[18F]SPA-RQ/PET Study of NK1 receptors in the Whole Body of Guinea Pig and Rat.
ABSTRACT: There is a substantial interest in the development of NK1 substance P antagonists as potential treatments for various neuropsychiatric and somatic disorders. The aim of this study was to determine whether [18F]SPA-RQ can be utilized as a tool for studying the whole body distribution and function of NK1 receptors in preclinical settings. The compound was injected into guinea pigs with or without premedication with a NK1 receptor antagonist (NK1A-2). For comparison, we included two rats in the study, as the affinity of antagonists for NK1 receptors is known to vary between species. The whole body biodistribution of the tracer was determined at several time points. The tracer showed specific binding in organs compatible with the known location of NK1-receptors. Premedication with a NK1 antagonist led to an inhibited uptake of [18F]SPA-RQ in several organs of guinea pigs, notably intestine, pancreas, urinary bladder, uterus, skin and lung. Specific binding was also seen in both cortex and striatum. In contrast, negligible specific binding was observed in the rat brain with [18F]SPA-RQ, whereas the tracer uptake in peripheral tissues was similar to that seen in guinea pigs. We conclude that [18F]SPA-RQ/PET is a useful tool to study the distribution and function of peripherally located NK1 receptors e.g. in different disease models.
Project description:To facilitate analysis of spatial tissue phenotypes, we created an open-source tool package named 'Spa-RQ' for 'Spatial tissue analysis: image Registration & Quantification'. Spa-RQ contains software for image registration (Spa-R) and quantitative analysis of DAB staining overlap (Spa-Q). It provides an easy-to-implement workflow for serial sectioning and staining as an alternative to multiplexed techniques. To demonstrate Spa-RQ's applicability, we analysed the spatial aspects of oncogenic KRAS-related signalling activities in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Using Spa-R in conjunction with ImageJ/Fiji, we first performed annotation-guided tumour-by-tumour phenotyping using multiple signalling markers. This analysis showed histopathology-selective activation of PI3K/AKT and MAPK signalling in Kras mutant murine tumours, as well as high p38MAPK stress signalling in p53 null murine NSCLC. Subsequently, Spa-RQ was applied to measure the co-activation of MAPK, AKT, and their mutual effector mTOR pathway in individual tumours. Both murine and clinical NSCLC samples could be stratified into 'MAPK/mTOR', 'AKT/mTOR', and 'Null' signature subclasses, suggesting mutually exclusive MAPK and AKT signalling activities. Spa-RQ thus provides a robust and easy to use tool that can be employed to identify spatially-distributed tissue phenotypes.
Project description:There is growing evidence for a pivotal role for tachykinins in gut neuroimmune interactions.To determine whether NK1, NK2, and NK3 tachykinin receptors are involved in milk protein induced allergic sensitisation.Eight groups of 12 Dunkin-Hartley guinea pigs (250-300 g) were used. Four groups were sensitised to milk proteins for three weeks. During this period, these animals were injected intraperitoneally each day with NK1 (SR 140333; 0.3 mg/kg), NK2 (SR 48968; 5 mg/kg), or NK3 (SR 142801; 5 mg/kg) receptor antagonist or vehicle. The fifth group had water available instead of milk and was used as a non-sensitised control. The three other groups received the NK receptor antagonists for three weeks but were not sensitised to milk proteins.Sensitised animals treated with NK1 and NK3 receptor antagonists had both lower IgE and IgG serum titres, evaluated by passive cutaneous anaphylaxis, and lower specific IgG serum titres, determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), than vehicle treated animals. Sensitisation induced an increase in intestinal mast cell number which was abolished by treatment with the NK1 receptor antagonist. Antigenic challenge-induced jejunal hypersecretion was also blocked by treatment with the NK1 receptor antagonist.In guinea pigs, NK1 and NK3 but not NK2 receptors are involved in sensitisation to cow's milk. However, NK1 but not NK3 receptor antagonists abolish both the hypermastocytosis induced by food allergy and the hypersecretion induced by antigenic challenge, suggesting different roles for NK1 and NK3 receptors in the mechanisms of sensitisation to beta-lactoglobulin.
Project description:Staphylococcus aureus infection is not associated with the development of protective immunity, and disease relapses occur frequently. We hypothesize that protein A, a factor that binds immunoglobulin Fc? and cross-links V(H)3 clan B cell receptors (IgM), is the staphylococcal determinant for host immune suppression. To test this, vertebrate IgM was examined for protein A cross-linking. High V(H)3 binding activity occurred with human and guinea immunoglobulin, whereas mouse and rabbit immunoglobulins displayed little and no binding, respectively. Establishing a guinea pig model of S. aureus bloodstream infection, we show that protein A functions as a virulence determinant and suppresses host B cell responses. Immunization with SpA(KKAA), which cannot bind immunoglobulin, elicits neutralizing antibodies that enable guinea pigs to develop protective immunity.Staphylococcus aureus is the leading cause of soft tissue and bloodstream infections; however, a vaccine with clinical efficacy is not available. Using mice to model staphylococcal infection, earlier work identified protective antigens; however, corresponding human clinical trials did not reach their endpoints. We show that B cell receptor (IgM) cross-linking by protein A is an important immune evasion strategy of S. aureus that can be monitored in a guinea pig model of bloodstream infection. Further, immunization with nontoxigenic protein A enables infected guinea pigs to elicit antibody responses that are protective against S. aureus. Thus, the guinea pig model may support preclinical development of staphylococcal vaccines.
Project description:1. Low-density lipoproteins were isolated by ultracentrifugation from the serum of guinea pigs that were fed either on a normal diet, or on a diet supplemented with corn oil and cholesterol. 2. After labelling with tracer amounts of radioactive iodine, these lipoproteins were injected into the bloodstream of guinea pigs that were fed either on the normal or on the supplemented diet. 3. In all cases, the density of the labelled lipoproteins was increased by exposure for 24-48 h to the metabolic processes of the guinea pig. 4. The final density reached by lipoproteins isolated from fat-fed guinea pigs was less than that reached by lipoproteins from normal animals. 5. Fat-fed guinea pigs were unable to increase the density of either normal lipoproteins, or those from fat-fed guinea pits, to the same extent as animals fed on the normal diet. 6. It is concluded that the lipid-rich diet brings about a modification of lipoprotein metabolism in the guinea, pig, which plays an important part in determining the nature of the nature of the low-density lipoprotein that is present in the plasma.
Project description:Strains of Thermus thermophilus accumulate primarily trehalose and smaller amounts of mannosylglycerate in response to salt stress in yeast extract-containing media (O. C. Nunes, C. M. Manaia, M. S. da Costa, and H. Santos, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 61:2351-2357, 1995). A 2.4-kbp DNA fragment from T. thermophilus strain RQ-1 carrying otsA (encoding trehalose-phosphate synthase [TPS]), otsB (encoding trehalose-phosphate phosphatase [TPP]), and a short sequence of the 5' end of treS (trehalose synthase [TreS]) was cloned from a gene library. The sequences of the three genes (including treS) were amplified by PCR and sequenced, revealing that the genes were structurally linked. To understand the role of trehalose during salt stress in T. thermophilus RQ-1, we constructed a mutant, designated RQ-1M6, in which TPS (otsA) and TPP (otsB) genes were disrupted by gene replacement. Mutant RQ-1M6 accumulated trehalose and mannosylglycerate in a medium containing yeast extract and NaCl. However, growth in a defined medium (without yeast extract, known to contain trehalose) containing NaCl led to the accumulation of mannosylglycerate but not trehalose. The deletion of otsA and otsB reduced the ability to grow in defined salt-containing medium, with the maximum salinity being 5% NaCl for RQ-1 and 3% NaCl for RQ-1M6. The lower salt tolerance observed in the mutant was relieved by the addition of trehalose to the growth media. In contrast to trehalose, the addition of glycine betaine, mannosylglycerate, maltose, and glucose to the growth medium did not allow the mutant to grow at higher salinities. The results presented here provide crucial evidence for the importance of the TPS/TPP pathway for the synthesis and accumulation of trehalose and the decisive contribution of this disaccharide to osmotic adaptation in T. thermophilus RQ-1.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The Relationship Questionnaire (RQ) is a commonly used self-reporting questionnaire used to measure adult attachment styles. The RQ has two parts. RQ1, a single item where individuals have to indicate their preferred relationship style, and RQ2, where individuals can rate their relationship style in more detail using four different scales. Agreement is expected between the highest levels selected and the style chosen in RQ1. An advantage of the RQ is its brevity, whereas a disadvantage is that it constitutes a single item. A validation of RQ has not been clearly demonstrated, even though it has convergent validity in relation to other measurements in this area.<h4>Methods</h4>168 patients completed the RQ, the short version of the Experience in Close Relationships (Revised) questionnaire (ECR-R), and scales of depression and interpersonal problems. Regression analysis was conducted to examine the congruity in regard to attachment theory.<h4>Results</h4>ratings from 15.5% of the patients showed disagreement between RQ1 and RQ2. Each type of attachment measured by the RQ was predicted by the ECR-R scores, as hypothesized. In the predictive analysis of depression and interpersonal problems, both RQ dimensions and ECR-R scores were coherent.<h4>Conclusions</h4>RQ is a valid self-reported measurement that can be applied clinically on the condition that the rater identifies an agreement between RQ1 and RQ2.
Project description:Prostaglandin E2 receptor EP4 is involved in inflammation and related tumorigenesis in the colorectum. This study aimed to investigate the chemopreventive ability of RQ-15986, a selective EP4 antagonist, in colitis-related colorectal tumorigenesis. Male Kyoto APC delta rats, which have APC mutations, were treated with azoxymethane and dextran sulfate sodium and subsequently administered RQ-15986 for eight weeks. At the end of the experiment, the development of colorectal tumor was significantly inhibited in the RQ-15986-treated group. The cell proliferation of the crypts and tumors in the colorectum was decreased following RQ-15986 treatment. RQ-15986 also suppressed the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, interleukin-18, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1, in the colon mucosa. In addition, the expression levels of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase, which is involved in immune tolerance, were decreased in the colorectal epithelium and tumors of the RQ-15986-treated group. These findings indicate that RQ-15986 inhibits colitis-associated colorectal tumorigenesis by attenuating inflammation, suppressing cell proliferation, and modulating the expression of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase. Targeting prostaglandin E2/EP4 signaling might be a useful strategy for chemoprevention of inflammation-related colorectal cancer.
Project description:Multiparameter flow cytometry (MFC) and allele-specific oligonucleotide real-time quantitative PCR (ASO RQ-PCR) are the two most sensitive methods to detect minimal residual disease (MRD) in multiple myeloma (MM). We compared these methods in 129 paired post-therapy samples from 22 unselected, consecutive MM patients in complete/near complete remission. Appropriate immunophenotypic and ASO RQ-PCR-MRD targets could be detected and MRD analyses constructed for all patients. The high PCR coverage could be achieved by gradual widening of the primer sets used for clonality detection. In addition, for 13 (55%) of the patients, reverse orientation of the ASO primer and individual design of the TaqMan probe improved the sensitivity and specificity of ASO RQ-PCR analysis. A significant nonlinear correlation prevailed between MFC-MRD and PCR-MRD when both were positive. Discordance between the methods was found in 32 (35%) paired samples, which were negative by MFC-MRD, but positive by ASO RQ-PCR. The findings suggest that with the described technique, ASO RQ-PCR can be constructed for all patients with MM. ASO RQ-PCR is slightly more sensitive in MRD detection than 6-10-color flow cytometry. Owing to technical demands ASO RQ-PCR could be reserved for patients in immunophenotypic remission, especially in efficacy comparisons between different drugs and treatment modalities.
Project description:Brain serotonin-6 receptor (5-HT6R) is the one of the most recently identified serotonin receptors. Accumulating evidence suggests that it is a potent therapeutic target for psychiatric and neurological diseases. Since [18F]2FNQ1P was recently proposed as the first fluorinated positron emission tomography (PET) radioligand for this receptor, the objective of the present study was to demonstrate its suitability for 5-HT6R neuroimaging in primates. [18F]2FNQ1P was characterized by in vitro autoradiography and in vivo PET imaging in cynomolgus monkeys. Following in vivo PET imaging, tracer binding indices were computed using the simplified reference tissue model and Logan graphical model, with cerebellum as reference region. The tracer binding reproducibility was assessed by test-retest in five animals. Finally, specificity was assessed by pre-injection of a 5-HT6R antagonist, SB258585. In vitro, results showed wide cerebral distribution of the tracer with specificity toward 5-HT6Rs as binding was effectively displaced by SB258585. In vivo brain penetration was good with reproducible distribution at cortical and subcortical levels. The automated method gave the best spatial normalization. The Logan graphical model showed the best tracer binding indices, giving the highest magnitude, lowest standard deviation and best reproducibility and robustness. Finally, 5-HT6R antagonist pre-injection significantly decreased [18F]2FNQ1P binding mainly in the striatum and sensorimotor cortex. Taken together, these preclinical results show that [18F]2FNQ1P is a good candidate to address 5-HT6 receptors in clinical studies.
Project description:Gastric ulceration, a focal tissue damage accompanied by inflammation, can influence other parts of the stomach. Substance P and its receptors are strongly involved in regulation of gastrointestinal motility, secretion and inflammation. The enteric nervous system is one of the regulators of gastrointestinal functioning and contributes to tissue response to the pathology. The pig, an omnivorous animal, is a valuable species for gastrointestinal experiments. Thus, the objective of the study was to verify whether the antral ulceration induces changes in the expression of substance P and tachykinin receptors in the neighboring (antrum) and distanced (corpus, pylorus) porcine gastric tissues and therein localized myenteric and submucosal perikarya as well as in the intrinsic descending neurons supplying pyloric sphincter. The experiment was performed on healthy pigs and pigs with experimentally induced gastric ulcers. Stomach samples from the corpus, antrum (adjacent to the ulcer in experimental pigs) and pylorus were analyzed by: (1) double immunofluorescence for changes in the number of SP-positive myenteric and submucosal neurons (2) Real-Time PCR for changes in expression of mRNA encoding SP and Nk1, Nk2, Nk3 receptors. Additionally, gastric descending neurons supplying pyloric sphincter were immunostained for SP. In experimental animals, only the number of SP-positive myenteric perikarya significantly increased in all stomach localizations studied. Q-PCR revealed increased expression for: SP, Nk1, Nk3 in the corpus; Nk2 and Nk3 in the pylorus; In the antrum, expression of Nk3 was increased but Nk2-decreased. Antral ulcers induced significant changes in the expression of SP and tachykinin receptors in the wide stomach area indicating sophisticated tissue reaction.