories tested both clinical and contrived samples with the BCID-GP Panel. Comparator identification methods included each laboratory's SOC, which included matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and automated identification systems as well as targeted PCR/analytically validated real-time PCR (qPCR) with bidirectional sequencing. A total of 2,342 evaluable samples (1,777 clinical and 565 contrived) were tested with the BCID-GP Panel. The overall sample accuracy for on-panel organisms was 89% before resolution of discordant results. For pathogenic Gram-positive targets (Bacillus cereus group, Enterococcus spp., Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus spp., Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus lugdunensis, Listeria spp., Listeria monocytogenes, Streptococcus spp., Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus anginosus group, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Streptococcus pyogenes), positive percent agreement (PPA) and negative percent agreement (NPA) ranged from 93.1% to 100% and 98.8% to 100%, respectively. For contamination rule-out targets (Bacillus subtilis group, Corynebacterium, Cutibacterium acnes, Lactobacillus, and Micrococcus), PPA and NPA ranged from 84.5% to 100% and 99.9% to 100%, respectively. Positive percent agreement and NPA for the Pan Candida and Pan Gram-Negative targets were 92.4% and 95.7% for the former and 99.9% and 99.6% for the latter. The PPAs for resistance markers were as follows: mecA, 97.2%; mecC, 100%; vanA, 96.8%; and vanB, 100%. Negative percent agreement ranged from 96.6% to 100%. In conclusion, the ePlex BCID-GP Panel compares favorably to SOC and targeted molecular methods for the identification of 20 Gram-positive pathogens and four antimicrobial resistance genes in positive blood culture bottles. This panel detects a broad range of pathogens and mixed infections with yeast and Gram-negative organisms from the same positive blood culture bottle.
Project description:The Tigecycline Evaluation and Surveillance Trial (TEST) was designed to monitor global longitudinal changes in bacterial susceptibility to a panel of antimicrobial agents, including tigecycline. In this study, we examine susceptibility among Gram-positive isolates collected from pediatric patients globally between 2004 and 2011. A total of 9,422 Gram-positive isolates were contributed by 1,255 centers, predominantly from Europe and North America. One-third of Staphylococcus aureus isolates were methicillin resistant, peaking in prevalence in 2007. All S. aureus isolates (n = 3,614) were susceptible to linezolid, tigecycline, and vancomycin; minocycline, imipenem, and meropenem were also highly active (>92% susceptibility). Ampicillin and penicillin susceptibility increased significantly during the study period (P < 0.0001 for both). Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates (n = 3,373) were highly susceptible to vancomycin (100%), linezolid (>99%), and levofloxacin and tigecycline (both >96%); imipenem susceptibility was low (32%) in Africa while minocycline susceptibility was low in Asia-Pacific Rim (38%). Penicillin resistance occurred in one-fifth of all S. pneumoniae isolates, with penicillin susceptibility ranging from 14% in Africa to 65% in Europe. Streptococcus agalactiae isolates (n = 1,056) were highly susceptible to most antimicrobials, although only 16% were susceptible to minocycline. Enterococcus faecalis isolates (n = 1,112) were highly susceptible (>97%) to ampicillin, linezolid, penicillin, tigecycline, and vancomycin globally, but only 34% were minocycline susceptible; minocycline susceptibility decreased significantly from 2004 to 2011 (P < 0.001). Tigecycline and linezolid were highly active against Enterococcus faecium (n = 267) globally (100% and 98% susceptible, respectively). Tigecycline and linezolid were highly active against Gram-positive pathogens from pediatric patients in TEST 2004 to 2011, with vancomycin and the carbapenems performing well against most pathogens.
Project description:Antimicrobial agents are currently the mainstay of treatment for bacterial infections worldwide. However, due to the increased use of antimicrobials in both human and animal medicine, pathogens have now evolved to possess high levels of multi-drug resistance, leading to the persistence and spread of difficult-to-treat infections. Several current antibacterial agents active against Gram-positive bacteria will be rendered useless in the face of increasing resistance rates. There are several emerging antibiotics under development, some of which have been shown to be more effective with an improved safety profile than current treatment regimens against Gram-positive bacteria. We will extensively discuss these antibiotics under clinical development (phase I-III clinical trials) to combat Gram-positive bacteria, such as Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecium and Streptococcus pneumoniae. We will delve into the mechanism of actions, microbiological spectrum, and, where available, the pharmacokinetics, safety profile, and efficacy of these drugs, aiming to provide a comprehensive review to the involved stakeholders.
Project description:Synthetic 1,3-bis(aryloxy)propan-2-amines have been shown in previous studies to possess several biological activities, such as antifungal and antiprotozoal. In the present study, we describe the antibacterial activity of new synthetic 1,3-bis(aryloxy)propan-2-amines against Gram-positive pathogens (Streptococcus pyogenes, Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus aureus) including Methicillin-resistant S. aureus strains. Our compounds showed minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) in the range of 2.5-10 ?g/ml (5.99-28.58 ?M), against different bacterial strains. The minimal bactericidal concentrations found were similar to MIC, suggesting a bactericidal mechanism of action of these compounds. Furthermore, possible molecular targets were suggested by chemical similarity search followed by docking approaches. Our compounds are similar to known ligands targeting the cell division protein FtsZ, Quinolone resistance protein norA and the Enoyl-[acyl-carrier-protein] reductase FabI. Taken together, our data show that synthetic 1,3-bis(aryloxy)propan-2-amines are active against Gram-positive bacteria, including multidrug-resistant strains and can be a promising lead in the development of new antibacterial compounds for the treatment of these infections.
Project description:Initial transcriptional response of human peripheral monocytes infected with a set of three gram-positive bacterial pathogens (Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae). Monocytes were isolated from five probands.
Project description:Teixobactin represents a new class of antibiotics with novel structure and excellent activity against Gram-positive pathogens and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Herein, we report a one-pot reaction to conveniently construct the key building block L-allo-Enduracidine in 30-gram scale in just one hour? and a convergent strategy (3?+?2?+?6) to accomplish a gram-scale total synthesis of teixobactin. Several analogs are described, with 20 and 26 identified as the most efficacious analogs with 3~8-fold and 2~4-fold greater potency against vancomycin resistant Enterococcus faecalis and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus respectively in comparison with teixobactin. In addition, they show high efficiency in Streptococcus pneumoniae septicemia mouse model and neutropenic mouse thigh infection model using methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. We also propose that the antiparallel ?-sheet of teixobactin is important for its bioactivity and an antiparallel dimer of teixobactin is the minimal binding unit for lipid II via key amino acids variations and molecular docking.
Project description:Ceftobiprole is an advanced cephalosporin with potent activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria that has been approved in many European and non-European countries to treat community- and hospital-acquired pneumonia (excluding ventilator-associated pneumonia). This study reports on the activity of ceftobiprole against a large set of clinical isolates obtained from hospitalized patients in the United States in 2016 that caused serious infections, including pneumonia, bacteremia, and skin and skin structure infections. To assess any potential temporal changes in ceftobiprole activity, the 2016 results were compared to corresponding MIC data from a 2006 U.S. survey that included key target pathogens. Ceftobiprole exhibited potent activity against Staphylococcus aureus (including methicillin-resistant S. aureus isolates, which were 99.3% susceptible), coagulase-negative staphylococci (100% susceptible), Enterococcus faecalis (100% susceptible), Streptococcus pneumoniae (99.7% susceptible), and other tested streptococci. Similarly, ceftobiprole was highly active against Enterobacteriaceae isolates that did not exhibit an extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) phenotype, including Escherichia coli (99.8% susceptible) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (99.6% susceptible). A total of 99.6% of all Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis isolates were inhibited at ≤1 mg/liter ceftobiprole, and 72.7% of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates were susceptible to ceftobiprole. With the exception of decreased cephalosporin susceptibility among Enterobacteriaceae isolates, which correlates with an increased prevalence of ESBL-producing isolates, ceftobiprole had similar activities against the isolate sets collected in 2006 and 2016. Therefore, ceftobiprole remains highly active when tested in vitro against a large number of current Gram-positive or Gram-negative pathogens that cause serious infections.