Inhibition of sphingosine 1-phosphate lyase activates human keratinocyte differentiation and attenuates psoriasis in mice.
ABSTRACT: Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) lyase is an intracellular enzyme that catalyzes the irreversible degradation of S1P and has been suggested as a therapeutic target for the treatment of psoriasis vulgaris. Because S1P induces differentiation of keratinocytes, we examined whether modulation of S1P lyase and altered intracellular S1P levels regulate proliferation and differentiation of human neonatal epidermal keratinocyte (HEKn) cells. To identify the physiological functions of S1P lyase in skin, we inhibited S1P lyase in HEKn cells with an S1P lyase-specific inhibitor (SLI) and with S1P lyase 1 (SGPL1)-specific siRNA (siSGPL1). In HEKn cells, pharmacological treatment with the SLI caused G1 arrest by upregulation of p21 and p27 and induced keratin 1, an early differentiation marker. Similarly, genetic suppression by siSGPL1 arrested the cell cycle at the G1 phase and activated differentiation. In addition, enzyme suppression by siSGPL1 upregulated keratin 1 and differentiation markers including involucrin and loricrin. When hyperproliferation of HEKn cells was induced by interleukin (IL)-17 and IL-22, pharmacologic inhibition of S1P lyase by SLI decreased proliferation and activated differentiation of HEKn cells simultaneously. In addition, SLI administration ameliorated imiquimod-induced psoriatic symptoms including erythema, scaling, and epidermal thickness in vivo. We thus demonstrated that S1P lyase inhibition reduces cell proliferation and induces keratinocyte differentiation, and that inhibition may attenuate psoriasiform changes. Collectively, these findings suggest that S1P lyase is a modulating factor for proliferation and differentiation, and support its potential as a therapeutic target for psoriasis in human keratinocytes.
Project description:The epidermis is a dynamic tissue in which keratinocytes proliferate in the basal layer and undergo a tightly controlled differentiation while moving into the suprabasal layers. The balance between keratinocyte proliferation, differentiation, and death is essential, and its perturbation can result in pathological changes. Some common skin diseases, such as psoriasis, are characterized by hyperproliferation accompanied by inflammatory reactions, suggesting that molecules with topical anti-inflammatory and ROS scavenging abilities may be useful for their treatment. Here we investigate the potential of the flavone Luteolin-7-glucoside (LUT-7G) as a treatment for psoriasis. We show that LUT-7G leads to a modification of the cell cycle and the induction of keratinocyte differentiation, with modification of energy, fatty acid, and redox metabolism. LUT-7G treatment also neutralizes the proliferative stimulus induced by the proinflammatory cytokines IL-22 and IL-6 in HEKn. Moreover, in the Imiquimod (IMQ) mouse model of psoriasis, topical administration of LUT-7G leads to a marked reduction of acanthosis and re-expression of epidermal differentiation markers. Dissection of the IL-22 signalling pathway, activated by IMQ treatment, demonstrates that LUT-7G impairs the nuclear translocation of phosphorylated (activated) STAT3, blocking the IL-22 signalling cascade. Thus LUT-7G appears to be a promising compound for the treatment of hyperproliferative and inflammatory skin diseases, such as psoriasis.
Project description:Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized by inflammatory cell infiltration, as well as hyperproliferation of keratinocytes in skin lesions, and is considered a metabolic syndrome. We found that the expression of galectin-7 is reduced in skin lesions of patients with psoriasis. IL-17A and TNF-α, 2 cytokines intimately involved in the development of psoriatic lesions, suppressed galectin-7 expression in human primary keratinocytes (HEKn cells) and the immortalized human keratinocyte cell line HaCaT. A galectin-7 knockdown in these cells elevated the production of IL-6 and IL-8 and enhanced ERK signaling when the cells were stimulated with IL-17A. Galectin-7 attenuated IL-17A-induced production of inflammatory mediators by keratinocytes via the microRNA-146a/ERK pathway. Moreover, galectin-7-deficient mice showed enhanced epidermal hyperplasia and skin inflammation in response to intradermal IL-23 injection. We identified fluvastatin as an inducer of galectin-7 expression by connectivity map analysis, confirmed this effect in keratinocytes, and demonstrated that fluvastatin attenuated IL-6 and IL-8 production induced by IL-17A. Thus, we validate a role of galectin-7 in the pathogenesis of psoriasis, in both epidermal hyperplasia and keratinocyte-mediated inflammatory responses, and formulate a rationale for the use of statins in the treatment of psoriasis.
Project description:Epithelial keratinocyte proliferation is an essential element of wound repair, and abnormal epithelial proliferation is an intrinsic element in the skin disorder psoriasis. The factors that trigger epithelial proliferation in these inflammatory processes are incompletely understood. Here we have shown that regenerating islet-derived protein 3-alpha (REG3A) is highly expressed in keratinocytes during psoriasis and wound repair and in imiquimod-induced psoriatic skin lesions. The expression of REG3A by keratinocytes is induced by interleukin-17 (IL-17) via activation of keratinocyte-encoded IL-17 receptor A (IL-17RA) and feeds back on keratinocytes to inhibit terminal differentiation and increase cell proliferation by binding to exostosin-like 3 (EXTL3) followed by activation of phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K) and the kinase AKT. These findings reveal that REG3A, a secreted intestinal antimicrobial protein, can promote skin keratinocyte proliferation and can be induced by IL-17. This observation suggests that REG3A may mediate the epidermal hyperproliferation observed in normal wound repair and in psoriasis.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Psoriasis is a complex disease at the cellular, genomic and genetic levels. The role of microRNAs in skin development was shown in a keratinocyte-specific Dicer knockout mouse model. Considering that two main characteristics of psoriasis are keratinocytes hyperproliferation and abnormal skin differentiation, we hypothesized that aberrant microRNA expression contributes to the psoriatic phenotype. Here, we describe the differential expression of miRNAs in psoriatic involved and uninvolved skin as compared to normal skin, revealing an additional aspect of this complex disorder. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Expression arrays were used to compare microRNA expression in normal skin versus psoriatic involved and uninvolved skin. Fourteen differentially expressed microRNAs were identified, including hsa-miR-99a, hsa-miR-150, hsa-miR-423 and hsa-miR-197. The expression of these microRNAs was reevaluated by qPCR. IGF-1R, which is involved in skin development and the pathogenesis of psoriasis, is a predicted target of hsa-miR-99a. In an in situ hybridization assay, we found that IGF-1R and miR-99a are reciprocally expressed in the epidermis. Using a reporter assay, we found that IGF-1R is targeted by hsa-miR-99a. Moreover, over expression of miR-99a in primary keratinocytes down-regulates the expression of the endogenous IGF-1R protein. Over expression of miR-99a also inhibits keratinocyte proliferation and increases Keratin 10 expression. These findings suggest that overexpression of hsa-miR-99a in keratinocytes drives them towards differentiation. In primary keratinocytes grown in high Ca(++), miR-99a expression increases over time. Finally, we found that IGF1 increases the expression of miR-99a. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We identified several microRNAs that are expressed differentially in normal and psoriatic skin. One of these miRNAs is miR-99a that regulates the expression of IGF-1R. Moreover, miR-99a seems to play a role in the differentiation of keratinocytes. We suggest that miR-99a is one of the regulators of the IGF-1R signaling pathway in keratinocytes. Activation of IGF1 signaling results in elevation of miR-99a which represses the expression of IGF-1R.
Project description:Psoriasis is characterized by keratinocyte proliferation and immune cell infiltration. M2 isoform of pyruvate kinase (PKM2) was reported to have an important role in cell proliferation, which is a rate-limiting enzyme that regulates the final step of glycolysis. However, how PKM2 regulates cell metabolism and proliferation in psoriatic keratinocytes is still poorly understood. Interestingly, we found that PKM2 was highly expressed in psoriatic epidermis from patients and mouse models. PKM2 overexpression promoted keratinocyte glycolytic metabolism while knockdown inhibited keratinocyte proliferation and glycolysis. Mice lacking PKM2 specifically in keratinocytes, pharmacological inhibition of PKM2 or glycolysis inhibited keratinocyte proliferation and showed obvious remission in an imiquimod-induced psoriatic mouse model. Moreover, the inhibitor of the EGF-receptor blocked EGF-stimulated PKM2 expression and glycolysis in keratinocytes. We identify PKM2 as an upregulated gene in psoriasis. PKM2 is essential in keratinocyte over-proliferation and may represent a therapeutic target for psoriasis.
Project description:Psoriasis is characterized by uncontrolled proliferation and poor differentiation. Sirtuin1 (SIRT1) a class III deacetylase, crucial for differentiation in normal keratinocytes, is reduced in psoriasis. Down regulated SIRT1 levels may contribute to poor differentiation in psoriasis. In addition, the levels of early differentiation factors Keratin1 (K1) and Keratin10 (K10) are depleted in psoriasis. We attempted to study a possible effect of fructose, a SIRT1 upregulator and Propylthiouracil (PTU) to augment differentiation in psoriatic keratinocytes. Keratinocytes were cultured from lesional biopsies obtained from psoriatic patients and control cells were obtained from patients undergoing abdominoplasty. Cells were treated with fructose and PTU individually. K1 and K10 transcript levels were measured to evaluate early differentiation; SIRT1 protein expression was also studied to decipher its role in the mechanism of differentiation. The K1, K10 transcript levels, SIRT1 protein and transcript levels in fructose treated psoriatic keratinocytes were improved. This suggests keratinocyte differentiation was induced by fructose through SIRT1 upregulation. Whereas PTU induced differentiation, as confirmed by improved K1, K10 transcript levels followed a non-SIRT1 mechanism. We conclude that the use of fructose and PTU may be an adjunct to the existing therapies for psoriasis.
Project description:The protective epithelial barrier in our skin undergoes constant regulation, whereby the balance between differentiation and proliferation of keratinocytes plays a major role. Impaired keratinocyte differentiation and proliferation are key elements in the pathophysiology of several important dermatological diseases, including atopic dermatitis and psoriasis. Ca(2+) influx plays an essential role in this process presumably mediated by different transient receptor potential (TRP) channels. However, investigating their individual role was hampered by the lack of specific stimulators or inhibitors. Because we have recently identified hyperforin as a specific TRPC6 activator, we investigated the contribution of TRPC6 to keratinocyte differentiation and proliferation. Like the endogenous differentiation stimulus high extracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](o)), hyperforin triggers differentiation in HaCaT cells and in primary cultures of human keratinocytes by inducing Ca(2+) influx via TRPC6 channels and additional inhibition of proliferation. Knocking down TRPC6 channels prevents the induction of Ca(2+)- and hyperforin-induced differentiation. Importantly, TRPC6 activation is sufficient to induce keratinocyte differentiation similar to the physiological stimulus [Ca(2+)](o). Therefore, TRPC6 activation by hyperforin may represent a new innovative therapeutic strategy in skin disorders characterized by altered keratinocyte differentiation.
Project description:EphA2 is a receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) that triggers keratinocyte differentiation upon activation and subsequent downregulation by ephrin-A1 ligand. The objective of this study was to determine whether the EphA2/ephrin-A1 signaling axis was altered in psoriasis, an inflammatory skin condition in which keratinocyte differentiation is abnormal. Microarray analysis of skin biopsies from psoriasis patients revealed increased mRNA transcripts for several members of this RTK family in plaques, including the EphA1, EphA2, and EphA4 subtypes prominently expressed by keratinocytes. Of these, EphA2 showed the greatest upregulation, a finding that was confirmed by quantitative reverse-transcriptase-PCR, immunohistochemistry (IHC), and ELISA. In contrast, psoriatic lesions exhibited reduced ephrin-A ligand immunoreactivity. Exposure of primary keratinocytes induced to differentiate in high calcium or a three-dimensional (3D) raft culture of human epidermis to a combination of growth factors and cytokines elevated in psoriasis increased EphA2 mRNA and protein expression while inducing S100A7 and disrupting differentiation. Pharmacological delivery of a soluble ephrin-A1 peptidomimetic ligand led to a reduction in EphA2 expression and ameliorated proliferation and differentiation in raft cultures exposed to EGF and IL-1?. These findings suggest that ephrin-A1-mediated downregulation of EphA2 supports keratinocyte differentiation in the context of cytokine perturbation.
Project description:The p63 protein plays a key role in regulating human keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation. Although some p63-regulating microRNAs (miRNAs) have been identified in the control of epidermal homeostasis, little is known about miRNAs acting downstream of p63. In this paper, we characterized multiple p63-regulated miRNAs (miR-17, miR-20b, miR-30a, miR-106a, miR-143 and miR-455-3p) and elucidated their roles in the onset of keratinocyte differentiation. We identified RB, p21 and multiple MAPKs as targets of these p63-controlled miRNAs. Upon inhibition of most of these miRNAs, we observed defects in commitment to differentiation that could be reversed by siRNA-mediated silencing of their targets. Furthermore, knockdown of MAPK8 and MAPK9 efficiently restored expression of the early differentiation markers keratin 1 and keratin 10 in p63-silenced primary human keratinocytes. These results highlight new mechanistic roles of multiple miRNAs, particularly the miR-17 family (miR-17, miR-20b and miR-106a), as regulatory intermediates for coordinating p63 with MAPK signaling in the commitment of human mature keratinocytes to early differentiation.
Project description:Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive lipid mediator generated when a cell membrane or its components are damaged by various factors. S1P regulates diverse cell activities via S1P receptors (S1PRs). Keratinocytes express S1PR1-5. Although it is known that S1PRs control keratinocyte differentiation, apoptosis, and wound healing, S1PR functions in keratinocyte infections have not been fully elucidated. We propose that the S1P-S1PR axis in keratinocytes works as a biosensor for bacterial invasion. Indeed, in human impetigo infection, we found high epidermal expression of S1PR1 and S1PR2 in the skin. Furthermore, in normal human epidermal keratinocytes in vitro, treatment with Staphylococcus aureus bacterial supernatant not only induced S1P production but also increased the transcription of S1PR2, confirming our in vivo observation, as well as increased the levels of TNFA, IL36G, IL6, and IL8 mRNAs. However, direct treatment of normal human epidermal keratinocytes with S1P increased the expressions of IL36G, TNFA, and IL8, but not IL6. In both S1P- and S. aureus bacterial supernatant-treated normal human epidermal keratinocytes, S1PR1 knockdown reduced IL36G, TNFA, and IL8 transcription, and the S1PR2 antagonist JTE013 blocked the secretion of these cytokines. Overall, we have proven that during infections, keratinocytes communicate damage by using S1P release and tight control of S1PR1 and 2.