HIF1/2-exerted control over glycolytic gene expression is not functionally relevant for glycolysis in human leukemic stem/progenitor cells.
ABSTRACT: Background:Hypoxia-inducible factors (HIF)1 and 2 are transcription factors that regulate the homeostatic response to low oxygen conditions. Since data related to the importance of HIF1 and 2 in hematopoietic stem and progenitors is conflicting, we investigated the chromatin binding profiles of HIF1 and HIF2 and linked that to transcriptional networks and the cellular metabolic state. Methods:Genome-wide ChIPseq and ChIP-PCR experiments were performed to identify HIF1 and HIF2 binding sites in human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells and healthy CD34+ hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells. Transcriptome studies were performed to identify gene expression changes induced by hypoxia or by overexpression of oxygen-insensitive HIF1 and HIF2 mutants. Metabolism studies were performed by 1D-NMR, and glucose consumption and lactate production levels were determined by spectrophotometric enzyme assays. CRISPR-CAS9-mediated HIF1, HIF2, and ARNT-/- lines were generated to study the functional consequences upon loss of HIF signaling, in vitro and in vivo upon transplantation of knockout lines in xenograft mice. Results:Genome-wide ChIP-seq and transcriptome studies revealed that overlapping HIF1- and HIF2-controlled loci were highly enriched for various processes including metabolism, particularly glucose metabolism, but also for chromatin organization, cellular response to stress and G protein-coupled receptor signaling. ChIP-qPCR validation studies confirmed that glycolysis-related genes but not genes related to the TCA cycle or glutaminolysis were controlled by both HIF1 and HIF2 in leukemic cell lines and primary AMLs, while in healthy human CD34+ cells these loci were predominantly controlled by HIF1 and not HIF2. However, and in contrast to our initial hypotheses, CRISPR/Cas9-mediated knockout of HIF signaling did not affect growth, internal metabolite concentrations, glucose consumption or lactate production under hypoxia, not even in vivo upon transplantation of knockout cells into xenograft mice. Conclusion:These data indicate that, while HIFs exert control over glycolysis but not OxPHOS gene expression in human leukemic cells, this is not critically important for their metabolic state. In contrast, inhibition of BCR-ABL did impact on glucose consumption and lactate production regardless of the presence of HIFs. These data indicate that oncogene-mediated control over glycolysis can occur independently of hypoxic signaling modules.
Project description:Hypoxia inducible factors (HIF)1 and 2 are transcription factors which regulate the homeostatic response to low oxygen conditions. Since data related to the importance of HIF1 and 2 in haematopoietic stem and progenitors is conflicting, we investigated the chromatin binding profiles of HIF1 and HIF2 and linked that to transcriptional networks and the cellular metabolic state. Genome-wide ChIP-seq and transcriptome studies revealed that overlapping HIF1- and HIF2-controlled loci were highly enriched for various processes like including metabolism, particularly those involved in glucose metabolism, but also for chromatin organization, cellular response to stress and G protein-coupled receptor signaling. ChIP-qPCR validation studies confirmed that glycolysis-related genes - but not genes related to the TCA cycle or glutaminolysis - were controlled by both HIF1 and HIF2 in leukemic cell lines and primary AMLs, while in healthy human CD34+ cells these loci were predominantly controlled by HIF1 but not HIF2. However, and in contrast to our initial hypotheses, CRISPR/Cas9-mediated knockout of HIF signaling did not affect growth, internal metabolite concentrations, glucose consumption or lactate production under hypoxia. These data indicate that, while HIFs exert control over glycolysis but not OxPHOS gene expression in human leukemic cells, this is not critically important for their metabolic state. Overall design: ChIP-seq analysis of tagged HIF proteins in K562 cells was performed using illumina high-throughput sequencing
Project description:The hypoxia-inducible transcription factors (HIF)-1/2? are the main oxygen sensors which regulate the adaptation to intratumoral hypoxia. The aim of this study was to assess the role of the HIF proteins in regulating the radiation response of a non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in vitro model. To directly assess the unique and overlapping functions of HIF-1? and HIF-2?, we use CRISPR gene-editing to generate isogenic H1299 non-small cell lung carcinoma cells lacking HIF-1?, HIF-2? or both. We found that in HIF1 knockout cells, HIF-2? was strongly induced by hypoxia compared to wild type but the reverse was not seen in HIF2 knockout cells. Cells lacking HIF-1? were more radiation resistant than HIF2 knockout and wildtype cells upon hypoxia, which was associated with a reduced recruitment of ?H2AX foci directly after irradiation and not due to differences in proliferation. Conversely, double-HIF1/2 knockout cells were most radiation sensitive and had increased ?H2AX recruitment and cell cycle delay. Compensatory HIF-2? activity in HIF1 knockout cells is the main cause of this radioprotective effect. Under hypoxia, HIF1 knockout cells uniquely had a strong increase in lactate production and decrease in extracellular pH. Using genetically identical HIF-? isoform-deficient cells we identified a strong radiosensitizing of HIF1, but not of HIF2, which was associated with a reduced extracellular pH and reduced glycolysis.
Project description:Most published studies addressing the role of hypoxia inducible factors (HIFs) in hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension development employ models that may not recapitulate the clinical setting, including the use of animals with pre-existing lung/vascular defects secondary to embryonic HIF ablation or activation. Furthermore, critical questions including how and when HIF signalling contributes to hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension remain unanswered.Normal adult rodents in which global HIF1 or HIF2 was inhibited by inducible gene deletion or pharmacological inhibition (antisense oligonucleotides (ASO) and small molecule inhibitors) were exposed to short-term (4?days) or chronic (4-5?weeks) hypoxia. Haemodynamic studies were performed, the animals euthanised, and lungs and hearts obtained for pathological and transcriptomic analysis. Cell-type-specific HIF signals for pulmonary hypertension initiation were determined in normal pulmonary vascular cells in vitro and in mice (using cell-type-specific HIF deletion).Global Hif1a deletion in mice did not prevent hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension at 5?weeks. Mice with global Hif2a deletion did not survive long-term hypoxia. Partial Hif2a deletion or Hif2-ASO (but not Hif1-ASO) reduced vessel muscularisation, increases in pulmonary arterial pressures and right ventricular hypertrophy in mice exposed to 4-5?weeks of hypoxia. A small molecule HIF2 inhibitor (PT2567) significantly attenuated early events (monocyte recruitment and vascular cell proliferation) in rats exposed to 4?days of hypoxia, as well as vessel muscularisation, tenascin C accumulation and pulmonary hypertension development in rats exposed to 5?weeks of hypoxia. In vitro, HIF2 induced a distinct set of genes in normal human pulmonary vascular endothelial cells, mediating inflammation and proliferation of endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells. Endothelial Hif2a knockout prevented hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension in mice.Inhibition of HIF2 (but not HIF1) can provide a therapeutic approach to prevent the development of hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension. Future studies are needed to investigate the role of HIFs in pulmonary hypertension progression and reversal.
Project description:Effective vascular regeneration could provide therapeutic benefit for multiple pathologies, especially in chronic peripheral artery disease (PAD) and myocardial ischemia. The hypoxia inducible factors (HIFs) mediate the cellular transcriptional response to hypoxia and regulate multiple processes that are required for angiogenesis to ultimately restore perfusion and oxygen supply. In endothelial cells, both HIF1? and HIF2? are known to contribute to this role; however, the extent and individual roles of each of these HIF? remain unclear. To characterize the individual roles of HIF?, we sequenced the transcriptional outputs of stabilized forms of HIF1? and HIF2?, where they regulated 701 and 1,454 genes, respectively. HIF1? transcription primarily regulated metabolic reprogramming, whereas HIF2? exerted a larger role in regulating angiogenic extracellular signaling, guidance cues, and extracellular matrix remodeling factors. Furthermore, HIF2? almost exclusively regulated a large and diverse subset of transcription factors and coregulators that contribute to its diverse roles in hypoxia. Further understanding of how HIFs regulate cellular processes in hypoxia and angiogenesis could offer new avenues to modulate physiological angiogenesis to enhance revascularisation in ischemic conditions and other pathologies.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Glucose increases the expression of glycolytic enzymes and other hypoxia-response genes in pancreatic beta-cells. Here, we tested whether this effect results from the activation of Hypoxia-Inducible-factors (HIF) 1 and 2 in a hypoxia-dependent manner. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS:Isolated rat islets and insulin-secreting INS-1E cells were stimulated with nutrients at various pO? values or treated with the HIF activator CoCl?. HIF-target gene mRNA levels and HIF subunit protein levels were measured by real-time RT-PCR, Western Blot and immunohistochemistry. The formation of pimonidazole-protein adducts was used as an indicator of hypoxia. In INS-1E and islet beta-cells, glucose concentration-dependently stimulated formation of pimonidazole-protein adducts, HIF1 and HIF2 nuclear expression and HIF-target gene mRNA levels to a lesser extent than CoCl? or a four-fold reduction in pO?. Islets also showed signs of HIF activation in diabetic Lepr(db/db) but not non-diabetic Lepr(db/+) mice. In vitro, these glucose effects were reproduced by nutrient secretagogues that bypass glycolysis, and were inhibited by a three-fold increase in pO? or by inhibitors of Ca²? influx and insulin secretion. In INS-1E cells, small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of Hif1? and Hif2?, alone or in combination, indicated that the stimulation of glycolytic enzyme mRNA levels depended on both HIF isoforms while the vasodilating peptide adrenomedullin was a HIF2-specific target gene. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE:Glucose-induced O? consumption creates an intracellular hypoxia that activates HIF1 and HIF2 in rat beta-cells, and this glucose effect contributes, together with the activation of other transcription factors, to the glucose stimulation of expression of some glycolytic enzymes and other hypoxia response genes.
Project description:Hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) are heterodimeric transcription factors that play a key role in cellular adaptation to hypoxia. HIF proteins are composed of an ? subunit regulated by oxygen pressure (essentially HIF1? or HIF2?) and a constitutively expressed ? subunit. These proteins are often overexpressed in cancer cells, and HIF overexpression frequently correlates with poor prognosis, making HIF proteins promising therapeutic targets. HIF proteins are involved in melanoma initiation and progression; however, the specific function of HIF2 in melanoma has not yet been studied comprehensively. Identifying protein complexes is a valuable way to uncover protein function, and affinity purification coupled with mass spectrometry and label-free quantification is a reliable method for this approach. We therefore applied quantitative interaction proteomics to identify exhaustively the nuclear complexes containing HIF2? in a human melanoma cell line, 501mel. We report, for the first time, a high-throughput analysis of the interactome of an HIF subunit. Seventy proteins were identified that interact with HIF2?, including some well-known HIF partners and some new interactors. The new HIF2? partners microphthalmia-associated transcription factor, SOX10, and AP2?, which are master actors of melanoma development, were confirmed via co-immunoprecipitation experiments. Their ability to bind to HIF1? was also tested: microphthalmia-associated transcription factor and SOX10 were confirmed as HIF1? partners, but the transcription factor AP2? was not. AP2? expression correlates with low invasive capacities. Interestingly, we demonstrated that when HIF2? was overexpressed, only cells expressing large amounts of AP2? exhibited decreased invasive capacities in hypoxia relative to normoxia. The simultaneous presence of both transcription factors therefore reduces cells' invasive properties. Knowledge of the HIF2? interactome is thus a useful resource for investigating the general mechanisms of HIF function and regulation, and here we reveal unexpected, distinct roles for the HIF1 and HIF2 isoforms in melanoma progression.
Project description:Malignant melanoma is characterized by a propensity for early lymphatic and hematogenous spread. The hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) family of transcription factors is upregulated in melanoma by key oncogenic drivers. HIFs promote the activation of genes involved in cancer initiation, progression, and metastases. Hypoxia has been shown to enhance the invasiveness and metastatic potential of tumor cells by regulating the genes involved in the breakdown of the ECM as well as genes that control motility and adhesion of tumor cells. Using a Pten-deficient, Braf-mutant genetically engineered mouse model of melanoma, we demonstrated that inactivation of HIF1? or HIF2? abrogates metastasis without affecting primary tumor formation. HIF1? and HIF2? drive melanoma invasion and invadopodia formation through PDGFR? and focal adhesion kinase-mediated (FAK-mediated) activation of SRC and by coordinating ECM degradation via MT1-MMP and MMP2 expression. These results establish the importance of HIFs in melanoma progression and demonstrate that HIF1? and HIF2? activate independent transcriptional programs that promote metastasis by coordinately regulating cell invasion and ECM remodeling.
Project description:Caveolae are specialized microdomains on membranes that are critical for signal transduction, cholesterol transport, and endocytosis. Caveolin-1 (CAV1) is a multifunctional protein and a major component of caveolae. Cav1 is directly activated by hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF). HIFs are heterodimers of an oxygen-sensitive ? subunit, HIF1? or HIF2?, and a constitutively expressed ? subunit, aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT). Whole-genome expression analysis demonstrated that Cav1 is highly induced in mouse models of constitutively activated HIF signaling in the intestine. Interestingly, Cav1 was increased only in the colon and not in the small intestine. Currently, the mechanism and role of HIF induction of CAV1 in the colon are unclear. In mouse models, mice that overexpressed HIF1? or HIF2? specifically in intestinal epithelial cells demonstrated an increase in Cav1 gene expression in the colon but not in the duodenum, jejunum, or ileum. HIF2? activated the Cav1 promoter in a HIF response element-independent manner. myc-associated zinc finger (MAZ) protein was essential for HIF2? activation of the Cav1 promoter. Hypoxic induction of CAV1 in the colon was essential for intestinal barrier integrity by regulating occludin expression. This may provide an additional mechanism by which chronic hypoxia can activate intestinal inflammation.
Project description:Receptor Tyrosine Kinase (RTK) signaling plays a major role in tumorigenesis and normal development. Sprouty2 (Spry2) attenuates RTK signaling and inhibits processes such as angiogenesis, cell proliferation, migration and survival, which are all upregulated in tumors. Indeed in cancers of the liver, lung, prostate and breast, Spry2 protein levels are markedly decreased correlating with poor patient prognosis and shorter survival. Thus, it is important to understand how expression of Spry2 is regulated. While prior studies have focused on the post-translation regulation of Spry2, very few studies have focused on the transcriptional regulation of SPRY2 gene. Here, we demonstrate that in the human hepatoma cell line, Hep3B, the transcription of SPRY2 is inhibited by the transcription regulating hypoxia inducible factors (HIFs). HIFs are composed of an oxygen regulated alpha subunit (HIF1? or HIF2?) and a beta subunit (HIF1?). Intriguingly, silencing of HIF1? and HIF2? elevates SPRY2 mRNA and protein levels suggesting HIFs reduce the transcription of the SPRY2 promoter. In silico analysis identified ten hypoxia response elements (HREs) in the proximal promoter and first intron of SPRY2. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP), we show that HIF1?/2? bind near the putative HREs in the proximal promoter and intron of SPRY2. Our studies demonstrated that not only is the SPRY2 promoter methylated, but silencing HIF1?/2? reduced the methylation. ChIP assays also showed DNA methyltransferase1 (DNMT1) binding to the proximal promoter and first intron of SPRY2 and silencing HIF1?/2? decreased this association. Additionally, silencing of DNMT1 mimicked the HIF1?/2? silencing-mediated increase in SPRY2 mRNA and protein. While simultaneous silencing of HIF1?/2? and DNMT1 increased SPRY2 mRNA a little more, the increase was not additive suggesting a common mechanism by which DNMT1 and HIF1?/2? regulate SPRY2 transcription. Together these data suggest that the transcription of SPRY2 is inhibited by HIFs, in part, via DNMT1- mediated methylation.
Project description:The ?-subunits of hypoxia-inducible factors (HIF1? and HIF2?) promote transcription of genes that regulate glycolysis and cell survival and growth. Sprouty2 (Spry2) is a modulator of receptor tyrosine kinase signaling and inhibits cell proliferation by a number of different mechanisms. Because of the seemingly opposite actions of HIF? subunits and Spry2 on cellular processes, we investigated whether Spry2 regulates the levels of HIF1? and HIF2? proteins. In cell lines from different types of tumors in which the decreased protein levels of Spry2 have been associated with poor prognosis, silencing of Spry2 elevated HIF1? protein levels. Increases in HIF1? and HIF2? protein levels due to silencing of Spry2 also up-regulated HIF? target genes. Using HIF1? as a prototype, we show that Spry2 decreases HIF1? stability and enhances the ubiquitylation of HIF1? by a von Hippel-Lindau protein (pVHL)-dependent mechanism. Spry2 also exists in a complex with HIF1?. Because Spry2 can also associate with pVHL, using a mutant form of Spry2 (3P/3A-Spry2) that binds HIF1?, but not pVHL, we show that WT-Spry2, but not the 3P/3A-Spry2 decreases HIF1? protein levels. In accordance, expression of WT-Spry2, but not 3P/3A-Spry2 results in a decrease in HIF1?-sensitive glucose uptake. Together our data suggest that Spry2 acts as a scaffold to bring more pVHL/associated E3 ligase in proximity of HIF1? and increase its ubiquitylation and degradation. This represents a novel action for Spry2 in modulating biological processes regulated by HIF? subunits.