Associations between breastfeeding duration and overweight/obese among children aged 5-10: a focus on racial/ethnic disparities in California.
ABSTRACT: Research on the association between breastfeeding and childhood obesity and research on racial/ethnic differences in breastfeeding both show inconsistencies. The current study examines: 1) whether immigrant Hispanic women have higher rates of breastfeeding compared to non-Hispanic (three separate groups: African-American, Asian/Pacific Islander, and White) and U.S.-born Hispanic women; 2) whether children who were breastfed are less likely to be overweight/obese compared to children who were not breastfed; and 3) whether associations between breastfeeding and weight status vary by race/ethnicity/nativity. The study builds on prior literature using representative data from the Geographic Research On Wellbeing study (GROW, 2012-2013) and focusing on ages 5-10 years, an age group that has not been well studied (N = 2675 mother/child dyads). Logistic regression was used to investigate the odds of child obesity (?95th%) and child overweight (?85th%) in a series of models: unadjusted (each variable individually), demographic (child's sex, child's age, mother's age, mother's race/ethnicity, and mother's marital status), socioeconomic status (mother's education and family income), and full model (mother's BMI); with breastfeeding included in all models. Interactions between race/ethnicity and breastfeeding duration were also examined. African-American (9.54%) and white (32.8%) women had the lowest and highest rates of ever breastfeeding, respectively. White women breastfed the longest (M = 10.52 months, SE = 0.028) and U.S.-born Hispanic women breastfed the shortest (M = 7.05 months, SE = 0.41), on average. Children of African-American and U.S.-born Hispanic mothers had higher odds of being overweight/obese (74-75%) compared with children of white mothers. No associations were found between breastfeeding duration and child's weight status in adjusted models, nor was there a significant interaction between mother's race/ethnicity and breastfeeding duration on child's weight status; however, mother's own weight status was a significant driver of child's weight status and explained the racial/ethnic disparities. These results provide evidence in favor of there being no association between breastfeeding and childhood obesity.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>In the United States, mothers' employment status and occupation are related to breastfeeding. However, it is unclear whether not working leads to longer breastfeeding duration even when compared to professional/managerial jobs, which tend to accommodate breastfeeding better than service/manual labor jobs. Furthermore, occupation and breastfeeding are racially patterned, and it is possible that race could moderate the relationships between mother's work and breastfeeding.<h4>Methods</h4>Using data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, we modeled breastfeeding duration based on mother's employment/occupation (not working, professional/managerial work, or service/labor work) during the first 6 months postpartum, as well as mother's race (White, Black or other) and other potential confounders. We used zero-inflated negative binomial regression models and tested an interaction between employment/occupation type and race. Predictive margins were used to compare breastfeeding duration among subgroups.<h4>Results</h4>Mothers working in service/labor occupations had the shortest breastfeeding duration of the three employment/occupation groups, and there was no significant difference in duration between not working and professional/managerial occupation. White mothers had longer breastfeeding duration than Black mothers on average. When we included an interaction between employment/occupation and race, we found that among White mothers, non-working mothers breastfed the longest, while mothers in service/labor work breastfed for the shortest duration, but among Black mothers, mothers in professional/managerial work breastfed for longer than mothers in the other two work categories.<h4>Discussion</h4>Race moderated the relationship between employment status/occupation type and breastfeeding such that, for White mothers, not working was the most advantageous circumstance for breastfeeding, in line with traditional work-family conflict theory. In contrast, for Black mothers, professional/managerial work was the most advantageous circumstance. These findings support the idea of the Market-Family Matrix, which allows that different work scenarios may be more or less advantageous for parenting behaviors like breastfeeding, depending on mothers' circumstances.
Project description:PURPOSE:To identify how child health status differs by mother's educational attainment for the overall US population and by race/ethnicity and to assess whether these disparities have changed from 2000 to 2017. DESIGN:Repeated cross-sectional data from the 2000-2017 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). SETTING:United States. PARTICIPANTS:Children aged 1 to 17 years from a nationally representative sample of the noninstitutionalized US population (N = 199 427). MEASURES:Reported child health status, mother's educational attainment, child's race/ethnicity, and control variables were measured using the NHIS. ANALYSIS:Using logistic regression models, we assessed the relationship between maternal education and child health. Missing data were imputed. RESULTS:Children whose mothers had less than a high school education (odds ratio [OR] = 3.84, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.62-4.07), high school diploma or equivalent (OR = 2.57, 95% CI: 2.44-2.70), or some college (OR = 1.90, 95% CI: 1.80-2.00) had worse reported health status compared to children whose mothers graduated college. These associations were strongest among non-Hispanic white children, with significantly (P < .05) smaller associations observed for non-Hispanic black, Mexican origin, and other Hispanic children. The associations were smaller but persisted with inclusion of controls. From 2000 to 2017, child health disparities slightly narrowed or remained stagnant among white, non-Hispanic black, and other Hispanic children but widened for Mexican origin children (P < .05). CONCLUSION:Maternal education disparities in child health are wide and have persisted.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Many women cease breastfeeding earlier than desired. This study examined the cessation of breastfeeding among mothers of preterm infants. Thus, the aim was to describe the cessation of breastfeeding in mothers of preterm infants up to 12 months after birth. METHOD:This mixed methods study used a convergent design with both qualitative data, consisting of written comments, and quantitative data, on breastfeeding status and breastfeeding satisfaction. The data were collected from questionnaires sent to the mothers at three points during the first year after birth. In total, 270 mothers of preterm infants who breastfed at the time of discharge from the neonatal unit provided data for the study. The quantitative and qualitative data were analysed separately with statistical tests and hermeneutical analysis, respectively and then together according to the convergent mixed methods design. RESULTS:Four themes of the meanings of the cessation of breastfeeding were identified in the qualitative analysis: "Desire to regain the mother's and the infant's well-being", "The mothers interpretation that the infants actively ceased breastfeeding", "The mother's body and/or the infants' signals showing the way" and "The mother's own will and perceived external obstacles". Mothers who did not breastfeed as long as they wanted were more likely to report less satisfaction with breastfeeding, a shorter breastfeeding period, and less activity when ceasing breastfeeding. In comparison, mothers who breastfed as long as they wanted were more satisfied with breastfeeding, breastfed for a longer period of time and were more active in decision making in breastfeeding cessation. CONCLUSION:Maternal passivity or activity influenced the cessation of breastfeeding in mothers of preterm infants who breastfed at the time of discharge from the neonatal unit. Passive behaviour related to breastfeeding may result in early cessation of breastfeeding, and low breastfeeding satisfaction while active behaviour may increase breastfeeding length and satisfaction.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Data are limited on usual sodium and potassium intakes relative to age-specific recommendations and the sodium:potassium ratio in infants and preschoolers, especially among those aged <2 y, who are black or breastfed. OBJECTIVE:The usual sodium intake above the Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (ULs), potassium intakes above Adequate Intakes (AIs), the sodium:potassium ratio, and sodium density (mg/kcal) among US infants and preschoolers by age group, as applicable, were estimated and compared by race-ethnicity and current breastfeeding status. DESIGN:Data were analyzed among 3 groups of children (aged 7-11 mo, 1-3 y, and 4-5 y) from the NHANES 2003-2010 by using measurement error models. RESULTS:Seventy-nine percent of children aged 1-3 y and 87% of those aged 4-5 y exceeded their sodium UL; among non-Hispanic black children, the estimates were 84% and 97%, respectively. For potassium, 97% of infants, 5% of children aged 1-3 y, and 0.4% aged 4-5 y met their AIs. Compared with non-Hispanic whites and Mexican Americans, non-Hispanic black infants and preschoolers had higher mean sodium density and sodium:potassium ratios. Currently breastfed infants and children consumed, on average, less sodium than those who were not breastfed (382 ± 53 compared with 538 ± 22 mg in those aged 7-11 mo and 1154 ± 88 compared with 1985 ± 24 mg in those aged 1-3 y, respectively), but the sodium:potassium ratio did not differ. CONCLUSIONS:Most US preschoolers, particularly non-Hispanic blacks, consume too much sodium, and nearly all do not consume enough potassium. Data that suggest that currently breastfed infants consume less sodium than do those who are not breastfeeding merit further investigation.
Project description:Importance:Large racial/ethnic disparities in breastfeeding are associated with adverse health outcomes. Objectives:To examine breastfeeding trends by race/ethnicity from 2009 to 2015 and changes in breastfeeding gaps comparing racial/ethnic subgroups with white infants from 2009-2010 to 2014-2015. Design, Setting, and Participants:This study used data from 167?842 infants from the National Immunization Survey-Child (NIS-Child), a random-digit-dialed telephone survey among a complex, stratified, multistage probability sample of US households with children aged 19 to 35 months at the time of the survey. This study analyzed data collected from January 1, 2011, through December 31, 2017, for children born between 2009 and 2015. Exposures:Child's race/ethnicity categorized as Hispanic or non-Hispanic white, black, Asian, or American Indian or Alaskan Native. Main Outcomes and Measures:Breastfeeding rates, including ever breastfeeding, exclusive breastfeeding through 6 months, and continuation of breastfeeding at 12 months. Results:This study included 167?842 infants (mean [SD] age, 2.33 [0.45] years; 86?321 [51.4%] male and 81?521 [48.6%] female). Overall unadjusted breastfeeding rates increased from 2009 to 2015 by 7.1 percentage points for initiation, 9.2 percentage points for exclusivity, and 11.3 percentage points for duration, with considerable variation by race/ethnicity. Most racial/ethnic groups had significant increases in breastfeeding rates. From 2009-2010 to 2014-2015, disparities in adjusted breastfeeding rates became larger between black and white infants. For example, the difference for exclusive breastfeeding through 6 months between black and white infants widened from 0.5 to 4.5 percentage points with a 4.0% difference in difference (P?<?.001) from 2009-2010 to 2014-2015. In contrast, the breastfeeding differences between Hispanic, Asian, and American Indian or Alaskan Native infants and white infants became smaller or stayed the same except for continued breastfeeding at 12 months among Asians. For example, the difference in continued breastfeeding at 12 months between Hispanic and white infants decreased from 7.8 to 3.8 percentage points between 2 periods, yielding a -4.0% difference in difference (P?<?.001). Because of positive trends among all race/ethnicities, these reduced differences were likely associated with greater increases among white infants throughout the study years. Conclusions and Relevance:Despite breastfeeding improvements among each race/ethnicity group, breastfeeding disparities between black and white infants became larger when breastfeeding improvements decreased even further among black infants in 2014-2015. The reduced breastfeeding gaps among all other nonwhite groups may be associated with greater increases among white infants. More efforts appear to be needed to improve breastfeeding rates among black infants.
Project description:Objective To estimate the associations between neighborhood disadvantage and neighborhood affluence with breastfeeding practices at the time of hospital discharge, by race-ethnicity. Methods We geocoded and linked birth certificate data for 111,596 live births in New Jersey in 2006 to census tracts. We constructed indices of neighborhood disadvantage and neighborhood affluence and examined their associations with exclusive (EBF) and any breastfeeding in multilevel models, controlling for individual-level confounders. Results The associations of neighborhood disadvantage and affluence with breastfeeding practices differed by race-ethnicity. The odds of EBF decreased as neighborhood disadvantage increased for all but White women [Asian: Adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 0.82 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.69-0.97); Black: AOR 0.77 (95% CI 0.70-0.86); Hispanic: AOR 0.78 (95% CI 0.70-0.86); White: AOR 0.99 (95% CI 0.91-1.08)]. The odds of EBF increased as neighborhood affluence increased for Hispanic [AOR 1.19 (95% CI 1.08-1.31)] and White [AOR 1.12 (95% CI 1.06-1.18)] women only. The odds of any breastfeeding decreased with increasing neighborhood disadvantage only for Hispanic women [AOR 0.85 (95% CI 0.79-0.92)], and increased for White women [AOR 1.16 (95% CI 1.07-1.26)]. The odds of any breastfeeding increased as neighborhood affluence increased for all except Hispanic women [Asian: AOR 1.31 (95% CI 1.13-1.51); Black: AOR 1.19 (95% CI 1.07-1.32); Hispanic: AOR 1.08 (95% CI 0.99-1.18); White: AOR 1.30 (95% CI 1.24-1.38)]. Conclusions Race-ethnic differences in associations between neighborhood disadvantage and affluence and breastfeeding practices at the time of hospital discharge indicate the need for specialized support to improve access to services.
Project description:LC-MS/MS data obtained from subglottic biopsies collected from 12 individuals with idiopathic subglottic stenosis, as well as 3 age-, sex-, and race/ethnicity-matched controls. All tissue donors were women of White race and non-Latino or Hispanic ethnicity. Sample preparation, mass spectrometry, and data analysis details are available in the published article.
Project description:Little is known about the long-term benefits of breastfeeding for mother's metabolic health. This study aimed to investigate the links between breastfeeding duration and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components in perimenopausal women. The analysis included a group of 7621 women aged 55.4 ± 5.4 years. MetS and its components were defined according to the International Diabetes Federation guidelines. Women who breastfed for 13-18 months and beyond 18 months were at lower risk of MetS (odds ratio OR) = 0.76, 95% CI 0.60-0.95; p = 0.017 and OR = 0.79, 95% CI 0.64-0.98; p = 0.030, respectively) than those who never breastfed. Meanwhile, women who breastfed for 7-12 months showed increased glucose concentration (OR = 0.77, 95% CI 0.63-0.94; p = 0.012) compared with those who had never breastfed. The additional analysis involving parity showed that women who had given birth to two babies and breastfed them had lower odds of MetS than those who never breastfed (p < 0.05), although there was no significant difference among women who breastfed for >18 months. Women who had given birth to at least three children and breastfed for 1-6 and 13-18 months had lower odds of MetS and increased triglyceride concentration (p < 0.05). Moreover, participants having breastfed for 1-6 months were found to have a reduced risk of abdominal obesity compared with those who had not breastfed (p < 0.05). Breastfeeding is associated with lower prevalence of MetS in perimenopausal women and can be recommended as a way of reducing the risk of MetS and its components.
Project description:Personal care products (PCPs) are important and modifiable sources of exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Research is limited on how EDC-associated PCP use differs by race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status (SES), particularly during the sensitive period of pregnancy. We investigated differences in PCP use by race/ethnicity and SES among 497 participants in the LIFECODES pregnancy cohort (Boston, Massachusetts). Participants self-reported race/ethnicity, SES indicators (maternal education; insurance status), and recent PCP use via questionnaire at ≤4 prenatal visits. We evaluated trimester-specific differences in use of individual PCP categories by race/ethnicity and SES indicators. We used Poisson regression to estimate trimester-specific mean total product categories used by race/ethnicity and SES indicators. In the first trimester, compared to non-Hispanic White women, Hispanic women reported higher use of hair gel (45% vs. 28%), perfume (75% vs. 39%), and "other" hair products (37% vs. 19%). Compared to women with a college degree, women without a college degree reported higher use of perfume (79% vs. 41%) and bar soap (74% vs. 56%); patterns were similar for insurance status. The estimated mean total product categories used was significantly lower in Asian compared to non-Hispanic White women in all trimesters (e.g., Trimester 1: 4.8 vs. 6.7 categories; p<0.001). Patterns of PCP use differed by race/ethnicity and SES, with implications for potentially modifiable differential EDC exposure and associated pregnancy outcomes.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Although the majority of women in England initiate breastfeeding, approximately one third cease breastfeeding by six weeks and many of these women report they would like to have breastfed for longer.<h4>Methods</h4>Data from a survey of women ?16 years who gave birth to singleton term infants in 2009 in England; questionnaires were completed approximately three months postnatally. Logistic regression was used to investigate the association between postnatal support and other factors, and breastfeeding cessation at 10 days and six weeks. Population attributable fractions (PAFs) were calculated to estimate the relative contribution of breastfeeding support factors to overall breastfeeding cessation at these two time points.<h4>Results</h4>Of the 3840 women who initiated breastfeeding and reported timing of breastfeeding cessation, 13% had stopped by 10 days; and of the 3354 women who were breastfeeding at 10 days, 17% had stopped by six weeks. Socio-demographic factors (maternal age, ethnicity, country of birth, deprivation, education) and antenatal feeding intention were all independently associated with breastfeeding cessation at 10 days and six weeks. Women who did not receive feeding advice or support from a parent or peer support group, voluntary organisation, or breastfeeding clinic were more likely to stop breastfeeding by 10 days. Perceived active support and encouragement from midwives was associated with a lower odds of breastfeeding cessation at both 10 days and six weeks. Estimated PAFs suggest that 34-59% of breastfeeding cessations by 10 days could be avoided if more women in the study population received breastfeeding support.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Although multiple factors influence a mother's likelihood of continuing breastfeeding, it is clear that socio-demographic factors are strongly associated with breastfeeding continuation. However, there is evidence that breastfeeding support, including that delivered by peer or lay support workers, may have an important role in preventing cessations in the first few weeks.