Platelet Carcinoembryonic Antigen Cell Adhesion Molecule 5 (CEACAM5) as a Possible Novel Diagnostic Tool for Evaluation of Acute Coronary Syndrome.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) occurs approximately every 40 seconds, and was an underlying cause of death in 1 out of every 7 deaths. More accurate indicators are needed to distinguish patients with ACS from patients manifesting negative changes in electrocardiogram (ECG) and myocardial enzymes. This study aimed to investigate whether the expression of platelet carcinoembryonic antigen cell adhesion molecule-5 (CEACAM5/CEA/CD66e) could help predict ACS. MATERIAL AND METHODS We enrolled 82 participants (mean age 60 years, 33 females and 49 males). The expression of CEA on washed human platelets was assessed using two-color flow cytometry. The CEA levels on platelets and in serum of these 82 consecutive patients were detected using two-color whole-blood flow cytometry analysis and a custom-made Luminex multiplex assay, respectively. RESULTS CEA was expressed on the surface of human platelets. The expression of platelet CEA (P<0.01), but not serum CEA (P=0.30), was significantly higher in patients with ACS compared to patients with normal coronary artery. Increased platelet CEA levels could serve as a new independent indicator for ACS (P=0.0003). Platelet CEA testing (P=0.000002), as well as cardiac troponin I (cTnI) (P=0.0005), can diagnose ACS with high sensitivity and specificity, and, combined with cTnI (P<0.0001), can improve the diagnostic value. CONCLUSIONS Platelet CEA expression was higher in individuals presenting with ACS. Hence, platelet CEA might be a novel and reliable biomarker for ACS. Large-scale studies are needed to confirm this hypothesis.
Project description:To explore the diverse platelet microRNA (miRNA) expression between high platelet reactivity (HPR) and low platelet reactivity (LPR) patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS), we enrolled a cohort of ACS patients and performed miRNA expression profiling of platelets from four HPR and four LPR patients using human miRNA microarray system. VerifyNow P2Y12 assay was applied to indentify HPR and LPR. Venous blood was drawn from the patients and was centrifuged to prepare platelets. Among the candidate differentially expressed miRNAs, miR-15b expression was further confirmed to be lower in platelets of 22 HPR patients than 17 LPR by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). We enrolled a consecutive cohort of 290 ACS patients and assessed the platelet reactivity using VerifyNow P2Y12 assay. In this study, HPR was defined as ≥300 platelet reactivity unit (PRU) while LPR <170 PRU. miRNA microarray analysis was performed in platelets of four HPR and four LPR patients with ACS.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Platelets play a fundamental role in pathological events underlying acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Because platelets do not have a nucleus, proteomics constitutes an optimal approach to follow platelet molecular events associated with the onset of the acute episode. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We performed the first high-resolution two-dimensional gel electrophoresis-based proteome analysis of circulating platelets from patients with non-ST segment elevation ACS (NSTE-ACS). Proteins were identified by mass spectrometry and validations were by western blotting. Forty protein features (corresponding to 22 unique genes) were found to be differentially regulated between NSTE-ACS patients and matched controls with chronic ischemic cardiopathy. The number of differences decreased at day 5 (28) and 6 months after the acute event (5). Interestingly, a systems biology approach demonstrated that 16 of the 22 differentially regulated proteins identified are interconnected as part of a common network related to cell assembly and organization and cell morphology, processes very related to platelet activation. Indeed, 14 of those proteins are either signaling or cytoskeletal, and nine of them are known to participate in platelet activation by ?IIb?3 and/or GPVI receptors. Several of the proteins identified participate in platelet activation through post-translational modifications, as shown here for ILK, Src and Talin. Interestingly, the platelet-secreted glycoprotein SPARC was down-regulated in NSTE-ACS patients compared to stable controls, which is consistent with a secretion process from activated platelets. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The present study provides novel information on platelet proteome changes associated with platelet activation in NSTE-ACS, highlighting the presence of proteins involved in platelet signaling. This investigation paves the way for future studies in the search for novel platelet-related biomarkers and drug targets in ACS.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Platelets are key components in atherogenesis and determine the course of its clinical sequelae acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Components of the innate immune system-the superfamily of TLR receptors-are present in platelets and represent a link between atherothrombosis and inflammation. We hypothesize that alteration in platelet TLR mRNA expression is a result of inflammation driving coronary atherosclerosis and may represent an alternative platelet activation pathway in ACS. TLR2-, TLR4- and TLR9- mRNA-expression was determined in ACS patients and compared to patients with invasive exclusion of atherosclerotic lesions of coronary arteries. METHODS:A total of fifty-four patients were enrolled in this clinical retrospective cohort single centre study. Total RNA from sepharose-filtered highly purified platelets was isolated using acid guanidinium thiocyanate-phenol-chloroform extraction and transcribed to cDNA using a first strand cDNA synthesis kit. To determine absolute copy numbers of TLR2, TLR4 and TLR9 we used plasmid based quantitative PCR with normalisation to an internal control. RESULTS:We found that mRNA expression levels of TLR2 but not TLR 4 and 9 are up-regulated in platelets of patients with ACS when compared to patients without coronary atherosclerosis. CONCLUSION:Our results suggest elevated TLR2 mRNA expression in platelets as a biomarker reflecting the underlying inflammation in ACS and possibly severity of coronary atherosclerosis. Platelet TLR2 may represent a link between inflammation and atherothrombosis in ACS.
Project description:We investigated the prognostic performance of myeloperoxidase (MPO), and soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L) along with B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), and cardiac troponin I (cTnI) for non-fatal recurrent ischaemic events in non-ST elevation acute coronary syndrome (ACS).We measured plasma MPO and sCD40L in 1524 patients with ACS treated with tirofiban and randomized to early invasive vs. conservative management in the TACTICS-TIMI 18 trial who survived to 180 days. Patients with elevated baseline MPO (>884 pM) were at higher risk of non-fatal myocardial infarction or rehospitalization for ACS at 30 days (9.3 vs. 4.6%, P < 0.001). In contrast, no difference was observed with higher sCD40L (>989 pg/mL, 7.6 vs. 6.3%, P = 0.31). MPO remained associated with recurrent ischaemic events after adjustment for age, ST-deviation, diabetes, prior coronary artery disease, heart failure, cTnI, hsCRP, and sCD40L (OR 2.10; 95% CI 1.36-3.23, P = 0.001). This association was attenuated by 180 days (OR 1.26; 0.95-1.68). Stratification using baseline MPO, BNP, and cTnI identified a >3-fold gradient of risk.MPO adds to BNP and cTnI for short-term risk assessment for recurrent ischaemic events in non-ST elevation ACS. sCD40L was not associated with risk in this population treated with a platelet GPIIb/IIIa receptor antagonist.
Project description:A growing body of evidence suggests a role for platelets in sickle cell disease (SCD). Despite the proinflammatory, occlusive nature of platelets, a role for platelets in acute chest syndrome (ACS), however, remains understudied. To provide evidence and potentially describe contributory factors for a putative link between ACS and platelets, we performed an autopsy study of 20 SCD cases-10 of whom died from ACS and 10 whose deaths were not ACS-related. Pulmonary histopathology and case history were collected. We discovered that disseminated pulmonary platelet thrombi were present in 3 out of 10 of cases with ACS, but none of the matched cases without ACS. Those cases with detected thrombi were associated with significant deposition of endothelial vWF and detection of large vWF aggregates adhered to endothelium. Potential clinical risk factors were younger age and higher platelet count at presentation. However, we also noted a sharp and significant decline in platelet count prior to death in each case with platelet thrombi in the lungs. In this study, neither hydroxyurea use nor perimortem transfusion was associated with platelet thrombi. Surprisingly, in all cases, there was profound pulmonary artery remodeling with both thrombotic and proliferative pulmonary plexiform lesions. The severity of remodeling was not associated with a severe history of ACS, or hydroxyurea use, but was inversely correlated with age. We thus provide evidence of undocumented presence of platelet thrombi in cases of fatal ACS and describe clinical correlates. We also provide novel correlates of pulmonary remodeling in SCD.
Project description:Serum uric acid (SUA) is the final product of purine metabolism in humans.The present study aimed to identify a potential association between serum UA and cardiac troponin I (cTnI) levels and to find out whether uric acid could differentiate patients presenting with the acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and unstable angina pectoris (UAP) in hyperuricemic and normouricemic acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients.Eighty ACS patients, aged 50-83 years, were enrolled in the study, 40 of them presenting with AMI and 40 with UAP. Frequency of patients with serum uric level over threshold for hyperuricemia was investigated and two groups of patients were formed such as hyperuricemic and normouricemic groups (A and B groups, respectively) independently of type of ACS. Those groups of patients were also subjected to cTnI measurement.Levels of SUA are associated with the type of ACS in the hyperuricemic ACS patients (AMI versus UAP, 499(458-590), 425(400-447) mmol/L, p=0.007, respectively). Uric acid correlated significantly with cTnI, moderate positively in the group A (rho=0.358, p=0.038) and moderate negatively in the group B (r=-0.309, p=0.037) of ACS patients. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that cTnI and age were independently associated with the SUA levels in the group A of ACS patients.Serum uric acid differentiates AIM and UAP patients in hyperuricemic group of acute coronary syndrome. Therefore it can be used as nonspecific parameter for evaluation of the myocardial lesion extent only in hyperuricemic ACS patients. This is supported by finding that cTnI along with age predicts SUA level in hyperuricemic ACS patients.
Project description:BACKGROUND:An analysis of cardiac injury markers in patients with OSA who sustain an episode of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) may contribute to a better understanding of the interactions and impact of OSA in subjects with ACS. We compared peak cardiac troponin I (cTnI) levels in patients with OSA and patients without OSA who were admitted for ACS. METHODS:Blood samples were collected every 6 hours from the time of admission until two consecutive assays showed a downward trend in the cTnI assay. The highest value obtained defined the peak cTnI value, which provides an estimate of infarct size. RESULTS:We included 89 patients with OSA and 38 patients without OSA with an apnea-hypopnea index of a median of 32 (interquartile range [IQR], 20.8-46.6/h and 4.8 [IQR, 1.6-9.6]/h, respectively. The peak cTnI value was significantly higher in patients without OSA than in patients with OSA (median, 10.7 ng/mL [IQR, 1.78-40.1 ng/mL] vs 3.79 ng/mL [IQR, 0.37-24.3 ng/mL]; P = .04). The multivariable linear regression analysis of the relationship between peak cTnI value and patient group, age, sex, and type of ACS showed that the presence or absence of OSA significantly contributed to the peak cTnI level, which was 54% lower in patients with OSA than in those without OSA. CONCLUSIONS:The results of this study suggest that OSA has a protective effect in the context of myocardial infarction and that patients with OSA may experience less severe myocardial injury. The possible role of OSA in cardioprotection should be explored in future studies.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Platelet activation is involved in acute coronary syndromes (ACS). Incomplete suppression by low-dose aspirin treatment of thromboxane (TX) metabolite excretion (urinary 11-dehydro-TXB2) is predictive of vascular events in high-risk patients. Myeloid-related protein (MRP)-8/14 is a heterodimer secreted on activation of platelets, monocytes, and neutrophils, regulating inflammation and predicting cardiovascular events. Among platelet transcripts, MRP-14 has emerged as a powerful predictor of ACS.<h4>Methods and results</h4>We enrolled 68 stable ischemic heart disease (IHD) and 63 ACS patients, undergoing coronary angiography, to evaluate whether MRP-8/14 release in the circulation is related to TX-dependent platelet activation in ACS and IHD patients and to residual TX biosynthesis in low-dose aspirin-treated ACS patients. In ACS patients, plasma MRP-8/14 and urinary 11-dehydro-TXB2 levels were linearly correlated (r=0.651, P<0.001) but significantly higher than those in IHD patients (P=0.012, P=0.044) only among subjects not receiving aspirin. In aspirin-treated ACS patients, MRP-8/14 and 11-dehydro-TXB2 were lower versus those not receiving aspirin (P<0.001) and still significantly correlated (r=0.528, P<0.001). Higher 11-dehydro-TXB2 significantly predicted higher MRP-8/14 in both all ACS patients and ACS receiving aspirin (P<0.001, adj R(2)=0.463 and adj R(2)=0.497) after multivariable adjustment. Conversely, plasma MRP-8/14 (P<0.001) and higher urinary 8-iso-prostaglandin F2? (P=0.050) levels were significant predictors of residual, on-aspirin, TX biosynthesis in ACS (adjusted R(2)=0.384).<h4>Conclusions</h4>Circulating MRP-8/14 is associated with TX-dependent platelet activation in ACS, even during low-dose aspirin treatment, suggesting a contribution of residual TX to MRP-8/14 shedding, which may further amplify platelet activation. Circulating MRP-8/14 may be a target to test different antiplatelet strategies in ACS.
Project description:Antiplatelet therapy through inhibition of the adenosine diphosphate (ADP)/P2Y12 pathway is commonly used in the treatment of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Although efficient in preventing platelet activation and thrombus formation, it increases the risk of bleeding complications. In patients with ACS receiving platelet aggregation inhibitors, that is, P2Y12 blockers (n = 923), we investigated the relationship between plasma and platelet-associated CD40L levels and bleeding events (n = 71). Treatment with P2Y12 inhibitors in patients with ACS did not affect plasma-soluble CD40L levels, but decreased platelet CD40L surface expression (pCD40L) and platelet-released CD40L (rCD40L) levels in response to stimulation as compared to healthy controls. In vitro inhibition of the ADP pathway in healthy control platelets reduced both pCD40L and rCD40L levels. In a multivariable analysis, the reduced pCD40L level observed in ACS patients was significantly associated with the risk of bleeding occurrence (adjusted odds ratio = 0.15; 95% confidence interval = 0.034-0.67). P2Y12 inhibitor-treated (ticagrelor) mice exhibited a 2.5-fold increase in tail bleeding duration compared with controls. A significant reduction in bleeding duration was observed on CD40L+/+ but not CD40L-/- platelet infusion. In addition, CD40L blockade in P2Y12 inhibitor-treated blood samples from a healthy human reduced thrombus growth over immobilized collagen under arterial flow. In conclusion, measurement of pCD40L may offer a novel approach to assessing bleeding risk in patients with ACS who are being treated with P2Y12 inhibitors.
Project description:The aggregation of platelets on the plaque rupture site on the coronary artery is reported to cause both acute coronary syndromes (ACS) and acute myocardial infarction (AMI). While the inhibition of platelet aggregation by acetyl salicylic acid was reported to produce beneficial effects in ACS, it failed to do in AMI. The concentration of a stress induced protein (dermcidin isoform-2) was much higher in AMI than that in ACS. Incubation of normal platelet rich plasma (PRP) with dermcidin showed one high affinity (Kd = 40 nM) and one low affinity binding sites (Kd = 333 nM). When normal PRP was incubated with 0.4 μM dermcidin, the platelets became resistant to the inhibitory effect of aspirin similar to that in the case of AMI. Incubation of PRP from AMI with dermcidin antibody restored the sensitivity of the platelets to the aspirin effect. Incubation of AMI PRP pretreated with 15 μM aspirin, a stimulator of the NO synthesis, resulted in the increased production of NO in the platelets that removed the bound dermcidin by 40% from the high affinity binding sites of AMI platelets. When the same AMI PRP was retreated with 10 μM aspirin, the aggregation of platelets was completely inhibited by NO synthesis.