IgG3 enhances neutralization potency and Fc effector function of an HIV V2-specific broadly neutralizing antibody.
ABSTRACT: Broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) protect against HIV infection in non-human primates and their efficacy may be enhanced through interaction with Fc receptors on immune cells. Antibody isotype is a modulator of this binding with the IgG3 subclass mediating potent Fc effector function and is associated with HIV vaccine efficacy and HIV control. BNAb functions are typically assessed independently of the constant region with which they are naturally expressed. To examine the role of natural isotype in the context of a bNAb lineage we studied CAP256, an HIV-infected individual that mounted a potent V2-specific bNAb response. CAP256 expressed persistently high levels of plasma IgG3 which we found mediated both broad neutralizing activity and potent Fc function. Sequencing of germline DNA and the constant regions of V2-directed bNAbs from this donor revealed the expression of a novel IGHG3 allele as well as IGHG3*17, an allele that produces IgG3 antibodies with increased plasma half-life. Both allelic variants were used to generate CAP256-VRC26.25 and CAP256-VRC26.29 IgG3 bNAbs and these were compared to IgG1 versions. IgG3 variants were shown to have significantly higher phagocytosis and trogocytosis compared to IgG1 versions, which corresponded to increased affinity for Fc?RIIa. Neutralization potency was also significantly higher for IgG3 bNAbs, particularly against viruses lacking the N160 glycan. By exchanging hinge regions between subclass variants, we showed that hinge length modulated both neutralization potency and Fc function. This study showed that co-operation between the variable and natural IgG3 constant regions enhanced the polyfunctionality of antibodies, indicating the value of leveraging genetic variation which could be exploited for passive immunity.
Project description:Broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) directed to the V2 apex of the HIV envelope (Env) trimer isolated from individual HIV-infected donors potently neutralize diverse HIV strains, but strategies for designing immunogens to elicit bnAbs have not been identified. Here, we compared four prototypes (PG9, CH01, PGT145, and CAP256.VRC26.09) of V2 apex bnAbs and showed that all recognized a core epitope of basic V2 residues and the glycan-N160. Two prototype bnAbs were derived from VH-germlines that were 99% identical and used a common germline D-gene encoded YYD-motif to interact with the V2-epitope. We identified isolates that were neutralized by inferred germline (iGL) versions of three of the prototype bnAbs. Soluble Env derived from one of these isolates was shown to form a well-ordered Env trimer that could serve as an immunogen to initiate a V2-apex bnAb response. These studies illustrate a strategy to transition from panels of bnAbs to vaccine candidates.
Project description:Broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) to HIV-1 can evolve after years of an iterative process of virus escape and antibody adaptation that HIV-1 vaccine design seeks to mimic. To enable this, properties that render HIV-1 envelopes (Env) capable of eliciting bnAb responses need to be defined. Here, we followed the evolution of the V2 apex directed bnAb lineage VRC26 in the HIV-1 subtype C superinfected donor CAP256 to investigate the phenotypic changes of the virus populations circulating before and during the early phases of bnAb induction. Longitudinal viruses that evolved from the VRC26-resistant primary infecting (PI) virus, the VRC26-sensitive superinfecting (SU) virus and ensuing PI-SU recombinants revealed substantial phenotypic changes in Env, with a switch in Env properties coinciding with early resistance to VRC26. Decreased sensitivity of SU-like viruses to VRC26 was linked with reduced infectivity, altered entry kinetics and lower sensitivity to neutralization after CD4 attachment. VRC26 maintained neutralization activity against cell-associated CAP256 virus, indicating that escape through the cell-cell transmission route is not a dominant escape pathway. Reduced fitness of the early escape variants and sustained sensitivity in cell-cell transmission are both features that limit virus replication, thereby impeding rapid escape. This supports a scenario where VRC26 allowed only partial viral escape for a prolonged period, possibly increasing the time window for bnAb maturation. Collectively, our data highlight the phenotypic plasticity of the HIV-1 Env in evading bnAb pressure and the need to consider phenotypic traits when selecting and designing Env immunogens. Combinations of Env variants with differential phenotypic patterns and bnAb sensitivity, as we describe here for CAP256, may maximize the potential for inducing bnAb responses by vaccination.
Project description:Apex broadly neutralizing HIV antibodies (bnAbs) recognize glycans and protein surface close to the 3-fold axis of the envelope (Env) trimer and are among the most potent and broad Abs described. The evolution of apex bnAbs from one donor (CAP256) has been studied in detail and many Abs at different stages of maturation have been described. Using diverse engineering tools, we investigated the involvement of glycan recognition in the development of the CAP256.VRC26 Ab lineage. We found that sialic acid-bearing glycans were recognized by germline-encoded and somatically mutated residues on the Ab heavy chain. This recognition provided an "anchor" for the Abs as the core protein epitope varies, prevented complete neutralization escape, and eventually led to broadening of the response. These findings illustrate how glycan-specific maturation enables a human Ab to cope with pathogen escape mechanisms and will aid in optimization of immunization strategies to induce V2 apex bnAb responses.
Project description:HIV-1 infection continues to be a global health challenge and a vaccine is urgently needed. Broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) are considered essential as they inhibit multiple HIV-1 strains, but they are difficult to elicit by conventional immunization. In contrast, non-neutralizing antibodies that correlated with reduced risk of infection in the RV144 HIV vaccine trial are relatively easy to induce, but responses are not durable. To overcome these obstacles, adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors were used to provide long-term expression of antibodies targeting the V2 region of the HIV-1 envelope protein, including the potent CAP256-VRC26.25 bNAb, as well as non-neutralizing CAP228 antibodies that resemble those elicited by vaccination. AAVs mediated effective antibody expression in cell culture and immunocompetent mice. Mean concentrations of human immunoglobulin G (IgG) in mouse sera increased rapidly following a single AAV injection, reaching 8-60 ?g/mL for CAP256 antibodies and 44-220 ?g/mL for CAP228 antibodies over 24 weeks, but antibody concentrations varied for individual mice. Secreted antibodies collected from serum retained the expected binding and neutralizing activity. The vectors generated here are, therefore, suitable for the delivery of V2-targeting HIV antibodies, and they could be used in a vectored immunoprophylaxis (VIP) approach to sustain the level of antibody expression required to prevent HIV infection.
Project description:Broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) develop in a subset of HIV-1 infected individuals over 2-3 years of infection. Infected infants develop plasma bnAbs frequently and as early as 1-year post-infection suggesting factors governing bnAb induction in infants are distinct from adults. Understanding viral characteristics in infected infants with early bnAb responses will provide key information about antigenic triggers driving B cell maturation pathways towards induction of bnAbs. Herein, we evaluate the presence of plasma bnAbs in a cohort of 51 HIV-1 clade-C infected infants and identify viral factors associated with early bnAb responses. Plasma bnAbs targeting V2-apex on the env are predominant in infant elite and broad neutralizers. Circulating viral variants in infant elite neutralizers are susceptible to V2-apex bnAbs. In infant elite neutralizers, multivariant infection is associated with plasma bnAbs targeting diverse autologous viruses. Our data provides information supportive of polyvalent vaccination approaches capable of inducing V2-apex bnAbs against HIV-1.
Project description:Broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) can prevent and control an HIV-1 infection, but their breadth is invariably too limited for use as monotherapy. To address this problem, bi- and trispecific antibody-like constructs have been developed. These engineered antibodies typically have greater breadth than the native bNAbs from which they were derived, but they are not more potent because they do not, in most cases, simultaneously engage more than a single epitope of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env). Here, we describe a new class of bispecific antibodies targeting the V2-glycan (apex) and V3-glycan regions of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env). Specifically, bispecific antibodies with a single-chain (scFv) form of the CAP256.VRC26.25 V2-glycan (apex) antibody on one antibody arm and a full V3-glycan Fab on the other arm neutralizes more HIV-1 isolates than the bNAbs from which they were derived. Moreover, these bispecific antibodies are markedly more potent than their parental bNAbs, likely because they simultaneously engage both the apex and V3-glycan epitopes of Env. Our data show that simultaneous engagement of two critical epitopes of a single Env trimer can markedly increase the potency of a bispecific antibody.IMPORTANCE Broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) can prevent a new HIV-1 infection and can at least temporarily suppress an established infection. However, antibody-resistant viruses rapidly emerge in infected persons treated with any single bNAb. Several bispecific antibodies have been developed to increase the breadth of these antibodies, but typically only one arm of these bispecific constructs binds the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein trimer (Env). Here, we develop and characterize bispecific constructs based on well-characterized V2-glycan and V3-glycan bNAbs and show that at least one member of this class is more potent than its parental antibodies, indicating that they can simultaneously bind both of these epitopes of a single Env trimer. These data show that bispecific antibody-like proteins can achieve greater neutralization potency than the bNAbs from which they were derived.
Project description:Eliciting HIV-1-specific broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) remains a challenge for vaccine development, and the potential of passively delivered bNAbs for prophylaxis and therapeutics is being explored. We used neutralization data from four large virus panels to comprehensively map viral signatures associated with bNAb sensitivity, including amino acids, hypervariable region characteristics, and clade effects across four different classes of bNAbs. The bNAb signatures defined for the variable loop 2 (V2) epitope region of HIV-1 Env were then employed to inform immunogen design in a proof-of-concept exploration of signature-based epitope targeted (SET) vaccines. V2 bNAb signature-guided mutations were introduced into Env 459C to create a trivalent vaccine, and immunization of guinea pigs with V2-SET vaccines resulted in increased breadth of NAb responses compared with Env 459C alone. These data demonstrate that bNAb signatures can be utilized to engineer HIV-1 Env vaccine immunogens capable of eliciting antibody responses with greater neutralization breadth.
Project description:Epitope-targeted HIV vaccine design seeks to focus antibody responses to broadly neutralizing antibody (bnAb) sites by sequential immunization. A chimpanzee simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) envelope (Env) shares a single bnAb site, the variable loop 2 (V2)-apex, with HIV, suggesting its possible utility in an HIV immunization strategy. Here, we generate a chimpanzee SIV Env trimer, MT145K, which displays selective binding to HIV V2-apex bnAbs and precursor versions, but no binding to other HIV specificities. We determine the structure of the MT145K trimer by cryo-EM and show that its architecture is remarkably similar to HIV Env. Immunization of an HIV V2-apex bnAb precursor Ab-expressing knockin mouse with the chimpanzee MT145K trimer induces HIV V2-specific neutralizing responses. Subsequent boosting with an HIV trimer cocktail induces responses that exhibit some virus cross-neutralization. Overall, the chimpanzee MT145K trimer behaves as expected from design both in vitro and in vivo and is an attractive potential component of a sequential immunization regimen to induce V2-apex bnAbs.
Project description:The existing repertoire of HIV-1 patient derived broadly neutralising antibodies (bNAbs) that target the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) present numerous and exciting opportunities for immune-based therapeutic and preventative strategies against HIV-1. Combination antibody therapy is required to ensure greater neutralization coverage and limit Env mediated escape mutations following treatment pressure. Engineered bispecific bNAbs (bibNAbs) assimilate the advantages of combination therapy into a single antibody molecule with several configurations reporting potency enhancement as a result of the increased avidity and simultaneous engagement of targeted epitopes. We report the engineering of a novel bibNAb (iMab-CAP256) comprising the highly potent, CAP256.VRC26.25 bNAb with anticipated extension in neutralization coverage through pairing with the host directed, anti-CD4 antibody, ibalizumab (iMab). Recombinant expression of parental monoclonal antibodies and the iMab-CAP256 bibNAb was performed in HEK293T (Human embryonic kidney 293 T antigen) cells, purified to homogeneity by Protein-A affinity chromatography followed by size exclusion chromatography. Antibody assembly and binding functionality of Fab moieties was confirmed by SDS-PAGE (sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis) and ELISA, respectively. Breadth and potency were evaluated against a geographical diverse HIV-1 pseudovirus panel (n?=?20). Overall, iMab-CAP256 demonstrated an expanded neutralizing coverage, neutralizing single, parental antibody resistant pseudovirus strains and an enhanced neutralization potency against all dual sensitive strains (average fold increase over the more potent parental antibody of 11.4 (range 2 to 31.8). Potency enhancement was not observed for the parental antibody combination treatment (iMab?+?CAP256) suggesting the presence of a synergistic relationship between the CAP256 and iMab paratope combination in this bibNAb configuration. In addition, iMab-CAP256 bibNAbs exhibited comparable efficacy to other bibNAbs PG9-iMab and 10E08-iMab previously reported in the literature. The enhanced neutralization coverage and potency of iMAb-CAP256 over the parental bNAbs should facilitate superior clinical performance as a therapeutic or preventative strategy against HIV-1.
Project description:Current HIV-1 vaccines elicit strain-specific neutralizing antibodies. Broadly neutralizing antibodies (BnAbs) are not induced by current vaccines, but are found in plasma in ?20% of HIV-1-infected individuals after several years of infection. One strategy for induction of unfavored antibody responses is to produce homogeneous immunogens that selectively express BnAb epitopes but minimally express dominant strain-specific epitopes. Here we report that synthetic, homogeneously glycosylated peptides that bind avidly to variable loop 1/2 (V1V2) BnAbs PG9 and CH01 bind minimally to strain-specific neutralizing V2 antibodies that are targeted to the same envelope polypeptide site. Both oligomannose derivatization and conformational stabilization by disulfide-linked dimer formation of synthetic V1V2 peptides were required for strong binding of V1V2 BnAbs. An HIV-1 vaccine should target BnAb unmutated common ancestor (UCA) B-cell receptors of naïve B cells, but to date no HIV-1 envelope constructs have been found that bind to the UCA of V1V2 BnAb PG9. We demonstrate herein that V1V2 glycopeptide dimers bearing Man5GlcNAc2 glycan units bind with apparent nanomolar affinities to UCAs of V1V2 BnAbs PG9 and CH01 and with micromolar affinity to the UCA of a V2 strain-specific antibody. The higher-affinity binding of these V1V2 glycopeptides to BnAbs and their UCAs renders these glycopeptide constructs particularly attractive immunogens for targeting subdominant HIV-1 envelope V1V2-neutralizing antibody-producing B cells.