Association of GST gene polymorphism and noise-induced hearing loss: GST gene polymorphism and NIHL.
ABSTRACT: Background:It has been proposed that Noise-induced hearing loss is a complex disease that is combination of environmental and genetic factors. There are inconsistent results concerning the association between variation in glutathione S-transferase (GST) genetic polymorphisms (GSTT1 rs1049055 and GSTM1 rs10712361) and susceptibility to Noise-induced hearing loss. Objective:This study was designed to assess the association between GST gene polymorphism and Noise-induced hearing loss among noise-exposed workers. Methods: In a case-control study, male workers from tile and ceramic factories were selected randomly. Subjects were classified into two groups according to the result of audiometry: 73 subjects showed Noise-induced hearing loss which was considered in the case group and 87 subjects without hearing loss was enrolled in the control group. The GSTT1 and GSTM1 polymorphism of both groups were assessed by multiplex polymerase chain reaction. Results:Null GSTT1 and GSTM1 genotypes were more frequent in case group but no significant statistical difference was seen in case and control groups. No significant link between GSTT1 and GSTM1 genotypes was found. Conclusion:This study suggests that the genetic variability of GSTT1 and GSTM1 has no effect on susceptibility to noise induced hearing loss.
Project description:Background:Glutathione S-transferase (GST) is an important antioxidant enzyme in the body. The weakening of the antioxidant system causes damage to the cells and tissues that make up the organism, adversely affects the function of the nervous system, and ultimately leads to schizophrenia (SCZ). Previous studies have yielded inconsistent results across different ethnic populations. Purpose:This case-control study was carried out to investigate whether genetic polymorphisms in GST could be associated with SCZ in the Chinese Han population. Patients and Methods:A total of 794 participants, including 379 SCZ patients (case group) and 415 healthy individuals (control group), were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length for polymorphisms in GST genes. Results:The study found that the frequency of the GSTM1 null genotype was higher in case group than control group (p=0.003). The frequency of the GSTM1 and GSTT1 double null genotype was also higher in case group than control group (p=0.008). Conclusion:We conclude that the GSTM1 null genotype and the GSTM1 and GSTT1 double null genotype may be related to the onset of SCZ in Chinese Han population.
Project description:Anti-tuberculosis drugs have some adverse effects such as anti-tuberculosis drug-induced liver injury (ATDILI) and mental disorders. The involvement of glutathione S-transferase (GST) genes in pathogenesis of ATDILI or schizophrenia (SCZ) has been reported. Therefore, GST genes may exemplify molecular connectors between ATDILI and SCZ. However, association studies of GSTM1/T1 polymorphisms with these two diseases have yielded conflicting results. After searching case-control association studies in PubMed, ISI Web of Science, EMBASE, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and Chinese BioMedical Literature Database, we performed meta-analyses across a total of 20 published association studies on 3146 subjects for the association of GSTM1 and ATDILI, 2587 for the GSTT1-ATDILI association, 2283 for GSTM1-SCZ and 1116 for GSTT1-SCZ to test the associations of GSTM1/T1 polymorphisms with ATDILI and SCZ. The GSTM1 present genotype was significantly associated with decreased risks of ATDILI (risk ratio(RR): 0.81, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.75-0.88, P < 0.0001) and SCZ (RR: 0.88, 95%CI: 0.80-0.96, P = 0.004) according to the fixed-effect model, while the GSTT1 present genotype was significantly associated only with a high risk of SCZ (RR: 1.17, 95%CI: 1.04-1.32, P = 0.01) according to both the random- and fixed-effect models, but not with ATDILI (P = 0.82) according to the fixed-effect model. Moreover, these significant results were supported with moderate evidence according to the Venice criteria. These results indicate that GSTM1 represents a genetic connection between ATDILI and SCZ, and suggest that ATDILI and SCZ may be co-occurring for the subjects with GSTM1 null genotype.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:The objective of this study was to investigate the association between genetic polymorphisms of N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2), cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B1 (SLCO1B1) and the risk of anti-tuberculosis drug-induced liver injury (ATDILI). DESIGN:Systematic review and meta-analysis. DATA SOURCES:PubMed, Embase, Web of Science and Cochrane Reviews databases were searched through April 2019. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA:We included case-control or cohort studies investigating an association between NAT2, CYP2E1, GST or SLCO1B1 polymorphisms and the ATDILI risk in patients with tuberculosis. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS:Three authors screened articles, extracted data and assessed study quality. The strength of association was evaluated for each gene using the pooled OR with a 95% CI based on the fixed-effects or random-effects model. Sensitivity analysis was performed to confirm the reliability and robustness of the results. RESULTS:Fifty-four studies were included in this analysis (n=26 for CYP2E1, n=35 for NAT2, n=19 for GST, n=4 for SLCO1B1). The risk of ATDILI was significantly increased with the following genotypes: CYP2E1 RsaI/PstI c1/c1 (OR=1.39, 95%?CI 1.06 to 1.83), NAT2 slow acetylator (OR=3.30, 95%?CI 2.65 to 4.11) and GSTM1 null (OR=1.30, 95%?CI 1.12 to 1.52). No significant association with ATDILI was found for the genetic polymorphisms of CYP2E1 DraI, GSTT1, GSTM1/GSTT1, SLCO1B1 388A>G and SLCO1B1 521T>C (p>0.05). CONCLUSIONS:ATDILI is more likely to occur in patients with NAT2 slow acetylator genotype, CYP2E1 RsaI/PstI c1/c1 genotype and GSTM1 null genotype. Close monitoring may be warranted for patients with these genotypes.
Project description:The glutathione S-transferase (GST) gene family codes for enzymes that detoxify xenobiotics by catalyzing the conjugation of xenobiotics to glutathione. Based on reports that inherited copy number variations (CNV) in the genome modulate some GST expression levels and with the knowledge that cigarette smoke contains >3000 xenobiotics, and that the small airway epithelium and alveolar macrophages are involved early in the pathogensis of smoking-induced lung disease, we asked: do germline CNVs modulate GST expression level in the small airway epithelium and alveolar macrophages? Affymetrix HG U133 Plus 2.0 microarrays were used to survey GST gene expression in the small airway epithelium and alveolar macrophages obtained by bronchoscopic brushings from current smokers (n=35) and nonsmokers (n=35). The CNV genotypes of these 70 subjects were determined by Affymetrix Human SNP array 5.0 chips. Sixteen % of subjects had deletions of both GSTM1 alleles. These deletions were associated with reduced GSTM1 mRNA levels in both the small airway epithelium (p<10-7) and alveolar macrophages (p<0.05). Thirty % of subjects had homozygous deletions of GSTT1 with concomitant reduced mRNA levels in both small airway epithelium and alveolar macrophages (p<10-7). In contrast, genes flanking the CNV regions of both GST genes showed no difference in expression level among subjects with and without the GST deletions (p>0.3). Interestingly, GSTT2B, a duplicate gene of GSTT2, exhibited homozygous deletion in blood in 27% of subjects and was not expressed in small airway epithelium in the remainder of subjects but was expressed in alveolar macrophages of heterozygotes and wild type subjects, proportionate to genotype (p<10-3). These data demonstrate that highly prevalent CNV deletions of genes critical to ameliorating smoking-associated xenobiotic-induced damage in the lung can result in significant modulation of the gene expression levels, with the linear relationship of genotype to expression level suggesting minimal compensation of gene expression levels in heterozygotes consistent with GST polymorphisms playing a role in the risk for development of smoking-induced lung disease. Overall design: Small airway epithelium (from 35 healthy nonsmokers and 35 healthy smokers) and alveolar macrophages (from a subset of the 70 subjects: 22 nonsmokers and 34 smokers) were collected at bronchoscopy, and in conjunction with their blood samples, were used to assess the influence of common heritable copy number polymorphisms in glutathione S-transferase (GST) genes, on microarray and RT-PCR-assessed GST gene expression in human tissues that are relevant to the pathogenesis of smoke-induced lung disease.
Project description:Schizophrenia (SCZ) is a chronic disability disorder related to oxidative stress. Glutathione S-transferase (GST) is a group enzyme that protects cells and tissues from oxidative stress damage. Among GSTs, GSTT1 and GSTM1 have well defined genetic polymorphisms. The purpose of our research was to explore the correlation between GSTT1 and GSTM1 polymorphism and SCZ risk in Chinese Han population.A total of 650 subjects (386 SCZ patients and 264 healthy individuals) were included in this case-control designed study. The GSTT1 and GSTM1 polymorphisms were analyzed by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). We explored the relationship between these 2 polymorphisms and the risk of SCZ.We found that the GSTT1 null genotype had a protective effect on the development of SCZ [odds ratio (OR)?=?0.601, 95% confidence interval (95% CI)?=?0.412-0.986, P?=?.031]. We also found that the combination of null genotypes of the GSTT1 and GSTM1 genes was made at a lower risk of SCZ (OR?=?0.452, 95% CI?=?0.238-0.845, P?=?.028). However, we found no correction between Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale score (PANSS) and GSTM1, GSST1 genotypes in SCZ patients.Our finding revealed that GSTT1 null polymorphisms may be related to the reduced risk of SCZ in Chinese Han population, and this risk was further reduced with the combination of GSTT1 null polymorphisms and GSTM1 null polymorphisms.
Project description:Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs; EC: 18.104.22.168) are ubiquitous multifunctional enzymes, which play a key role in cellular detoxification. Functional genetic polymorphisms in genes encoding GSTM1 (a member of GST class mu; OMIM: 138350), and GSTT1 (a member of GST class theta; OMIM: 600436) have been well defined. The functional null alleles of GSTM1 and GSTT1 represent deletions of GSTM1 and GSTT1 genes, respectively. The aim of the present study is to investigate the association between GSTM1 and GSTT1 polymorphisms and methamphetamine dependence. The present population-based case-control study was performed in Shiraz (southern Iran). In total, 52 methamphetamine dependence (11 females, 41 males) and 635 healthy controls (110 females, 525 males) were included in this study. The genotypes of GSTM1 and GSTT1 polymorphisms were determined by PCR. Neither GSTM1 (OR=0.92, 95% CI: 0.52-1.61, P=0.771) nor GSTT1 (OR=0.71, 95% CI: 0.33-1.54, P=0.381) null genotypes were significantly associated with risk of methamphetamine dependence. It should be noted that although there was no association between the GSTM1 null genotype and risk of methamphetamine dependence, in both genders, there was significant interaction between gender and GSTM1 polymorphism (P=0.029). The combination genotypes of the GSTM1 and GSTT1 polymorphisms revealed that the genotypes of these two polymorphisms had no additive effect in relation to the susceptibility to methamphetamine dependence. The present study revealed that genetic polymorphisms of GSTT1 and GSTM1 are not risk factors for methamphetamine dependence.
Project description:Published data on the association between the GST genes polymorphisms and male infertility risk are inconclusive. We investigated GST genes polymorphisms in a large sample size case-control study, and conducted a literature-based meta-analysis of 6934 individuals. Our case-control study showed the GSTM1 null genotype was significantly associated with idiopathic oligozoospermia, while the null genotype of GSTT1 was significantly associated with normozoospermia and azoospermia. Additionally, significantly elevated GSTT1 expression levels were observed in present genotype compared with null genotype. In the meta-analysis, the null genotype of GSTM1 was associated with a significantly increased risk of male infertility. Furthermore, a stratification analysis showed that the risk of GSTM1 polymorphism was associated with male infertility in both Asian and Caucasian groups. Further studies of GSTM1 and GSTT1 with their biological functions are needed to understand the role of these genes in the development of male infertility.
Project description:BACKGROUND:some types of cancer have been associated with the presence of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of some genes that encode enzymes: glutathione-S transferase (GST), whose alteration leads to loss of function and a lower capacity to eliminate toxic GSTM1 and GSTT1 null genotypes; SNPs causing loss of function of CYP1A1 or CYP1A1-2 cytochrome P450 enzymes related with a lower capacity to deactivate hydrocarbons related to smoking, which involves a higher risk of developing some smoking-dependent cancers including larynx cancer. OBJECTIVE:to compare the presence of null SNPs in genes GSTM1, GSTT1, and CYP1A1 rs 4646903 T>C, and CYP1A1-2 RS1048943 A>G in patients with hypopharyngeal and larynx cancer with a healthy control group. MATERIALS AND METHOD:The study included a total of 80 patients with hypopharyngeal and laryngeal cancer and 23 healthy subjects. Genomic DNA was obtained from saliva samples, determining genotype GSTM1 (present +, or null -), GSTT1 (present + or null -). Polymorphisms (SNP) in CYP1A1 T>C (present + CC, or absent - TC/TT), and CYP1A1-2 A>G (present + GG, or absent - AG/AA). RESULTS:the mean age of patients with larynx cancer was 62 years and of control subjects 63 years. Of the total sample, over 95% were men, and over 90% were smokers. The presence of null genotypes for GTM1 was 50% in patients with larynx cancer (p = 0.042), while GSTT1 was 88.75% (p = 0.002). CYP1A1 rs4646903 T>C polymorphisms were detected in 100% of cases of larynx cancer and 17.39% of healthy subjects (p > 0.001). CONCLUSIONS:patients with larynx cancer present more gene GSTM1 and GSTT1 null polymorphisms, and CYP1A1 rs4646903 T>C polymorphisms.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Polymorphisms in glutathione S-transferase (GST) genes may influence response to oxidative stress and modify prostate cancer (PCA) susceptibility. These enzymes generally detoxify endogenous and exogenous agents, but also participate in the activation and inactivation of oxidative metabolites that may contribute to PCA development. Genetic variations within selected GST genes may influence PCA risk following exposure to carcinogen compounds found in cigarette smoke and decreased the ability to detoxify them. Thus, we evaluated the effects of polymorphic GSTs (M1, T1, and P1) alone and combined with cigarette smoking on PCA susceptibility. METHODS:In order to evaluate the effects of GST polymorphisms in relation to PCA risk, we used TaqMan allelic discrimination assays along with a multi-faceted statistical strategy involving conventional and advanced statistical methodologies (e.g., Multifactor Dimensionality Reduction and Interaction Graphs). Genetic profiles collected from 873 men of African-descent (208 cases and 665 controls) were utilized to systematically evaluate the single and joint modifying effects of GSTM1 and GSTT1 gene deletions, GSTP1 105 Val and cigarette smoking on PCA risk. RESULTS:We observed a moderately significant association between risk among men possessing at least one variant GSTP1 105 Val allele (OR = 1.56; 95%CI = 0.95-2.58; p = 0.049), which was confirmed by MDR permutation testing (p = 0.001). We did not observe any significant single gene effects among GSTM1 (OR = 1.08; 95%CI = 0.65-1.82; p = 0.718) and GSTT1 (OR = 1.15; 95%CI = 0.66-2.02; p = 0.622) on PCA risk among all subjects. Although the GSTM1-GSTP1 pairwise combination was selected as the best two factor LR and MDR models (p = 0.01), assessment of the hierarchical entropy graph suggested that the observed synergistic effect was primarily driven by the GSTP1 Val marker. Notably, the GSTM1-GSTP1 axis did not provide additional information gain when compared to either loci alone based on a hierarchical entropy algorithm and graph. Smoking status did not significantly modify the relationship between the GST SNPs and PCA. CONCLUSION:A moderately significant association was observed between PCA risk and men possessing at least one variant GSTP1 105 Val allele (p = 0.049) among men of African descent. We also observed a 2.1-fold increase in PCA risk associated with men possessing the GSTP1 (Val/Val) and GSTM1 (*1/*1 + *1/*0) alleles. MDR analysis validated these findings; detecting GSTP1 105 Val (p = 0.001) as the best single factor for predicting PCA risk. Our findings emphasize the importance of utilizing a combination of traditional and advanced statistical tools to identify and validate single gene and multi-locus interactions in relation to cancer susceptibility.
Project description:Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) may increase breast cancer risk, and the association may be modified by inherited differences in deactivation of PAH intermediates by glutathione S-transferases (GSTs). Few breast cancer studies have investigated the joint effects of multiple GSTs and a PAH biomarker.We estimated the breast cancer risk associated with multiple polymorphisms in the GST gene (GSTA1, GSTM1, GSTP1, and GSTT1) and the interaction with PAH-DNA adducts and cigarette smoking.We conducted unconditional logistic regression using data from a population-based sample of women (cases/controls, respectively): GST polymorphisms were genotyped using polymerase chain reaction and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight assays (n = 926 of 916), PAH-DNA adduct blood levels were measured by competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (n = 873 of 941), and smoking status was assessed by in-person questionnaires (n = 943 of 973).Odds ratios for joint effects on breast cancer risk among women with at least three variant alleles were 1.56 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.13-2.16] for detectable PAH-DNA adducts and 0.93 (95% CI, 0.56-1.56) for no detectable adducts; corresponding odds ratios for three or more variants were 1.18 (95% CI, 0.82-1.69) for ever smokers and 1.44 (95% CI, 0.97-2.14) for never smokers. Neither interaction was statistically significant (p = 0.43 and 0.62, respectively).We found little statistical evidence that PAHs interacted with GSTT1, GSTM1, GSTP1, and GSTA1 polymorphisms to further increase breast cancer risk.