High CO2 Downregulates Skeletal Muscle Protein Anabolism via AMP-activated Protein Kinase α2-mediated Depressed Ribosomal Biogenesis.
ABSTRACT: High CO2 retention, or hypercapnia, is associated with worse outcomes in patients with chronic pulmonary diseases. Skeletal muscle wasting is also an independent predictor of poor outcomes in patients with acute and chronic pulmonary diseases. Although previous evidence indicates that high CO2 accelerates skeletal muscle catabolism via AMPK (AMP-activated protein kinase)-FoxO3a-MuRF1 (E3-ubiquitin ligase muscle RING finger protein 1), little is known about the role of high CO2 in regulating skeletal muscle anabolism. In the present study, we investigated the potential role of high CO2 in attenuating skeletal muscle protein synthesis. We found that locomotor muscles from patients with chronic CO2 retention demonstrated depressed ribosomal gene expression in comparison with locomotor muscles from non-CO2-retaining individuals, and analysis of the muscle proteome of normo- and hypercapnic mice indicates reduction of important components of ribosomal structure and function. Indeed, mice chronically kept under a high-CO2 environment show evidence of skeletal muscle downregulation of ribosomal biogenesis and decreased protein synthesis as measured by the incorporation of puromycin into skeletal muscle. Hypercapnia did not regulate the mTOR pathway, and rapamycin-induced deactivation of mTOR did not cause a decrease in ribosomal gene expression. Loss-of-function studies in cultured myotubes showed that AMPKα2 regulates CO2-mediated reductions in ribosomal gene expression and protein synthesis. Although previous evidence has implicated TIF1A (transcription initiation factor-1α) and KDM2A (lysine-specific demethylase 2A) in AMPK-driven regulation of ribosomal gene expression, we found that these mediators were not required in the high CO2-induced depressed protein anabolism. Our research supports future studies targeting ribosomal biogenesis and protein synthesis to alleviate the effects of high CO2 on skeletal muscle turnover.
Project description:Skeletal muscle dysfunction is a major comorbidity in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and other pulmonary conditions. Chronic CO2 retention, or hypercapnia, also occur in some of these patients. Both muscle dysfunction and hypercapnia associate with higher mortality in these populations. Over the last years, we have established a mechanistic link between hypercapnia and skeletal muscle dysfunction, which is regulated by AMPK and causes depressed anabolism via reduced ribosomal biogenesis and accelerated catabolism via proteasomal degradation. In this review, we discuss the main findings linking AMPK with hypercapnic pulmonary disease both in the lungs and skeletal muscles, and also outline potential avenues for future research in the area based on knowledge gaps and opportunities to expand mechanistic research with translational implications.
Project description:Muscle dysfunction often occurs in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD) and affects ventilatory and non-ventilatory skeletal muscles. We have previously reported that hypercapnia (elevated CO<sub>2</sub> levels) causes muscle atrophy through the activation of the AMPKα2-FoxO3a-MuRF1 pathway. In the present study, we investigated the effect of normoxic hypercapnia on skeletal muscle regeneration. We found that mouse C2C12 myoblasts exposed to elevated CO<sub>2</sub> levels had decreased fusion index compared to myoblasts exposed to normal CO<sub>2</sub>. Metabolic analyses of C2C12 myoblasts exposed to high CO<sub>2</sub> showed increased oxidative phosphorylation due to increased fatty acid oxidation. We utilized the cardiotoxin-induced muscle injury model in mice exposed to normoxia and 10% CO<sub>2</sub> for 21 days and observed that muscle regeneration was delayed. High CO<sub>2</sub>-delayed differentiation in both mouse C2C12 myoblasts and skeletal muscle after injury and was restored to control levels when cells or mice were treated with a carnitine palmitoyltransfearse-1 (CPT1) inhibitor. Taken together, our data suggest that hypercapnia leads to changes in the metabolic activity of skeletal muscle cells, which results in impaired muscle regeneration and recovery after injury.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Early biomarkers of skeletal muscle anabolism will facilitate the development of therapies for sarcopenia and frailty. METHODS AND RESULTS: We examined plasma type III collagen N-terminal propeptide (P3NP), skeletal muscle protein fractional synthesis rate, and gene and protein expression profiles to identify testosterone-induced changes in muscle anabolism. Two placebo-controlled studies enrolled community-dwelling men (study 1, 60-75 years; study 2, 18-40 years) with low to normal testosterone levels. Men were randomized to lower dose (study 1, 100 mg; study 2, 200 mg) or higher dose (study 1, 300 mg; study 2, 600 mg) single intramuscular testosterone or saline injection. After 1 week, testosterone acutely increased plasma P3NP levels in a dose-dependent manner and altered the expression of several skeletal muscle transcripts and proteins. Though not statistically significant, mixed muscle protein fractional synthesis rate tended to increase (1.08-fold with 100 mg testosterone, 1.12-fold with 300 mg testosterone). Testosterone exposure also increased skeletal muscle expression of the collagen type III gene that encodes P3NP. CONCLUSION: P3NP is a potentially useful early biomarker for muscle anabolic therapy. Skeletal muscle protein and RNA profiling are useful tools for the discovery of novel muscle anabolic biomarkers.
Project description:Carbon dioxide (CO<sub>2</sub>) is sensed by cells and can trigger signals to modify gene expression in different tissues leading to changes in organismal functions. Despite accumulating evidence that several pathways in various organisms are responsive to CO<sub>2</sub> elevation (hypercapnia), it has yet to be elucidated how hypercapnia activates genes and signaling pathways, or whether they interact, are integrated, or are conserved across species. Here, we performed a large-scale transcriptomic study to explore the interaction/integration/conservation of hypercapnia-induced genomic responses in mammals (mice and humans) as well as invertebrates (Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster). We found that hypercapnia activated genes that regulate Wnt signaling in mouse lungs and skeletal muscles in vivo and in several cell lines of different tissue origin. Hypercapnia-responsive Wnt pathway homologues were similarly observed in secondary analysis of available transcriptomic datasets of hypercapnia in a human bronchial cell line, flies and nematodes. Our data suggest the evolutionarily conserved role of high CO<sub>2</sub> in regulating Wnt pathway genes.
Project description:Cheddar cheese is a protein-dense whole food and high in leucine content. However, no information is known about the acute blood amino acid kinetics and protein anabolic effects in skeletal muscle in healthy adults. Therefore, we conducted a crossover study in which men and women (<i>n</i> = 24; ~27 years, ~23 kg/m<sup>2</sup>) consumed cheese (20 g protein) or an isonitrogenous amount of milk. Blood and skeletal muscle biopsies were taken before and during the post absorptive period following ingestion. We evaluated circulating essential and non-essential amino acids, insulin, and free fatty acids and examined skeletal muscle anabolism by mTORC1 cellular localization, intracellular signaling, and ribosomal profiling. We found that cheese ingestion had a slower yet more sustained branched-chain amino acid circulation appearance over the postprandial period peaking at ~120 min. Cheese also modestly stimulated mTORC1 signaling and increased membrane localization. Using ribosomal profiling we found that, though both milk and cheese stimulated a muscle anabolic program associated with mTORC1 signaling that was more evident with milk, mTORC1 signaling persisted with cheese while also inducing a lower insulinogenic response. We conclude that Cheddar cheese induced a sustained blood amino acid and moderate muscle mTORC1 response yet had a lower glycemic profile compared to milk.
Project description:Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) plays an important role in protein metabolism and cell growth. We here show that mice (M-PDK1KO mice) with skeletal muscle-specific deficiency of 3'-phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 (PDK1), a key component of PI3K signaling pathway, manifest a reduced skeletal muscle mass under the static condition as well as impairment of mechanical load-induced muscle hypertrophy. Whereas mechanical load-induced changes in gene expression were not affected, the phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 kinase (S6K) and S6 induced by mechanical load was attenuated in skeletal muscle of M-PDK1KO mice, suggesting that PDK1 regulates muscle hypertrophy not through changes in gene expression but through stimulation of kinase cascades such as the S6K-S6 axis, which plays a key role in protein synthesis. Administration of the ?<sub>2</sub>-adrenergic receptor (AR) agonist clenbuterol activated the S6K-S6 axis in skeletal muscle and induced muscle hypertrophy in mice. These effects of clenbuterol were attenuated in M-PDK1KO mice, and mechanical load-induced activation of the S6K-S6 axis and muscle hypertrophy were inhibited in mice with skeletal muscle-specific deficiency of ?<sub>2</sub>-AR. Our results suggest that PDK1 regulates skeletal muscle mass under the static condition and that it contributes to mechanical load-induced muscle hypertrophy, at least in part by mediating signaling from ?<sub>2</sub>-AR.
Project description:Essential amino acids (EAAs) are potent stimulators of mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling and muscle protein synthesis. However, regulators upstream of mTORC1 that are responsive to EAA availability are not well described, especially in human skeletal muscle. The purpose of this study was to determine changes in leucyl-tRNA synthetase (LARS/LARS) and Ras-related GTP binding B (RAGB/RAGB) mRNA and protein expression in healthy human skeletal muscle after acute EAA ingestion. Muscle biopsies sampled from the vastus lateralis were obtained from 13 young adults (7 males, 6 females; aged 22.9 ± 0.9 y; body mass index 21.7 ± 0.9 kg/m(2)) in the fasting state (baseline) and 1 and 3 h after EAA (13 g; 2.4 g of Leu) ingestion. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting were used to determine changes in LARS/LARS and RAGB/RAGB mRNA and protein expression, respectively. Stable isotope tracers and gas chromatography mass spectrometry were used to determine Leu intracellular concentrations and muscle protein synthesis. EAA ingestion increased RAGB/RAGB mRNA (?60%) and protein (?100%) abundance in adult skeletal muscle (P ? 0.05). EAAs also increased muscle Leu concentrations (?130%), mTOR phosphorylation (?30%), and muscle protein synthesis (?50%; P ? 0.05) but did not alter muscle LARS/LARS abundance (P > 0.05). We conclude that acute EAA ingestion is capable of increasing RAGB expression in human skeletal muscle. Future work is needed to determine whether this adaptive response is important to promote muscle protein anabolism in humans. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01669590.
Project description:<h4>Rationale</h4>Hypercapnia develops in one third of patients with advanced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Multiple factors in COPD are thought to contribute to the development of hypercapnia including increased carbon dioxide (CO<sub>2</sub>) production, increased dead space ventilation, and the complex interactions of deranged respiratory system mechanics, inspiratory muscle overload and the ventilatory control center in the brainstem. However, these factors have not previously been systematically analyzed in a large, well-characterized population of severe COPD patients.<h4>Methods</h4>This is a secondary analysis of the clinical, physiologic and imaging data from the National Emphysema Treatment Trial (NETT). All patients with complete baseline data for the key predictor variables were included. An inclusive list of 32 potential predictor variables were selected <i>a priori</i> based on consensus of the investigators and literature review. Stepwise variable selection yielded 10 statistically significant associations in multivariate regression.<h4>Results</h4>A total of 1419 patients with severe COPD were included in the analysis; mean age 66.4 years (standard deviation 6.3), 38% females, and 422 (29.7%) had baseline hypercapnia. Key variables associated with hypercapnia were low resting partial pressure of oxygen in blood, low minute ventilation (Ve), high volume of exhaled carbon dioxide, low forced expiratory volume in 1 second, high residual volume, lower % emphysema on chest computed tomography, use of oxygen, low ventilatory reserve (high Ve/maximal voluntary ventilation), and not being at high altitude. Low diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide showed a positive association with hypercapnia in univariate analysis but a negative correlation in multivariate analysis. Measures of dyspnea and quality of life did not associate with degree of hypercapnia in multivariable analysis.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Hypercapnia in a well-characterized cohort with severe COPD and emphysema is chiefly related to poor lung mechanics, high CO<sub>2</sub> production, and a reduced ventilatory capability. Hypercapnia is less impacted by gas exchange abnormalities or the presence of emphysema.
Project description:Fish protein represents one of the most widely consumed dietary protein sources by humans. The processing of material from the fishing industry generates substantial unexploited waste products, many of which possess high biological value. Protein hydrolysates, such as fish protein hydrolysates (FPH), containing predominantly di- and tripeptides, are more readily absorbed than free amino acids and intact protein. Furthermore, in animal models, FPH have been shown to possess numerous beneficial properties for cardiovascular, neurological, intestinal, renal, and immune health. Ageing is associated with the loss of skeletal muscle mass and function, as well as increased oxidative stress, compromised vascularisation, neurological derangements, and immunosenescence. Thus, there appears to be a potential application for FPH in older persons as a high-quality protein source that may also confer additional health benefits. Despite this, there remains a dearth of information concerning the impact of FPH on health outcomes in humans. The limited evidence from human interventional trials suggests that FPH may hold promise for supporting optimal body composition and maintaining gut integrity. FPH also provide a high-quality source of dietary protein without negatively impacting on subjective appetite perceptions or regulatory hormones. Further studies are needed to assess the impact and utility of FPH on skeletal muscle health in older persons, ideally comparing FPH to 'established' protein sources or a non-bioactive, nitrogen-matched control. In particular, the effects of acute and chronic FPH consumption on post-exercise aminoacidaemia, skeletal muscle protein synthesis, and intramyocellular anabolic signalling in older adults are worthy of investigation. FPH may represent beneficial and sustainable alternative sources of high-quality protein to support skeletal muscle health and anabolism in ageing, without compromising appetite and subsequent energy intake.
Project description:Skeletal muscle denervation occurs in diverse conditions and causes severe muscle atrophy. Signaling by mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) plays a central role in the maintenance of skeletal muscle mass by regulating net protein balance; yet, its role in denervation-induced atrophy is unclear. In this study, by using skeletal muscle-specific and inducible raptor knockout mice, we demonstrate that signaling through mTORC1 is activated during denervation and plays an essential role in mitigating the atrophy of non-type IIB muscle fibers. Measurements of protein synthesis rates of individual fibers suggest that denervation increases protein synthesis specifically in non-type IIB muscle fibers and that mTORC1 is required for this event. Furthermore, denervation induced a more pronounced increase in the level of phosphorylated ribosomal S6 protein in non-type IIB muscle fibers than in type IIB muscle fibers. Collectively, our results unveil a novel role for mTORC1 in mediating a fiber type-specific regulation of muscle size and protein synthesis during denervation.