Osteogenic Differentiation of Human Adipose Tissue-Derived MSCs by Non-Toxic Calcium Poly(ethylene phosphate)s.
ABSTRACT: There is a current clinical need for the development of bone void fillers and bioactive bone graft substitutes. The use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) that are seeded into 3D scaffolds and induce bone generation in the event of MSCs osteogenic differentiation is highly promising. Since calcium ions and phosphates promote the osteogenic differentiation of MSCs, the use of the calcium complexes of phosphate-containing polymers is highly prospective in the development of osteogenic scaffolds. Calcium poly(ethylene phosphate)s (PEP-Ca) appear to be potentially suitable candidates primarily because of PEP's biodegradability. In a series of experiments with human adipose-tissue-derived multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs), we demonstrated that PEP-Ca are non-toxic and give rise to osteogenesis gene marker, bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) and mineralization of the intercellular matrix. Owing to the synthetic availability of poly(ethylene phosphoric acid) block copolymers, these results hold out the possibility for the development of promising new polymer composites for orthopaedic and maxillofacial surgery.
Project description:Synthetic hydrogel-amorphous calcium phosphate composites are promising candidates to substitute biologically sourced scaffolds for bone repair. While the hydrogel matrix serves as a template for stem cell colonisation, amorphous calcium phosphate s provide mechanical integrity with the potential to stimulate osteogenic differentiation. Here, we utilise composites of poly(ethylene glycol)-based hydrogels and differently stabilised amorphous calcium phosphate to investigate potential effects on attachment and osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells. We found that functionalisation with integrin binding motifs in the form of RGD tripeptide was necessary to allow adhesion of large numbers of cells in spread morphology. Slow dissolution of amorphous calcium phosphate mineral in the scaffolds over at least 21 days was observed, resulting in the release of calcium and zinc ions into the cell culture medium. While we qualitatively observed an increasingly mineralised extracellular matrix along with calcium deposition in the presence of amorphous calcium phosphate-loaded scaffolds, we did not observe significant changes in the expression of selected osteogenic markers.
Project description:The intracellular delivery of growth factors increases opportunities for controlling cell behavior and maintaining tissue homeostasis. Recently, VEGFA was reported to enhance osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) through an intracrine mechanism, suggesting a new strategy to promote bone tissue formation in osteoporotic patients. The goal of this study was to design and fabricate ligand-conjugated alginate-graft-poly(ethylene glycol) microspheres for intracellular delivery and release of VEGFA in primary human MSCs to enhance osteogenic differentiation as a potential therapeutic. Three types of microspheres were synthesized and characterized by scanning electron microscopy, in vitro drug release kinetics, MSC uptake and internalization: alginate alone (Alg), alginate-graft-poly(ethylene glycol) (Alg-g-PEG) and alginate-graft-poly(ethylene glycol)-S-S-arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (Alg-g-RGD). Each of the different microsphere formulations successfully transported bioactive VEGFA into primary human MSCs within 48h of culture, and significantly enhanced osteogenic differentiation compared to control treatments with empty microspheres (intracellular control) or non-encapsulated VEGFA (extracellular control). Adipogenic differentiation was not affected by the presence of VEGFA intracellularly or extracellularly. These results demonstrating the internalization of alginate-based microspheres and intracellular delivery of VEGFA support the efficacy of using this drug delivery and intracrine mechanism to control the fate of human MSCs and enhance osteogenic differentiation.
Project description:The effects of immune cells, in particular macrophages, on the behaviour of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have recently gained much attention for MSCs-based tissue-engineered constructs. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of monocytes/macrophages on the osteogenic differentiation of adipose-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (ADMSCs) in three-dimensional (3D) cocultures. For this, we cocultured THP-1 monocytes, M1 macrophages, or M2 macrophages with ADMSCs on 3D poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA)/polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffolds using osteogenic medium for up to 42 days. We found that osteogenic differentiation of ADMSCs was inhibited by monocytes and both macrophage subtypes in 3D scaffolds. Furthermore, coculture of monocytes/macrophages with ADMSCs resulted in downregulated secretion of oncostatin M (OSM) and bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) and inhibited expression of osteogenic markers alkaline phosphatase (ALP), bone sialoprotein (BSP), and runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2). Compared with both macrophage subtypes, monocytes inhibited osteogenic differentiation of ADMSCs more significantly. These data suggest that the mutual interactions between monocytes/macrophages and ADMSCs negatively affect MSC osteogenic differentiation and thus possibly bone healing capacity, which highlights the importance of the micro-environment in influencing cell-based constructs to treat bone defects and the potential to improve their performance by resolving the inflammation ahead of treatment.
Project description:Growth factors have been shown to be potent mediators of osteogenesis. However, their use in tissue-engineered scaffolds not only can be costly but also can induce undesired responses in surrounding tissues. Thus, the ability to specifically induce osteogenic differentiation in the absence of exogenous growth factors through manipulation of scaffold material properties would be desirable for bone regeneration. Previous research indicates that addition of inorganic or hydrophobic components to organic, hydrophilic scaffolds can enhance multipotent stem cell (MSC) osteogenesis. However, the combined impact of scaffold inorganic content and hydrophobicity on MSC behavior has not been systematically explored, particularly in three-dimensional (3D) culture systems. The aim of the present study was therefore to examine the effects of simultaneous increases in scaffold hydrophobicity and inorganic content on MSC osteogenic fate decisions in a 3D culture environment toward the development of intrinsically osteoinductive scaffolds. Mouse 10T½ MSCs were encapsulated in a series of novel scaffolds composed of varying levels of hydrophobic, inorganic poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) and hydrophilic, organic poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG). After 21 days of culture, increased levels of osteoblast markers, runx2 and osteocalcin, were observed in scaffolds with increased PDMS content. Bone extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules, collagen I and calcium phosphate, were also elevated in formulations with higher PDMS:PEG ratios. Importantly, this osteogenic response appeared to be specific in that markers for chondrocytic, smooth muscle cell, and adipocytic lineages were not similarly affected by variations in scaffold PDMS content. As anticipated, the increase in scaffold hydrophobicity accompanying increasing PDMS levels was associated with elevated scaffold serum protein adsorption. Thus, scaffold inorganic content combined with alterations in adsorbed serum proteins may underlie the observed cell behavior.
Project description:The treatment of osteochondral defects remains a challenge. Four scaffolds were produced using Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved polymers to investigate their therapeutic potential for the regeneration of the osteochondral unit. Polycaprolactone (PCL) and poly(vinyl-pyrrolidone) (PVP) scaffolds were made by electrohydrodynamic techniques. Hydroxyapatite (HAp) and/or sodium hyaluronate (HA) can be then loaded to PCL nanofibers and/or PVP particles. The purpose of adding hydroxyapatite and sodium hyaluronate into PCL/PVP scaffolds is to increase the regenerative ability for subchondral bone and joint cartilage, respectively. Human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBM-MSCs) were seeded on these biomaterials. The biocompatibility of these biomaterials in vitro and in vivo, as well as their potential to support MSC differentiation under specific chondrogenic or osteogenic conditions, were evaluated. We show here that hBM-MSCs could proliferate and differentiate both in vitro and in vivo on these biomaterials. In addition, the PCL-HAp could effectively increase the mineralization and induce the differentiation of MSCs into osteoblasts in an osteogenic condition. These results indicate that PCL-HAp biomaterials combined with MSCs could be a beneficial candidate for subchondral bone regeneration.
Project description:Cell based therapies for bone regeneration are an exciting emerging technology, but the availability of osteogenic cells is limited and an ideal cell source has not been identified. Amniotic fluid-derived stem cells (AFS) and bone-marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were compared to determine their osteogenic differentiation capacity in both 2D and 3D environments. In 2D culture, the AFS cells produced more mineralized matrix but delayed peaks in osteogenic markers. Cells were also cultured on 3D scaffolds constructed of poly-?-caprolactone for 15 weeks. MSCs differentiated more quickly than AFS cells on 3D scaffolds, but mineralized matrix production slowed considerably after 5 weeks. In contrast, the rate of AFS cell mineralization continued to increase out to 15 weeks, at which time AFS constructs contained 5-fold more mineralized matrix than MSC constructs. Therefore, cell source should be taken into consideration when used for cell therapy, as the MSCs would be a good choice for immediate matrix production, but the AFS cells would continue robust mineralization for an extended period of time. This study demonstrates that stem cell source can dramatically influence the magnitude and rate of osteogenic differentiation in vitro.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and coralline hydroxyapatite (HA) or biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) as a bone substitute for posterolateral spinal fusion has been reported. However, the genes and molecular signals by which MSCs interact with their surrounding environment require further elucidation. METHODS:MSCs were harvested from bone grafting patients and identified by flow cytometry. A composite scaffold was developed using poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) copolymer, coralline HA, BCP, and collagen as a carrier matrix for MSCs. The gene expression profiles of MSCs cultured in the scaffolds were measured by microarrays. The alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity of the MSCs was assessed, and the expression of osteogenic genes and proteins was determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR) and Western blotting. Furthermore, we cultured rabbit MSCs in BCP or coralline HA hybrid scaffolds and transplanted these mixtures into rabbits for spinal fusion. We investigated the differences between BCP and coralline HA hybrid scaffolds by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) and computed tomography (CT). RESULTS:Tested in vitro, the cells were negative for hematopoietic cell markers and positive for MSC markers. There was higher expression of 80 genes and lower of 101 genes of MSCs cultured in BCP hybrid scaffolds. Some of these genes have been shown to play a role in osteogenesis of MSCs. In addition, MSCs cultured in BCP hybrid scaffolds produced more messenger RNA (mRNA) for osteopontin, osteocalcin, Runx2, and leptin receptor (leptin-R) than those cultured in coralline HA hybrid scaffolds. Western blotting showed more Runx2 and leptin-R protein expression in BCP hybrid scaffolds. For in vivo results, 3D reconstructed CT images showed continuous bone bridges and fusion mass incorporated with the transverse processes. Bone mineral content (BMC) values were higher in the BCP hybrid scaffold group than in the coralline HA hybrid scaffold group. CONCLUSIONS:The BCP hybrid scaffold for osteogenesis of MSCs is better than the coralline HA hybrid scaffold by upregulating expression of leptin-R. This was consistent with in vivo data, which indicated that BCP hybrid scaffolds induced more bone formation in a spinal fusion model.
Project description:Development of biocompatible 3D scaffolds is one of the most important challenges in tissue engineering. In this study, we developed polymer scaffolds of different design and microstructure to study cell growth in them. To obtain scaffolds of various microstructure, e.g., size of pores, we used double- and one-stage leaching methods using porogens with selected size of crystals. A composite of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) (PHB/PEG) was used as polymer biomaterial for scaffolds. The morphology of scaffolds was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy; the Young modulus of scaffolds was measured by rheometry. The ability to support growth of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in scaffolds was studied using the XTT assay; the phenotype of MSC was preliminarily confirmed by flow cytometry and the activity of alkaline phosphatase and expression level of CD45 marker was studied to test possible MSC osteogenic differentiation. The obtained scaffolds had different microstructure: the scaffolds with uniform pore size of about 125 µm (normal pores) and 45 µm (small pores) and scaffolds with broadly distributed pores size from about 50-100 µm. It was shown that PHB/PEG scaffolds with uniform pores of normal size did not support MSCs growth probably due to their marked spontaneous osteogenic differentiation in these scaffolds, whereas PHB/PEG scaffolds with diverse pore size promoted stem cells growth that was not accompanied by pronounced differentiation. In scaffolds with small pores (about 45 µm), the growth of MSC was the lowest and cell growth suppression was only partially related to stem cells differentiation. Thus, apparently, the broadly distributed pore size of PHB/PEG scaffolds promoted MSC growth in them, whereas uniform size of scaffold pores stimulated MSC osteogenic differentiation.
Project description:We describe a simple method for bone engineering using biodegradable scaffolds with mesenchymal stem cells derived from human induced-pluripotent stem cells (hiPS-MSCs). The hiPS-MSCs expressed mesenchymal markers (CD90, CD73, and CD105), possessed multipotency characterized by tri-lineages differentiation: osteogenic, adipogenic, and chondrogenic, and lost pluripotency - as seen with the loss of markers OCT3/4 and TRA-1-81 - and tumorigenicity. However, these iPS-MSCs are still positive for marker NANOG. We further explored the osteogenic potential of the hiPS-MSCs in synthetic polymer polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffolds or PCL scaffolds functionalized with natural polymer hyaluronan and ceramic TCP (PHT) both in vitro and in vivo. Our results showed that these iPS-MSCs are functionally compatible with the two 3D scaffolds tested and formed typically calcified structure in the scaffolds. Overall, our results suggest the iPS-MSCs derived by this simple method retain fully osteogenic function and provide a new solution towards personalized orthopedic therapy in the future.