Candida utilis yeast as a functional protein source for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.): Local intestinal tissue and plasma proteome responses.
ABSTRACT: Microbial ingredients such as Candida utilis yeast are known to be functional protein sources with immunomodulating effects whereas soybean meal causes soybean meal-induced enteritis in the distal intestine of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). Inflammatory or immunomodulatory stimuli at the local level in the intestine may alter the plasma proteome profile of Atlantic salmon. These deviations can be helpful indicators for fish health and, therefore potential tools in the diagnosis of fish diseases. The present work aimed to identify local intestinal tissue responses and changes in plasma protein profiles of Atlantic salmon fed inactive dry Candida utilis yeast biomass, soybean meal, or combination of soybean meal based diet with various inclusion levels of Candida utilis. A fishmeal based diet was used as control diet. Inclusion of Candida utilis yeast to a fishmeal based diet did not alter the morphology, immune cell population or gene expression of the distal intestine. Lower levels of Candida utilis combined with soybean meal modulated immune cell populations in the distal intestine and reduced the severity of soybean meal-induced enteritis, while higher inclusion levels of Candida utilis were less effective. Changes in the plasma proteomic profile revealed differences between the diets but did not indicate any specific proteins that could be a marker for health or disease. The results suggest that Candida utilis does not alter intestinal morphology or induce major changes in plasma proteome, and thus could be a high-quality alternative protein source with potential functional properties in diets for Atlantic salmon.
Project description:Single cell proteins, such as Candida utilis, are known to have immunomodulating effects in the distal intestine (DI) of Atlantic salmon, whereas soybean meal (SBM) can cause soybean meal induce enteritis (SBMIE). Inflammatory or immunomodulatory stimuli at the local level in the intestine may alter the plasma protein profile of Atlantic salmon. These changes can be helpful tools in diagnosis for fish diseases and indicators for fish health. The present work aimed to identify local intestinal tissue responses and changes in plasma protein profiles of Atlantic salmon fed C. utilis yeast, SBM, or combined diets. Fish meal (FM) based diet was used as a control diet and the six experimental diets were: FM diet with 200 g/kg C. utilis (FM200CU) and five diets containing 200 g/kg SBM together with 0 (SBM group), 25, 50, 100 or 200 g/kg C. utilis (SBM25CU, SBM50CU, SBM100CU and SBM200CU groups, respectively). Intestine morphology of fish fed FM200CU where not affected whereas SBM group presented changes characteristic of SBMIE. Low inclusion of C. utilis in SBM diet showed a modulation of immune cell populations, but did not alleviate inflammatory symptom.
Project description:The present study aimed to investigate whether alternative dietary protein sources modulate the microbial communities in the distal intestine (DI) of Atlantic salmon, and whether alterations in microbiota profiles are reflected in modifications in host intestinal function and health status. A 48-day feeding trial was conducted, in which groups of fish received one of five diets: a reference diet in which fishmeal (diet FM) was the only protein source and four experimental diets with commercially relevant compositions containing alternative ingredients as partial replacements of fishmeal, i.e., poultry meal (diet PM), a mix of soybean meal and wheat gluten (diet SBMWG), a mix of soy protein concentrate and poultry meal (diet SPCPM), and guar meal and wheat gluten (diet GMWG). Samples were taken of DI digesta and mucosa for microbial profiling using high-throughput sequencing and from DI whole tissue for immunohistochemistry and expression profiling of marker genes for gut health. Regardless of diet, there were significant differences between the microbial populations in the digesta and the mucosa in the salmon DI. Microbial richness was higher in the digesta than the mucosa. The digesta-associated bacterial communities were more affected by the diet than the mucosa-associated microbiota. Interestingly, both legume-based diets (SBMWG and GMWG) presented high relative abundance of lactic acid bacteria in addition to alteration in the expression of a salmon gene related to cell proliferation (pcna). It was, however, not possible to ascertain the cause-effect relationship between changes in bacterial communities and the host's intestinal responses to the diets.IMPORTANCE The intestine of cultivated Atlantic salmon shows symptoms of compromised function, which are most likely caused by imbalances related to the use of new feed ingredients. Intestinal microbiota profiling may become in the future a valuable endpoint measurement in order to assess fish intestinal health status and effects of diet. The present study aimed to gain information about whether alternative dietary protein sources modulate the microbial communities in the Atlantic salmon intestine and whether alterations in microbiota profiles are reflected in alterations in host intestinal function and health status. We demonstrate here that there are substantial differences between the intestinal digesta and mucosa in the presence and abundance of bacteria. The digesta-associated microbiota showed clear dependence on the diet composition, whereas mucosa-associated microbiota appeared to be less affected by diet composition. Most important, the study identified bacterial groups associated with diet-induced gut dysfunction that may be utilized as microbial markers of gut health status in fish.
Project description:In the present study a 44k oligonucleotide salmonid microarray, qPCR and histology were used to investigate transcriptomic responses in the distal intestine during the first week of oral exposure to soybean meal in order to gain insight into early molecular response mechanisms. Intestinal tissue samples were taken on day one, two, three, five and seven after introduction of a soybean-containing diet and compared to a control group fed fishmeal. Day 1, day 2, day 3, day 5 and day 7 (n=10 per condition) post-soybean meal feeding Atlantic salmon hybridized to common reference and compared against control (day 0 of SBM feeding). Tissue = distal intestine.
Project description:Intestinal inflammation, caused by impaired intestinal homeostasis, is a serious condition in both animals and humans. The use of conventional extracted soybean meal (SBM) in diets for Atlantic salmon and several other fish species is known to induce enteropathy in the distal intestine, a condition often referred to as SBM induced enteropathy (SBMIE). In the present study, we investigated the potential of different microbial ingredients to alleviate SBMIE in Atlantic salmon, as a model of feed-induced inflammation. The dietary treatments consisted of a negative control based on fish meal (FM), a positive control based on 20% SBM, and four experimental diets combining 20% SBM with either one of the three yeasts Candida utilis (CU), Kluyveromyces marxianus (KM), Saccharomyces cerevisiae (SC) or the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris (CV). Histopathological examination of the distal intestine showed that all fish fed the SC or SBM diets developed characteristic signs of SBMIE, while those fed the FM, CV or CU diets showed a healthy intestine. Fish fed the KM diet showed intermediate signs of SBMIE. Corroborating results were obtained when measuring the relative length of PCNA positive cells in the crypts of the distal intestine. Gene set enrichment analysis revealed decreased expression of amino acid, fat and drug metabolism pathways as well as increased expression of the pathways for NOD-like receptor signalling and chemokine signalling in both the SC and SBM groups while CV and CU were similar to FM and KM was intermediate. Gene expression of antimicrobial peptides was reduced in the groups showing SBMIE. The characterisation of microbial communities using PCR-DGGE showed a relative increased abundance of Firmicutes bacteria in fish fed the SC or SBM diets. Overall, our results show that both CU and CV were highly effective to counteract SBMIE, while KM had less effect and SC had no functional effects.
Project description:Aquaculture of piscivorous fish is in continual expansion resulting in a global requirement to reduce the dependence on wild caught fish for generation of fishmeal and fish oil. Plant proteins represent a suitable protein alternative to fish meal and are increasingly being used in fish feed. In this study, we examined the transcriptional response of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) to a high marine protein (MP) or low fishmeal, higher plant protein replacement diet (PP), formulated to the same nutritional specification within previously determined acceptable maximum levels of individual plant feed materials.After 77 days of feeding the fish in both groups doubled in weight, however neither growth performance, feed efficiency, condition factor nor organ indices were significantly different. Assessment of histopathological changes in the heart, intestine or liver did not reveal any negative effects of the PP diet. Transcriptomic analysis was performed in mid intestine, liver and skeletal muscle, using an Atlantic salmon oligonucleotide microarray (Salar_2, Agilent 4x44K). The dietary comparison revealed large alteration in gene expression in all the tissues studied between fish on the two diets. Gene ontology analysis showed, in the mid intestine of fish fed PP, higher expression of genes involved in enteritis, protein and energy metabolism, mitochondrial activity/kinases and transport, and a lower expression of genes involved in cell proliferation and apoptosis compared to fish fed MP. The liver of fish fed PP showed a lower expression of immune response genes but a higher expression of cell proliferation and apoptosis processes that may lead to cell reorganization in this tissue. The skeletal muscle of fish fed PP vs MP was characterized by a suppression of processes including immune response, energy and protein metabolism, cell proliferation and apoptosis which may reflect a more energy efficient tissue.The PP diet resulted in significant effects on transcription in all the 3 tissues studied. Despite of these alterations, we demonstrated that high level of plant derived proteins in a salmon diet allowed fish to grow with equal efficiency as those on a high marine protein diet, and with no difference in biometric quality parameters.
Project description:Proteinase-activated receptor 2 (PAR-2), activated by trypsin and other serine proteinases, is a key initiator of inflammatory responses in the intestine of mammals. Atlantic salmon fed diets with standard qualities of soybean meal (SBM) show enteritis of the distal intestine as well as increased activity of trypsin in both luminal contents and wall tissue. Luminal trypsin activity may possibly be involved in immune related disorders of the intestine also in Atlantic salmon via activation of PAR 2. In the present study our aim was to investigate if PAR-2 play a role in SBM induced enteritis. We performed multiple alignments based on nucleic acid sequences of PAR-2 from various animals available from public databases, and designed primers for use in cloning of the Atlantic salmon PAR-2 transcript. We further cloned and characterized the full length sequence of Atlantic salmon PAR-2 and investigated the expression in both early and chronic stages of SBM induced enteropathy. Two full length versions of PAR-2 cDNA were identified and termed PAR-2a and PAR-2b. Expression of the two PAR-2 transcripts was detected in all 18 tissues examined, but most extensively in the intestine and gills. A significant up-regulation in the distal intestine was observed for the PAR-2a transcript after 1 day feeding diets containing SBM. After 3 weeks of feeding, PAR-2a was down-regulated compared to the fish fed control diets. These findings may indicate that PAR-2a participates in inflammatory responses in both the early and later stages of the SBM enteropathy. In the chronic stages of the enteropathy, down-regulation of PAR-2a may indicate a possible desensitization of the PAR-2a receptor. Expression of PAR-2b was not altered in the first 7 days of SBM feeding, but a significant up regulation was observed after 3 weeks, suggesting a putative role in chronic stages of SBM induced enteritis. The expression differences of the two PAR-2 transcripts in the feed trials may indicate that they have different roles in the SBM induced enteritis.
Project description:In Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.), and also in other fish species, certain plant protein ingredients can increase fecal water content creating a diarrhea-like condition which may impair gut function and reduce fish growth. The present study aimed to strengthen understanding of the underlying mechanisms by observing effects of various alternative plant protein sources when replacing fish meal on expression of genes encoding proteins playing key roles in regulation of water transport across the mucosa of the distal intestine (DI). A 48-day feeding trial was conducted with five diets: A reference diet (FM) in which fish meal (72%) was the only protein source; Diet SBMWG with a mix of soybean meal (30%) and wheat gluten (22%); Diet SPCPM with a mix of soy protein concentrate (30%) and poultry meal (6%); Diet GMWG with guar meal (30%) and wheat gluten (14.5%); Diet PM with 58% poultry meal. Compared to fish fed the FM reference diet, fish fed the soybean meal containing diet (SBMWG) showed signs of enteritis in the DI, increased fecal water content of DI chyme and higher plasma osmolality. Altered DI expression of a battery of genes encoding aquaporins, ion transporters, tight junction and adherens junction proteins suggested reduced transcellular transport of water as well as a tightening of the junction barrier in fish fed the SBMWG diet, which may explain the observed higher fecal water content and plasma osmolality. DI structure was not altered for fish fed the other experimental diets but alterations in target gene expression and fecal water content were observed, indicating that alterations in water transport components may take place without clear effects on intestinal structure.
Project description:Despite a long history of rearing Atlantic salmon in hatcheries in Norway, knowledge of molecular and physiological aspects of juvenile development is still limited. To facilitate introduction of alternative feed ingredients and feed additives during early phases, increased knowledge regarding the ontogeny of the digestive apparatus in salmon is needed. In this study, we characterized the development of the gastrointestinal tract and accessory digestive organs for five months following hatch by using histological, biochemical and molecular methods. Furthermore, the effects of a diet containing 16.7% soybean meal (SBM) introduced at start-feeding were investigated, as compared to a fishmeal based control diet. Salmon yolk sac alevins and fry were sampled at 18 time points from hatch until 144 days post hatch (dph). Histomorphological development was investigated at 7, 27, 46, 54 and 144 dph. Ontogenetic expression patterns of genes encoding key digestive enzymes, nutrient transporters, gastrointestinal peptide hormones and T-cell markers were analyzed from 13 time points by qPCR. At 7 dph, the digestive system of Atlantic salmon alevins was morphologically distinct with an early stomach, liver, pancreas, anterior and posterior intestine. About one week before the yolk sac was internalized and exogenous feeding was started, gastric glands and developing pyloric caeca were observed, which coincided with an increase in gene expression of gastric and pancreatic enzymes and nutrient transporters. Thus, the observed organs seemed ready to digest external feed well before the yolk sac was absorbed into the abdominal cavity. In contrast to post-smolt Atlantic salmon, inclusion of SBM did not induce intestinal inflammation in the juveniles. This indicates that SBM can be used in compound feeds for salmon fry from start-feeding to at least 144 dph and/or 4-5 g body weight.
Project description:There is an urgent need to find alternative feed resources that can further substitute fishmeal in Atlantic salmon diets without compromising health and food quality, in particular during the finishing feeding period when the feed demand is highest and flesh quality effects are most significant. This study investigates efficacy of substituting a isoprotein (35 %) and isolipid (35 %) low fishmeal diet (FM, 15 %) with Antarctic krill meal (KM, 12 %) during 3 months with growing finishing 2·3 kg salmon (quadruplicate sea cages/diet). Final body weight (3·9 (se 0·04) kg) was similar in the dietary groups, but the KM group had more voluminous body shape, leaner hearts and improved fillet integrity, firmness and colour. Ectopic epithelial cells and focal Ca deposits in intestine were only detected in the FM group. Transcriptome profiling by microarray of livers showed dietary effects on several immune genes, and a panel of structural genes were up-regulated in the KM group, including cadherin and connexin. Up-regulation of genes encoding myosin heavy chain proteins was the main finding in skeletal muscle. Morphology examination by scanning electron microscopy and secondary structure by Fourier transform IR spectroscopy revealed more ordered and stable collagen architecture of the KM group. NEFA composition of skeletal muscle indicated altered metabolism of n-3, n-6 and SFA of the KM group. The results demonstrated that improved health and meat quality in Atlantic salmon fed krill meal were associated with up-regulation of immune genes, proteins defining muscle properties and genes involved in cell contacts and adhesion, altered fatty acid metabolism and fat deposition, and improved gut health and collagen structure.
Project description:Halibut fed two different diets containing either fishmeal(control) or 25-30% soybean meal for 20 days. Diets compared from fish (5) at day 1, day 10 and day 20 to follow the developement of the soybean-induced enteritis. All experimental samples run against universal RNA (cDNA prepared from 1 ug of a pooled universal RNA consisting of equal amounts of RNA from five developmental stages from hatching until post-metamorphosis). Keywords: Diet comparison over a time course, experimental diet compared to a reference. Two colour design, Soybean meal (SBM) fed vs control fed, 3 time points, 3 biological replicates per time point.