Adipose-derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Modulate Lipid Metabolism and Lipid Droplet Biogenesis via AKT/mTOR -PPAR? Signalling in Macrophages.
ABSTRACT: Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are a potential therapy for many chronic inflammatory diseases due to their regenerative, immunologic and anti-inflammatory properties. The two-way dialogue between MSCs and macrophages is crucial to tissue regeneration and repair. Previous research demonstrated that murine adipose-derived MSC conditioned medium (ASCcm) reprograms macrophages to an M2-like phenotype which protects from experimental colitis and sepsis. Here, our focus was to determine the molecular mechanism of lipid droplet biogenesis in macrophages re-educated using ASCcm. Adipose-derived MSC conditioned medium promotes phosphorylation of AKT/mTOR pathway proteins in macrophages. Furthermore, increased expression of PPAR?, lipid droplet biogenesis and PGE2 synthesis were observed in M2-like phenotype macrophages (high expression of arginase 1 and elevated IL-10). Treatment with mTOR inhibitor rapamycin or PPAR? inhibitor GW9662 suppressed lipid droplets and PGE2 secretion. However, these inhibitors had no effect on arginase-1 expression. Rapamycin, but not GW9662, inhibit IL-10 secretion. In conclusion, we demonstrate major effects of ASCcm to reprogram macrophage immunometabolism through mTOR and PPAR? dependent and independent pathways.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have emerged as a promising therapy for type 2 diabetes (T2D). Mechanistic researches demonstrate that the anti-diabetic effect of MSCs is partially mediated by eliciting macrophages into an anti-inflammatory phenotype thus alleviating insulin resistance. However, single MSC infusion is insufficient to ameliorate sustained hyperglycemia or normalize blood glucose levels. In this study, we used decitabine (DAC), which is involved in the regulation of macrophage polarization, to test whether MSCs combined with decitabine can prolong and enhance the anti-diabetic effect in T2D mice.<h4>Methods</h4>High-fat diet (HFD) and streptozocin (STZ) were given to induce T2D mouse model. Successfully induced T2D mice were randomly divided into four groups: T2D group, MSC group, DAC group, and MSC + DAC group. Blood glucose was monitored, and glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity were evaluated during the entire analysis period. Epididymal fat was extracted for analysis of macrophage phenotype and inflammation in adipose tissue. In vitro, we examined the effect of MSC + DAC on macrophage polarization in bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) and explore the possible mechanism.<h4>Results</h4>MSC infusion effectively improved insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis in T2D mice within 1?week, whereas combination therapy of MSCs + DAC extended the anti-diabetic effects of MSCs from 1?to 4?weeks (the end of the observation). Correspondingly, more M2 macrophages in adipose tissue were observed in the combination therapy group over the entire study period. In vitro, compared with the MSC group, MSCs combined with decitabine more effectively polarized M1 macrophages to M2 macrophages. Further analysis showed that the effect of MSC + DAC on macrophage polarization was largely abrogated by the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR?) antagonist GW9662.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Our data suggest that MSCs combined with decitabine can more effectively alleviate insulin resistance and prolong and enhance the anti-diabetic effect of MSCs in T2D mice in part by prompting M2 polarization in a PPAR?-dependent manner. Thus, decitabine may be an applicable addition to MSCs for diabetes therapy. UC-MSCs combined with decitabine activate the IL4R/STAT6/STAT3/PPAR? axis to further promote M2 macrophage polarization in adipose tissue, reduce inflammation, improve insulin sensitivity, and lead to better glucose metabolism and long-term hypoglycemic effects.
Project description:Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are speculated to act at macrophage-injury interfaces to mediate efficient repair. To explore this facet in-depth this study evaluates the influence of MSCs on human macrophages existing in distinct functional states. MSCs promoted macrophage differentiation, enhanced respiratory burst and potentiated microbicidal responses in naïve macrophages (M?). Functional attenuation of inflammatory M1 macrophages was associated with a concomitant shift towards alternatively activated M2 state in MSC-M1 co-cultures. In contrast, alternate macrophage (M2) activation was enhanced in MSC-M2 co-cultures. Elucidation of key macrophage metabolic programs in Mo/MSC, M1/MSC and M2/MSC co-cultures indicated changes in Glucose transporter1 (GLUT1 expression/glucose uptake, IDO1 protein/activity, SIRTUIN1 and alterations in AMPK and mTOR activity, reflecting MSC-instructed metabolic shifts. Inability of Cox2 knockdown MSCs to attenuate M1 macrophages and their inefficiency in instructing metabolic shifts in polarized macrophages establishes a key role for MSC-secreted PGE2 in manipulating macrophage metabolic status and plasticity. Functional significance of MSC-mediated macrophage activation shifts was further validated on human endothelial cells prone to M1 mediated injury. In conclusion, we propose a novel role for MSC secreted factors induced at the MSC-macrophage interface in re-educating macrophages by manipulating metabolic programs in differentially polarized macrophages.
Project description:Lipophosphoglycan (LPG) is a key virulence factor expressed on the surfaces of Leishmania promastigotes. Although LPG is known to activate macrophages, the underlying mechanisms resulting in the production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) via signaling pathways remain unknown. Here, the inflammatory response arising from stimulation by Leishmania infantum LPG and/or its lipid and glycan motifs was evaluated with regard to PGE2 induction. Intact LPG, but not its glycan and lipid moieties, induced a range of proinflammatory responses, including PGE2 and nitric oxide (NO) release, increased lipid droplet formation, and iNOS and COX2 expression. LPG also induced ERK-1/2 and JNK phosphorylation in macrophages, in addition to the release of PGE2, MCP-1, IL-6, TNF-? and IL-12p70, but not IL-10. Pharmacological inhibition of ERK1/2 and PKC affected PGE2 and cytokine production. Moreover, treatment with rosiglitazone, an agonist of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-?), also modulated the release of PGE2 and other proinflammatory mediators. Finally, we determined that LPG-induced PPAR-? signaling occurred via TLR1/2. Taken together, these results reinforce the role played by L. infantum-derived LPG in the proinflammatory response seen in Leishmania infection.
Project description:Resolution-phase macrophage population orchestrates active dampening of the inflammation by secreting anti-inflammatory and proresolving products including interleukin (IL)-10 and lipid mediators (LMs). We investigated the effects of both human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) and MSC-derived extracellular vesicles (MSC-EVs) on mature human regulatory macrophages (Mregs). The cytokines and LMs were determined from cell culture media of Mregs cultivated with MSCs and MSC-EVs. In addition, the alterations in the expression of cell surface markers and the phagocytic ability of Mregs were investigated. Our novel findings indicate that both MSC coculture and MSC-EVs downregulated the production of IL-23 and IL-22 enhancing the anti-inflammatory phenotype of Mregs and amplifying proresolving properties. The levels of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) were substantially upregulated in MSC coculture media, which may endorse proresolving LM class switching. In addition, our results manifest, for the first time, that MSC-EVs mediate the Mreg phenotype change via PGE2. These data suggest that both human MSC and MSC-EVs may potentiate tolerance-promoting proresolving phenotype of human Mregs.
Project description:MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of short non-coding RNAs that play a significant role in biological processes in various cell types, including mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). However, how miRNAs regulate the immunomodulatory functions of adipose-derived MSCs (AD-MSCs) remains unknown. Here, we showed that modulation of miR-301a in AD-MSCs altered macrophage polarization. Bone marrow (BM)-derived macrophages were stimulated with LPS (1??g/ml) and co-cultured with miRNA transfected AD-MSCs for 24?h. The expression of M1 and M2 markers in macrophages was analyzed. Inhibition of miR-301a induced M2 macrophage with arginase-1, CD163, CD206, and IL-10 upregulation. Additionally, toll-like receptor (TLR)-4 mRNA expression in macrophages was downregulated in co-cultures with AD-MSCs transfected with a miR-301a inhibitor. Nitric oxide (NO) in the supernatant of AD-MSC/macrophage co-culture was also suppressed by inhibition of miR-301a in AD-MSCs. We further found that suppression of miR-301a in AD-MSCs increased prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) concentration in the conditioned medium of the co-culture. Taken together, the results of our study indicate that miR-301a can modulate the immunoregulatory functions of AD-MSCs that favor the applicability as a potential immunotherapeutic agent.
Project description:Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been identified as one possible strategy for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Our previous studies have demonstrated that MSC administration has therapeutic potential in airway inflammation and emphysema via a paracrine mechanism. We proposed that MSCs reverse the inflammatory process and restore impaired lung function through their interaction with macrophages. In our study, the rats were exposed to cigarette smoke (CS), followed by the administration of MSCs into the lungs for 5 weeks. Here we show that MSC administration alleviated airway inflammation and emphysema through the down-regulation of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and COX-2-mediated prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production, possibly through the effect on alveolar macrophages. In vitro co-culture experiments provided evidence that MSCs down-regulated COX-2/PGE2 in macrophages through inhibition of the activation-associated phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and ERK. Our data suggest that MSCs may relieve airway inflammation and emphysema in CS-exposed rat models, through the inhibition of COX-2/PGE2 in alveolar macrophages, mediated in part by the p38 MAPK and ERK pathways. This study provides a compelling mechanism for MSC treatment in COPD, in addition to its paracrine mechanism.
Project description:Background: Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-based therapies hold great promise for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In order to optimize and maximize the therapeutic benefits of MSCs, we investigated whether cotransplantation of a chitosan (CS)-based injectable hydrogel with immobilized IGF-1 C domain peptide (CS-IGF-1C) and human placenta-derived MSCs (hP-MSCs) could ameliorate colitis in mice. Methods: IGF-1C hydrogel was generated by immobilizing IGF-1C to CS hydrogel. Colitis was induced by 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) in mice. We initially applied hP-MSCs and CS-IGF-1C hydrogel for the treatment of colitis by in situ injection, and molecular imaging methods were used for real-time imaging of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and tracking of transplanted hP-MSCs by bioluminescence imaging (BLI). Furthermore, the effects of CS-IGF-1C hydrogel on prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) secretion of hP-MSCs and polarization of M2 macrophages were investigated as well. Results: The CS-IGF-1C hydrogel significantly increased hP-MSC proliferation and promoted the production of PGE2 from hP-MSCs in vitro. Moreover, in vivo studies indicated that the CS-IGF-1C hydrogel promoted hP-MSC survival as visualized by BLI and markedly alleviated mouse colitis, which was possibly mediated by hP-MSC production of PGE2 and interleukin-10 (IL-10) production by polarized M2 macrophages. Conclusions: The CS-IGF-1C hydrogel improved the engraftment of transplanted hP-MSCs, ameliorated inflammatory responses, and further promoted the functional and structural recovery of colitis through PGE2-mediated M2 macrophage polarization. Molecular imaging approaches and therapeutic strategies for hydrogel application provide a versatile platform for exploring the promising therapeutic potential of MSCs in the treatment of IBD.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a cardiac complication of long-term uncontrolled diabetes and is characterized by myocardial fibrosis and abnormal cardiac function. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells with immunoregulatory and secretory functions in diabetes and heart diseases. However, very few studies have focused on the effect and the underlying mechanism of MSCs on myocardial fibrosis in DCM. Therefore, we aimed to explore the therapeutic potential of MSCs in myocardial fibrosis and its underlying mechanism in vivo and in vitro. METHODS:A DCM rat model was induced using a high-fat diet (HFD) combined with a low-dose streptozotocin (STZ) injection. After four infusions of MSCs, rat serum and heart tissues were collected, and the levels of blood glucose and lipid, cardiac structure, and function, and the degree of myocardial fibrosis including the expression levels of pro-fibrotic factor and collagen were analyzed using biochemical methods, echocardiography, histopathology, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). We infused prostaglandin E2 (PGE2)-deficient MSCs to DCM rats in vivo and established a system mimicking diabetic myocardial fibrosis in vitro by inducing cardiac fibroblasts with high glucose (HG) and coculturing them with MSCs or PGE2-deficient MSCs to further explore the underlying mechanism of amelioration of myocardial fibrosis by MSCs. RESULTS:Metabolic abnormalities, myocardial fibrosis, and cardiac dysfunction in DCM rats were significantly ameliorated after treatment with MSCs. Moreover, the levels of TGF-?, collagen I, collagen III, and collagen accumulation were markedly decreased after MSC infusion compared to those in DCM hearts. However, PGE2-deficient MSCs had decreased ability to alleviate cardiac fibrosis and dysfunction. In addition, in vitro study revealed that the concentration of PGE2 in the MSC group was enhanced, while the proliferation and collagen secretion of cardiac fibroblasts were reduced after MSC treatment. However, MSCs had little effect on alleviating fibrosis when the fibroblasts were pretreated with cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors, which also inhibited PGE2 secretion. This phenomenon could be reversed by adding PGE2. CONCLUSIONS:Our results indicated that MSC infusion could ameliorate cardiac fibrosis and dysfunction in DCM rats. The underlying mechanisms might involve the function of PGE2 secreted by MSCs.
Project description:BACKGROUND:During the last decade, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have gained much attention in the field of regenerative medicine due to their capacity to differentiate into different cell types and to promote immunosuppressive effects. However, the underlying mechanism of MSC-mediated immunoregulation is not fully understood so far. Macrophages are distinguished in classical activated, pro-inflammatory M1 and alternatively activated M2 cells, which possess different functions and transcriptional profiles with respect to inflammatory responses. As polarization is not fixed, macrophage functional plasticity might be modulated by the microenvironment allowing them to rapidly react to danger signals and maintaining tissue homeostasis. METHODS:Murine MSCs were preconditioned with IL-1ß and IFN-? to enhance their immunosuppressive capacity regarding macrophage polarization under M1- and M2a-polarizing conditions. Macrophage polarization was analyzed by real-time PCR, flow cytometry, and cytokine detection in culture supernatants. The role of MSC-derived nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and IL-6 in this process has been evaluated using siRNA transfection and IL-6 receptor-deficient macrophages, respectively. RESULTS:Preconditioned, but not unprimed, MSCs secreted high levels of NO, IL-6, and PGE2. Co-culture with macrophages (M0) in the presence of M1 inducers (LPS?+?IFN-?) led to significant reduction of CD86 and iNOS protein in macrophages and diminished TNF-? secretion. Additionally, CD86 and iNOS protein expression as well as NO and IL-10 secretion were markedly increased under M2a-polarizing culture conditions (IL-4). MSC-dependent macrophage polarization did not depend on direct cell-cell contact. Co-culturing in the presence of LPS and IFN-? resulted in the upregulation of M2a, M2b, and M2c marker genes, whereas in the presence of IL-4 only M2b markers were significantly increased. In turn, IL-10-producing regulatory M2b cells significantly inhibited IFN-? expression in CD4+ T lymphocytes. Finally, we show that MSC-mediated macrophage polarization strongly depends on IL-6, whereas a minor role for NO and PGE2 was found. CONCLUSIONS:Preconditioning of MSCs highly strengthens their capacity to regulate macrophage features and to promote immunosuppression. Repression of M1 polarization during inflammation and M2b polarization under anti-inflammatory conditions strongly depend on functional IL-6 signaling in macrophages. The potential benefit of preconditioned MSCs and IL-6 should be considered for future clinical treatment.
Project description:Therapeutic mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are attractive in part due to their immunomodulatory properties, achieved by their paracrine secretion of factors including prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). Despite promising pre-clinical data, demonstrating clinical efficacy has proven difficult. The current studies were designed to develop approaches to pre-induce desired functions from naïve MSCs and examine MSC donor variability, two factors contributing to this disconnect. MSCs from six human donors were pre-activated with interleukin 1 beta (IL-1?) at a concentration and duration identified as optimal or interferon gamma (IFN-?) as a comparator. Their secretion of PGE2 after pre-activation and secondary exposure to pro-inflammatory molecules was measured. Modulation of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) secretion from M1 pro-inflammatory macrophages by co-cultured pre-activated MSCs was also measured. Our results indicated that pre-activation of MSCs with IL-1? resulted in upregulated PGE2 secretion post exposure. Pre-activation with IL-1? or IFN-? resulted in higher sensitivity to induction by secondary stimuli compared to no pre-activation. While IL-1? pre-activation led to enhanced MSC-mediated attenuation of macrophage TNF-? secretion, IFN-? pre-activation resulted in enhanced TNF-? secretion. Donor variability was noted in PGE2 secretion and upregulation and the level of improved or impaired macrophage modulation.