Removal of large middle molecules via haemodialysis with medium cut-off membranes at lower blood flow rates: an observational prospective study.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Online haemodiafiltration (OL-HDF) may improve middle molecular clearance in contrast to conventional haemodialysis (HD). However, OL-HDF requires higher convective flows and cannot sufficiently remove large middle molecules. This study evaluated the efficacy of a medium cut-off (MCO) dialyser in removing large middle molecular uraemic toxins and compared it with that of conventional high-flux (HF) dialysers in HD and predilution OL-HDF. METHODS:Six clinically stable HD patients without residual renal function were investigated. Dialyser and treatment efficacies were examined during a single midweek treatment in three consecutive periods: 1) conventional HD using an HF dialyser, 2) OL-HDF using the same HF dialyser, and 3) conventional HD using an MCO dialyser. Treatment efficacy was assessed by calculating the reduction ratio (RR) for ?2-microglobulin (?2M), myoglobin, ? and ? free light chains (FLCs), and fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-23 and measuring clearance for FLCs. RESULTS:All three treatments showed comparable RRs for urea, phosphate, creatinine, and uric acid. MCO HD showed greater RRs for myoglobin and ?FLC than did HF HD and predilution OL-HDF (myoglobin: 63.1?±?5.3% vs. 43.5?±?8.9% and 49.8?±?7.3%; ?FLC: 43.2?±?5.6% vs. 26.8?±?4.4% and 33.0?±?9.2%, respectively; P?
Project description:Purpose:Conventional hemodialysis (HD) treatment has an acceptable removal of small uremic molecules, but so-called "middle molecules" in the range of 0.5-60 kDa are poorly cleared with HD compared to a native kidney, which may contribute to morbidity in the dialysis population. Hemodiafiltration (HDF) has a better removal of middle molecules compared to HD but is technically demanding and requires well-functioning dialysis access. The newly introduced medium cutoff (MCO) filters have been developed to enhance middle molecule clearance in HD-mode. The aim of this study was to compare reduction ratios (RRs) of molecules with different molecular weights (0.06-150 kDa) during dialysis with MCO dialyzer (used in HD-mode) compared to online-hemodiafiltration (ol-HDF) treatment with a conventional high-flux dialyzer. Patients and Methods:This is a prospective controlled single-center cross-over study, including 16 patients in Malmö, Sweden. All patients had ongoing post-dilution ol-HDF treatment before the study. The study compared reduction ratios of small-, middle-, and large-sized molecules during a single 4h dialysis treatment with post-dilution ol-HDF (Polyflux 210H) to a 4h dialysis treatment with MCO dialyzer (Theranova 500) in HD-mode. Between treatments, the patients had a washout period of at least two weeks of their ordinary HDF treatment to reach their ordinary steady state. Results:ol-HDF had significantly higher RR for cystatin C (13 kDa), compared to MCO (RR 68.1 vs 65.8, p=0.003), during a 4h dialysis treatment (mean convection volume of 24.5 L for HDF, and mean Qb of 324 mL/min for HDF and 323 mL/min for MCO). There was no significant difference in the RR for other middle molecules, or for smaller or larger molecules. Conclusion:Overall, the RRs were comparable for ol-HDF and MCO-HD. There was a slightly higher RR of cystatin C (a small middle molecule) for HDF compared to MCO but no difference in other measured molecules.
Project description:Compared to high-flux dialysis membranes, novel medium cut-off (MCO) membranes show greater permeability for larger middle molecules.In two prospective, open-label, controlled, randomized, crossover pilot studies, 39 prevalent hemodialysis (HD) patients were studied in four dialysis treatments as follows: study 1, three MCO prototype dialyzers (AA, BB and CC with increasing permeability) and one high-flux dialyzer in HD; and study 2, two MCO prototype dialyzers (AA and BB) in HD and high-flux dialyzers in HD and hemodiafiltration (HDF). Primary outcome was lambda free light chain (λFLC) overall clearance. Secondary outcomes included overall clearances and pre-to-post-reduction ratios of middle and small molecules, and safety of MCO HD treatments.MCO HD provided greater λFLC overall clearance [least square mean (standard error)] as follows: study 1: MCO AA 8.5 (0.54), MCO BB 11.3 (0.51), MCO CC 15.0 (0.53) versus high-flux HD 3.6 (0.51) mL/min; study 2: MCO AA 10.0 (0.58), MCO BB 12.5 (0.57) versus high-flux HD 4.4 (0.57) and HDF 6.2 (0.58) mL/min. Differences between MCO and high-flux dialyzers were consistently significant in mixed model analysis (each P < 0.001). Reduction ratios of λFLC were greater for MCO. Clearances of α1-microglobulin, complement factor D, kappa FLC (κFLC) and myoglobin were generally greater with MCO than with high-flux HD and similar to or greater than clearances with HDF. Albumin loss was moderate with MCO, but greater than with high-flux HD and HDF.MCO HD removes a wide range of middle molecules more effectively than high-flux HD and even exceeds the performance of high-volume HDF for large solutes, particularly λFLC.
Project description:The medium cut-off (MCO) dialyzer has shown good clearance of large middle molecules, but its long-term effects are unclear. We investigated whether MCO hemodialysis (HD) over one year could reduce middle molecule levels and cell-free hemoglobin (CFH), without albumin loss. A prospective cohort study in 57 hemodialysis patients was conducted. The patients were assigned to the MCO dialyzer group or the high-flux dialyzer group, according to the HD machine they used. The reduction ratio (RR) and one-year changes in small and middle molecules and CFH were analyzed. Over a 12-month follow-up, MCO HD did not reduce the serum levels of middle molecules (lambda free light chain [FLC], from 135.7 ± 39.9 to 132.0 ± 39.1 mg/L; kappa FLC, from 168.2 ± 58.5 to 167.7 ± 65.8 mg/L; ?2-microglobulin, from 25.6 ± 9.6 to 28.4 ± 4.8 mg/L) or albumin (from 3.96 ± 0.31 to 3.94 ± 0.37 g/dL). MCO HD provided excellent RR of lambda FLC (49.3 ± 10.3%), kappa FLC (69.6 ± 10.4%) and ?2-microglobulin (80.9 ± 7.3%), compared to high-flux HD. CFH was also removed well during an MCO HD session (RR of CPH, 85.5 [78.7-97.3] %), but long-term change was not significant (from 57.8 [46.2-79.1] to 62.0 [54.6-116.7] mg/L). The MCO dialyzer can be used effectively and safely in conventional HD settings, but long-term effects on large middle molecules and CFH were not significant. Further studies are needed to verify clinical benefits of the MCO dialyzer.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Fluid overload is frequent among hemodialysis (HD) patients. Dialysis therapy itself may favor sodium imbalance from sodium dialysate prescription. As on-line hemodiafiltration (OL-HDF) requires large amounts of dialysate infusion, this technique can expose to fluid accumulation in case of a positive sodium gradient between dialysate and plasma. To evaluate this risk, we have analyzed and compared the fluid status of patients treated with HD or OL-HDF in French NephroCare centers. METHOD:This is a cross-sectional and retrospective analysis of prevalent dialysis patients. Data were extracted from the EUCLID5 data base. Patients were split in 2 groups (HD and OL-HDF) and compared as whole group or matched patients for fluid status criteria including predialysis relative fluid overload (RelFO%) status from the BCM®. RESULTS:2242 patients (age 71 years; female: 39%; vintage: 38 months; Charlson index: 6) were studied. 58% of the cohort were prescribed post-dilution OL-HDF. Comparing the HD and OL-HDF groups, there was no difference between HD and OL-HDF patients regarding the predialysis systolic BP, the interdialytic weight gain, the dialysate-plasma sodium gradient, and the predialysis RelFO%. The stepwise logistic regression did not find dialysis modality (HD or OL-HDF) associated with fluid overload or high predialysis systolic blood pressure. In OL-HDF patients, monthly average convective or weekly infusion volumes per session were not related with the presence of fluid overload. CONCLUSIONS:In this cross-sectional study we did not find association between the use of post-dilution OL-HDF and markers of fluid volume excess. Aligned dialysis fluid sodium concentrations to patient predialysis plasma sodium and regular monitoring of fluid volume status by bioimpedance spectroscopy may have been helpful to manage adequately the fluid status in both OL-HDF and HD patients.
Project description:BACKGROUND:End-stage renal disease (ESRD) is related to high morbidity, mortality, and impaired health-related quality of life. While hemodialysis (HD) is the current life-saving standard of treatment for patients with ESRD, their quality of life (QoL) remains far from desirable. Online HDF (OL-HDF), due to its convenience, could improve the QoL of patients with ESRD, however, this remains uncertain. OBJECTIVE:We aimed to assess the body of evidence of OL-HDF compared to HD regarding QoL in patients with ESRD. METHODS:We comprehensively searched in multiple data bases from their inception to February 2018. Reviewers working independently and in duplicate appraised the quality and included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that evaluated, in patients with ESRD and HD or OL-HDF, QoL (Short Form Health Survey with 36 questions (SF-36) with physical component score (PCS) and mental component score (MCS) as well as scores about social activity, fatigue, and emotion). A meta-analysis of each outcome of interest was performed using a random-effects model. RESULTS:Six moderate quality RCTs met the inclusion criteria. Meta-analysis of 4 RCTs including a total of 1,209 patients showed that OL-HDF was associated with a lower yet non-significant score of PCS: MD (mean difference) -0.77 (95% CI -1.94 to 0.41, p = 0.20), and MCS: MD -1.25 (95% CI -3.10 to 0.59, p = 0.18); indicating a poorer QoL in patients on OL-HDF. Meta-analysis of 4 RCTs including a total of 845 patients showed OL-HDF was associated with a significant increase in the score of social activity compared to HD: SMD (standardized mean difference): 1.95 (95% CI 0.05 to 3.86, p = 0.04), indicating a better QoL in patients on OL-HDF; but regarding fatigue and emotion, there was no significant improvement when compared to HD by meta-analysis of 3 RCTs (133 patients). CONCLUSIONS:The body of evidence suggests that OL-HDF does not improve QoL in patients with ESRD when compared to HD.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Despite significant advances in haemodialysis (HD) in recent decades, current dialysis techniques are limited by inadequate removal of uraemic solutes such as middle molecules and protein-bound uraemic toxins. Novel medium cut-off (MCO) membrane or 'expanded haemodialysis' (HDx) provides diffusive removal of conventional and large middle molecular weight uraemic toxins, with marginal albumin leak.<h4>Methods</h4>This prospective, open-label, controlled, cross-over pilot study compared HDx (novel MCO membrane Theranova<sup>®</sup> 400) and conventional HD in 20 prevalent HD patients. Biochemical, dialysis adequacy and safety measures (adverse events, infections and hospitalization frequency) were recorded. Ten patients underwent conventional HD high-flux dialyser and 10 patients underwent HDx for 3?months, and the patients then switched and received the other treatment for a further 3?months.<h4>Results</h4>Treatment with HDx was associated with a significant reduction in serum albumin concentration [median (interquartile range) reduction -0.45?g/dL (-0.575 to -0.05); P?=?0.025]. However, median albumin levels were ?3.5?g/dL and no patients had clinical symptoms of hypoalbuminaemia or needed intravenous albumin administration. The number of infections was lower in patients treated with HDx (<i>n</i>?=?7/19) compared with patients treated with HD (<i>n</i>?=?14/20; P?=?0.03). Patients treated with HDx had reduced levels of interleukin (IL)-1? (from 0.06?±?0.02?pg/mL versus 0.28?±?0.18?pg/mL with HD) and IL-6 (6.45?±?1.57?pg/mL versus 9.48?±?2.15?pg/mL), while tumour necrosis factor-? levels remain unchanged.<h4>Conclusions</h4>This study demonstrates that the chronic use of the novel MCO dialyser Theranova<sup>®</sup> appears to be safe and well-tolerated, without serious side effects or hypoalbuminaemia, as well as fewer infections. These results need to be confirmed in larger randomized clinical trials.
Project description:Background:Online hemodiafiltration (OL-HDF) offers considerable advantages in clearance of molecules of various sizes. However, evidence of clinical effects of OL-HDF is scarce in Korea. In this study, we investigated changes in laboratory values over more than 12 months after switching to OL-HDF. Methods:Adult patients with end-stage renal disease undergoing hemodialysis (HD) were prospectively enrolled in a K-cohort (CRIS no. KCT0003281) from 6 tertiary hospitals in South Korea. We recruited 435 patients, 339 of whom were on HD at enrollment. One hundred eighty-two patients were followed for more than 24 months. Among them, 44 were switched to OL-HDF for more than 12 months without conversion to HD. We used a paired t test to compare baseline and 24-month follow-up results. Results:The mean age of the subjects was 61.2 ± 12.2 years, and 62.6% were male. The baseline hemoglobin level was not significantly different between HD and OL-HDF group (10.61 ± 1.15 vs. 10.46 ± 1.03 g/dL, P = 0.437). However, the baseline serum protein and albumin levels were significantly lower in the OL-HDF group (6.82 ± 0.49 vs. 6.59 ± 0.48 g/dL, P = 0.006; 3.93 ± 0.28 vs. 3.73 ± 0.29 g/dL, P < 0.001). In patients switched to OL-HDF, levels of hemoglobin and serum albumin significantly increased (10.46 ± 1.03 vs. 11.08 ± 0.82 g/dL, P = 0.001; 3.73 ± 0.29 vs. 3.87 ± 0.30 g/dL, P = 0.001). The normalized protein catabolic rate decreased after 24 months, but the change was not significant (1.07 ± 0.25 vs. 1.03 ± 0.21 g/kg/day, P = 0.433). Although the dose of erythropoiesis-stimulating agent was lower in patients who converted to HDF, it was not significantly different (-115.7 ± 189.7 vs. -170.5 ± 257.1 P = 0.206). Conclusion:OL-HDF treatment over more than 12 months was associated with no harmful effects on anemia and nutritional status.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE:The SC+ haemodialysis system developed by Quanta Dialysis Technologies is a small, easy-to-use dialysis system designed to improve patient access to self-care and home haemodialysis. A prototype variant of the standard SC+ device with a modified fluidic management system generating a pulsatile push-pull dialysate flow through the dialyser during use has been developed for evaluation. It was hypothesized that, as a consequence of the pulsatile push-pull flow through the dialyser, the boundary layers at the membrane surface would be disrupted, thereby enhancing solute transport across the membrane, modifying protein fouling and maintaining the surface area available for mass and fluid transport throughout the whole treatment, leading to solute transport (clearance) enhancement compared to normal haemodialysis (HD) operation. METHODS:The pumping action of the SC+ system was modified by altering the sequence and timings of the valves and pumps associated with the flow balancing chambers that push and pull dialysis fluid to and from the dialyser. Using this unique prototype device, solute clearance performance was assessed across a range of molecular weights in two related series of laboratory bench studies. The first measured dialysis fluid moving across the dialyser membrane using ultrasonic flowmeters to establish the validity of the approach; solute clearance was subsequently measured using fluorescently tagged dextran molecules as surrogates for uraemic toxins. The second study used human blood doped with uraemic toxins collected from the spent dialysate of dialysis patients to quantify solute transport. In both, the performance of the SC+ prototype was assessed alongside reference devices operating in HD and pre-dilution haemodiafiltration (HDF) modes. RESULTS:Initial testing with fluorescein-tagged dextran molecules (0.3 kDa, 4 kDa, 10 kDa and 20 kDa) established the validity of the experimental pulsatile push-pull operation in the SC+ system to enhance clearance and demonstrated a 10 to 15% improvement above the current HD mode used in clinic today. The magnitude of the observed enhancement compared favourably with that achieved using pre-dilution HDF with a substitution fluid flow rate of 60 mL/min (equivalent to a substitution volume of 14.4 L in a 4-hour session) with the same dialyser and marker molecules. Additional testing using human blood indicated a comparable performance to pre-dilution HDF; however, in contrast with HDF, which demonstrated a gradual decrease in solute removal, the clearance values using the pulsatile push-pull method on the SC+ system were maintained over the entire duration of treatment. Overall albumin losses were not different. CONCLUSIONS:Results obtained using an experimental pulsatile push-pull dialysis flow configuration with an aqueous blood analogue and human blood ex vivo demonstrate an enhancement of solute transport across the dialyser membrane. The level of enhancement makes this approach comparable with that achieved using pre-dilution HDF with a substitution fluid flow rate of 60 mL/min (equivalent to a substitution volume of 14.4 L in a 4-hour session). The observed enhancement of solute transport is attributed to the disruption of the boundary layers at the fluid-membrane interface which, when used with blood, minimizes protein fouling and maintains the surface area.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>In cases of myeloma cast nephropathy in need of haemodialysis (HD), reduction of free light chains using HD with High-Cut-Off filters (HCO-HD), in combination with chemotherapy, may be associated with better renal recovery. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the effectiveness of haemodiafiltration (HDF) in reducing free light chain levels using a less expensive heat sterilized high-flux polyphenylene HF dialyzer (HF-HDF).<h4>Methods</h4>In a single-centre prospective cohort study, 327 dialysis sessions were performed using a 2.2 m2 heat sterilized high-flux polyphenylene HF dialyzer (Phylther HF22SD), a small (1.1m2) or large (2.1 m2) high-cut-off (HCO) dialyzer (HCOS and HCOL) in a cohort of 16 patients presenting with dialysis-dependent acute cast nephropathy and elevated free light chains (10 kappa, 6 lambda). The outcomes of the study were the mean reduction ratio (RR) of kappa and lambda, the proportion of treatments with an RR of at least 0.65, albumin loss and the description of patient outcomes. Statistical analysis was performed using linear and logistic regression through generalized estimating equation analysis so as to take into account repeated observation within subjects and adjust for session duration.<h4>Results</h4>There were no significant differences in the estimated marginal mean of kappa RR, which were respectively 0.67, 0.69 and 0.70 with HCOL-HD, HCOS-HDF and HF-HDF (P = 0.950). The estimated marginal mean of the proportions of treatments with a kappa RR ?0.65 were 68%, 63% and 71% with HCOL-HD, HCOS-HDF and HF-HDF, respectively (P = 0.913). The estimated marginal mean of lambda RR were higher with HCOL-HDF (0.78), compared to HCOL-HD and HF-HDF (0.62, and 0.61 respectively). The estimated marginal mean proportion of treatments with a lambda RR ?0.65 were higher with HCOL-HDF (81%), compared to 57% in HF-HDF (P = 0.042). The median albumin loss were 7, 21 and 63 g/session with HF-HDF, HCOL-HD and HCOL-HDF respectively (P = 0.044). Among survivors, 9 out of 10 episodes of acute kidney injuries became dialysis-independent following a median time of renal replacement therapy of 40 days (range 7-181).<h4>Conclusion</h4>Therefore, in patients with acute dialysis-dependent myeloma cast nephropathy, in addition to chemotherapy, HDF with a heat sterilized high-flux polyphenylene HF dialyzer could offer an alternative to HCO dialysis for extracorporeal kappa reduction with lower albumin loss.
Project description:The aim of this study was to assess the cost effectiveness of high-efficiency on-line hemodiafiltration (OL-HDF) compared with low-flux hemodialysis (LF-HD) for patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) based on the Canadian (Centre Hospitalier de l'Université de Montréal) arm of a parallel-group randomized controlled trial (RCT), the CONvective TRAnsport STudy.An economic evaluation was conducted for the period of the RCT (74 months). In addition, a Markov state transition model was constructed to simulate costs and health benefits over lifetime. The primary outcome was costs per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained. The analysis had the perspective of the Quebec public healthcare system.A total of 130 patients were randomly allocated to OL-HDF (n = 67) and LF-HD (n = 63). The cost-utility ratio of OL-HDF versus LF-HD was Can$53,270 per QALY gained over lifetime. This ratio was fairly robust in the sensitivity analysis. The cost-utility ratio was lower than that of LF-HD compared with no treatment (immediate death), which was Can$93,008 per QALY gained.High-efficiency OL-HDF can be considered a cost-effective treatment for ESRD in a Canadian setting. Further research is needed to assess cost effectiveness in other settings and healthcare systems.