Association between gestational weight gain and severe adverse birth outcomes in Washington State, US: A population-based retrospective cohort study, 2004-2013.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Suboptimal weight gain during pregnancy is a potentially modifiable risk factor. We aimed to investigate the association between suboptimal gestational weight gain and severe adverse birth outcomes by pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) categories, including obesity class I to III. METHODS AND FINDINGS:We conducted a population-based study of pregnant women with singleton hospital births in Washington State, US, between 2004 and 2013. Optimal, low, and excess weight gain in each BMI category was calculated based on weight gain by gestational age as recommended by the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists and the Institute of Medicine. Primary composite outcomes were (1) maternal death and/or severe maternal morbidity (SMM) and (2) perinatal death and/or severe neonatal morbidity. Logistic regression was used to obtain adjusted odds ratios (AORs) and 95% confidence intervals. Overall, 722,839 women with information on pre-pregnancy BMI were included. Of these, 3.1% of women were underweight, 48.1% had normal pre-pregnancy BMI, 25.8% were overweight, and 23.0% were obese. Only 31.5% of women achieved optimal gestational weight gain. Women who had low weight gain were more likely to be African American and have Medicaid health insurance, while women with excess weight gain were more likely to be non-Hispanic white and younger than women with optimal weight gain in each pre-pregnancy BMI category. Compared with women who had optimal weight gain, those with low gestational weight gain had a higher rate of maternal death, 7.97 versus 2.63 per 100,000 (p = 0.027). In addition, low weight gain was associated with the composite adverse maternal outcome (death/SMM) in women with normal pre-pregnancy BMI and in overweight women (AOR 1.12, 95% CI 1.04-1.21, p = 0.004, and AOR 1.17, 95% CI 1.04-1.32, p = 0.009, respectively) compared to women in the same pre-pregnancy BMI category who had optimal weight gain. Similarly, excess gestational weight gain was associated with increased rates of death/SMM among women with normal pre-pregnancy BMI (AOR 1.20, 95% CI 1.12-1.28, p < 0.001) and obese women (AOR 1.12, 95% CI 1.01-1.23, p = 0.019). Low gestational weight gain was associated with perinatal death and severe neonatal morbidity regardless of pre-pregnancy BMI, including obesity classes I, II, and III, while excess weight gain was associated with severe neonatal morbidity only in women who were underweight or had normal BMI prior to pregnancy. Study limitations include the ascertainment of pre-pregnancy BMI using self-report, and lack of data availability for the most recent years. CONCLUSIONS:In this study, we found that most women do not achieve optimal weight gain during pregnancy. Low weight gain was associated with increased risk of severe adverse birth outcomes, and in particular with maternal death and perinatal death. Excess gestational weight gain was associated with severe adverse birth outcomes, except for women who were overweight prior to pregnancy. Weight gain recommendations for this group may need to be reassessed. It is important to counsel women during pregnancy about specific risks associated with both low and excess weight gain.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Maternal weight gain during pregnancy is required for fetal development; however, excess gestational weight gain is associated with increased maternal and neonatal morbidity. We aimed to determine the proportion of Canadian women who gained excess weight during pregnancy and to identify risk factors for excess gestational weight gain.<h4>Methods</h4>Self-reported data on maternal weight gain were collected from the 2015/16 and 2017/18 cycles of the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS), a cross-sectional population-based survey. We included females aged 15 to 54 years with data on height, prepregnancy weight and gestational weight gain. We defined excess gestational weight gain in terms of preconception body mass index (BMI) according to the 2009 guideline of the US Institute of Medicine. We used logistic regression to evaluate potential risk factors for excess gestational weight gain.<h4>Results</h4>Of 1 335 615 Canadian women (weighted from approximately 9300 survey respondents), 422 043 (32%) gained excess weight during pregnancy. Women with obesity had 33% lower odds of gaining excess weight relative to women with overweight (odds ratio 0.67, 95% confidence interval 0.48-0.94). Risk factors for excess gestational weight gain were lower education level, white or Indigenous identity, smoking, mood disorder, anxiety disorder and Canadian citizenship.<h4>Interpretation</h4>One-third of Canadian women in this survey had excess gestational weight gain during pregnancy, and women with obesity had lower odds of gaining excess weight during pregnancy relative to women with overweight. Strategies are needed to reduce the proportion of Canadian women who gain excess weight during pregnancy, regardless of preconception BMI.
Project description:This secondary analysis explored the association between gestational weight gain, pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), and prenatal diet quality in a United States national sample. The sample comprised 1322 pregnant women in the longitudinal Infant Feeding Practices Study II with Diet History Questionnaire data. Diet quality in the third trimester was assessed using the Alternative Healthy Eating Index for Pregnancy. Self-reported pre-pregnancy BMI (categorized as underweight<18.5, normal weight 18.5-24.9, overweight 25.0-29.9, and obese≥30.0) and total gestational weight gain were used to categorize adherence to the Institute of Medicine's recommendations as inadequate, adequate, or excessive weight gain. Diet quality in pre-pregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain groups were compared using Tukey-adjusted generalized linear models adjusted for sociodemographic factors, Women, Infants, and Children participation, parity, and energy intake. Due to missing gestational weight gain data, sensitivity analyses with multiply imputed data were conducted. Women were on average 28.9 years old and of higher socioeconomic status (40% college graduates) and mostly non-Hispanic White (84%), and the mean Alternative Healthy Eating Index for Pregnancy score was 61.2 (of 130). Both pre-pregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain were inversely associated with diet quality scores (p<0.01). The interaction between pre-pregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain was significant (p = 0.04), therefore gestational weight gain models were stratified by BMI group. In stratified adjusted models, gestational weight gain was differently associated with diet quality scores (p<0.05) among women with underweight, normal weight, overweight, and obesity. The relationship between gestational weight gain and prenatal diet quality depended on pre-pregnancy BMI. For example, within women with normal weight, higher diet quality was observed in the adequate gestational weight gain group. Interventions to broadly improve prenatal diet quality are needed, however, resources can be used to target women with higher pre-pregnancy BMIs and women with inadequate or excessive gestational weight gain.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the association between gestational weight gain in twin pregnancies and small-for-gestational-age (SGA) and large-for-gestational-age (LGA) birth, preterm birth before 32 weeks of gestation, cesarean delivery, and infant death within each prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) category. METHODS:Data in this population-based study came from Pennsylvania-linked infant birth and death records (2003-2013). We studied 54,836 twins born alive before 39 weeks of gestation. Total pregnancy weight gain (kg) was converted to gestational age-standardized z scores. Multivariable modified Poisson regression models stratified by prepregnancy BMI were used to estimate associations between z scores and outcomes. A probabilistic bias analysis, informed by an internal validation study, evaluated the effect of BMI and weight gain misclassification. RESULTS:Gestational weight gain z score was negatively associated with SGA and positively associated with LGA and cesarean delivery in all BMI groups. The relation between weight gain and preterm birth was U-shaped in nonobese women. An increased risk of infant death was observed for very low weight gain among normal-weight women and for high weight gain among women without obesity. Most excess risks of these outcomes were observed at weight gains at 37 weeks of gestation that are equivalent to less than 14 kg or more than 27 kg in underweight or normal-weight women, less than 11 kg or more than 28 kg in overweight women, and less than 6.4 kg or more than 26 kg in women with obesity. The bias analysis supported the validity of the conventional analysis. CONCLUSION:Very low or very high weight gains were associated with the adverse outcomes we studied. If the associations we observed are even partially reflective of causality, targeted modification of pregnancy weight gain in women carrying twins might improve pregnancy outcomes.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>To examine the associations of a clinical and public health systems-change intervention on the prevalence of excess gestational weight gain among high-risk, low-income women.<h4>Methods</h4>In a quasi-experimental trial, we compared the prevalence of excess gestational weight gain among women before (n=643) and after (n=928) implementation of the First 1,000 Days program in two community health centers in Massachusetts. First 1,000 Days is a systematic program starting in early pregnancy and lasting through the first 24 months of childhood to prevent obesity among mother-child pairs. The program includes enhanced gestational weight gain tracking and counseling, screening for adverse health behaviors and sociocontextual factors, patient navigation and educational materials to support behavior change and social needs, and individualized health coaching for women at high risk for excess gestational weight gain based on their prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) or excess first-trimester weight gain. The primary outcome was gestational weight gain greater than the 2009 Institute of Medicine (now known as the National Academy of Medicine) guidelines according to prepregnancy BMI.<h4>Results</h4>Among 1,571 women in the analytic sample, mean (SD) age was 30.0 (5.9) years and prepregnancy BMI was 28.1 (6.1); 65.8% of women started pregnancy with BMIs of 25 or higher, and 53.2% were Hispanic. We observed a lower prevalence (55.8-46.4%; unadjusted odds ratio [OR] 0.69, 95% CI 0.49-0.97), similar to results in a multivariable analysis (adjusted OR 0.69, 95% CI 0.49-0.99), of excess gestational weight gain among women with prepregnancy BMIs between 25 and 29.9. Among women who were overweight at the start of pregnancy, the lowest odds of excess gestational weight gain were observed among those with the most interaction with the program's components. Program enrollment was not associated with reduced excess gestational weight gain among women with prepregnancy BMIs of 30 or higher.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Implementation of a systems-change intervention was associated with modest reduction in excess gestational weight gain among women who were overweight but not obese at the start of pregnancy.<h4>Clinical trial registration</h4>ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03191591.
Project description:Few studies have evaluated the effect of weight change from pre-pregnancy to post-partum with the risk of cardiometabolic diseases among women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between weight change from pre-pregnancy to 1-5 years post-partum with metabolic syndrome among Chinese women with prior gestational diabetes mellitus.We performed a retrospective cohort study in 1263 women with gestational diabetes mellitus at 1-5 years post-partum. Participants were divided into four groups based on their weight change from pre-pregnancy to 1-5 years post-partum: loss of ? 3 kg, ± 3 kg, gain of 3-7 kg and gain of ?7 kg.The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 12.1%, 16.2%, 26.0% and 44.3% among women with weight loss ? 3 kg, stable weight ( ± 3 kg), weight gain 3-7 kg and weight gain ? 7 kg from pre-pregnancy to post-partum, respectively. The positive association between weight change and metabolic syndrome was observed among women with pre-pregnancy normal weight (BMI < 24 kg/m(2)), overweight (BMI 24-27.9 kg/m(2)) and obesity (BMI ? 28 kg/m(2)). The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was almost similar among pre-pregnancy normal weight women with weight gain ? 7 kg, pre-pregnancy overweight women with stable weight ( ± 3 kg) and pre-pregnancy obese women with weight loss ? 3 kg from pre-pregnancy to post-partum (P = 0.62).Women with gestational diabetes mellitus who had large weight gain from pre-pregnancy to post-partum were more likely to develop metabolic syndrome. Women who are pre-pregnancy overweight/obesity and also diagnosed as gestational diabetes mellitus during pregnancy need more weight control after delivery.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Despite ample clinical evidence that gaining excess weight in pregnancy results in negative health outcomes for women and infants, more than half of women in Western industrialized nations gain in excess of national guidelines. The influence of socio-demographic factors and weight gain is well-established but not causal; the influence of psychological factors may explain some of this variation. METHODS:This is the qualitative portion of an explanatory sequential mixed-methods study designed to identify predictive psychological factors of excess gestational weight gain (QUAN) and then explain the relevance of those factors (qual). For this portion of the study, we used a qualitative descriptive approach to elicit 39 pregnant women's perspectives of gestational weight gain, specifically inquiring about factors determined as relevant to excess gestational weight gain by our previous predictive study. Women were interviewed in the latter half of their third trimester. Data were analyzed using a combination of unconstrained deductive content analysis to describe the findings relevant to the predictive factors and a staged inductive content analytic approach to examine the data without a focus on the predictive factors. RESULTS:Very few participants consistently made deliberate choices relevant to weight gain; most behaviour relevant to weight gain happened with in-the-moment decisions. These in-the-moment decisions were influenced by priorities, hunger, a consideration of the consequence of the decision, and accommodation of pregnancy-related discomfort. They were informed by the foundational information a woman had available to her, including previous experience and interactions with health care providers. The foundational information women used to make these decisions was often incomplete. While women were aware of the guidelines related to gestational weight gain, they consistently mis-applied them due to incorrect understanding of their own BMI. Only one woman was aware that weight gain was linked to maternal and infant health outcomes. CONCLUSIONS:There is an important role for prenatal providers to provide the foundational information to positively influence in-the-moment decisions. Understanding how weight gain guidelines apply to one's own pre-pregnancy BMI and comprehending the well-established link between gestational weight gain and health outcomes may help women prioritize healthy weight gain amongst many competing factors.
Project description:<h4>Background/objective</h4>Healthy weight maintenance before and during pregnancy has a significant effect on pregnancy outcomes; however, there are no specific guidelines for gestational weight gain in pregnant Korean women. Therefore, we investigated the impact of pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain on the risk of maternal and infant pregnancy complications in pregnant Korean women.<h4>Methods</h4>Study participants comprised 3454 singleton pregnant women from the Korean Pregnancy Outcome Study who had baseline examination and pregnancy outcome data. Maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain were categorized according to the Asia-pacific regional guidelines and the Institute of Medicine recommendations, respectively. The primary outcome was any adverse outcomes, defined as the presence of one or more of the following: hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, gestational diabetes mellitus, peripartum depressive symptom, cesarean delivery, delivery complications, preterm birth, small or large weight infant, neonatal intensive care unit admission, or a congenital anomaly. Multiple logistic regression models were applied to examine the independent and combined impact of pre-pregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain on the risk of maternal and infant outcomes.<h4>Results</h4>Obesity before pregnancy significantly increased the risk of perinatal adverse outcomes by more than 2.5 times [odds ratio (OR): 2.512, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.817-3.473]. Compared to that in women with appropriate gestational weight gain, women with excessive weight gain had a 36.4% incremental increase in the risk of any adverse outcomes [OR: 1.364, 95% CI: 1.115-1.670]. Moreover, women who were overweight or obese before pregnancy and had excessive gestational weight gain had a three-fold increase in the risk of adverse outcomes [OR: 3.460, 95% CI: 2.210-5.417].<h4>Conclusion</h4>This study highlights the need for appropriate weight recommendations before and during pregnancy to prevent perinatal complications in Korean women of childbearing age.
Project description:The Institute of Medicine (IOM) guidelines are the most widely used guidelines on gestational weight gain; however, accumulation of evidence that body composition in Asians differs from other races has brought concern regarding whether their direct application is appropriate. We aimed to study to what extent optimal gestational weight gain among women in Japan differs by pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and to compare estimated optimal gestational weight gain to current Japanese and Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommendations.We retrospectively studied 104,070 singleton pregnancies among nulliparous women in 2005-2011 using the Japanese national perinatal network database. In five pre-pregnancy BMI sub-groups (17.0-18.4, 18.5-19.9, 20-22.9, 23-24.9, and 25-27.4 kg/m2), we estimated the association of the rate of gestational weight gain with pregnancy outcomes (fetal growth, preterm delivery, and delivery complications) using multivariate regression.Weight gain rate associated with the lowest risk of adverse outcomes decreased with increasing BMI (12.2 kg, 10.9 kg, 9.9 kg, 7.7 kg, and 4.3 kg/40 weeks) for the five BMI categories as described above, respectively. Current Japanese guidelines were lower than optimal gains, with the lowest risk of adverse outcomes for women with BMI below 18.5 kg/m2, and current IOM recommendations were higher than optimal gains for women with BMI over 23 kg/m2.Optimal weight gain during pregnancy varies largely by pre-pregnancy BMI, and defining those with BMI over 23 kg/m2 as overweight, as proposed by the World Health Organization, may be useful when applying current IOM recommendations to Japanese guidelines.
Project description:BACKGROUND:To establish age-standardized charts of weight gain for term twin pregnancies in Southeast China. METHODS:We designed a retrospective study on data from women pregnant with twins, a gestational age beyond 36?weeks and an average weight???2500?g. We established hierarchical linear regression models to express gestational weight gain patterns. RESULTS:We analyzed data from 884 women pregnant with twins (151 underweight, 597 normal weight, and 136 overweight). Our final models fit the crude weight measurement data well. The means of weight gain generally decreased as the pre-pregnancy BMI increased. For each BMI category, the mean weight gains increased with the gestational age and the standard deviation increased slightly. The mean weight gains were 18.82?±?6.73, 18.53?±?6.74, and 16.97?±?6.95?kg at 37?weeks in underweight, normal weight, and overweight women, respectively. CONCLUSION:The weight gain chart can be used to estimate maternal weight gain to be gestational age-standardized z scores by pre-pregnancy BMI and may serve as an innovative tool for perinatal care providers to guide the weight gain of women pregnant with twins.
Project description:The objectives of this study were to assess the efficacy of lifestyle intervention on gestational weight gain in pregnant women with normal and above normal body mass index (BMI) in a randomized controlled trial.A total of 116 pregnant women (<20 weeks of pregnancy) without diabetes were enrolled and 113 pregnant women completed the program. Participants were randomized into intervention and control groups. Women in the intervention group received weekly trainer-led group exercise sessions, instructed home exercise for 3-5-times/week during 20-36 weeks of gestation, and dietary counseling twice during pregnancy. Participants in the control group did not receive the intervention. All participants completed a physical activity questionnaire and a 3-day food record at enrolment and 2 months after enrolment.The participants in the intervention group with normal pre-pregnancy BMI (?24.9 kg/M2, n = 30) had lower gestational weight gain (GWG), offspring birth weight and excessive gestational weight gain (EGWG) on pregnancy weight gain compared to the control group (n = 27, p < 0.05). Those weight related-changes were not detected between the intervention (n = 27) and control group (n = 29) in the above normal pre-pregnancy BMI participants. Intervention reduced total calorie, total fat, saturated fat and cholesterol intake were detected in women with normal or above normal pre-pregnancy BMI compared to the control group (p < 0.05 or 0.01). Increased physical activity and reduced carbohydrate intake were detected in women with normal (p < 0.05), but not above normal, pre-pregnancy BMI at 2 months after the onset of the intervention compared to the control group.The results of the present study demonstrated that the lifestyle intervention program decreased EGWG, GWG, offspring birth weight in pregnant women with normal, but not above normal, pre-pregnancy BMI, which was associated with increased physical activity and decreased carbohydrate intake.NCT00486629.