Proteome and Ubiquitome Changes during Rose Petal Senescence.
ABSTRACT: Petal senescence involves numerous programmed changes in biological and biochemical processes. Ubiquitination plays a critical role in protein degradation, a hallmark of organ senescence. Therefore, we investigated changes in the proteome and ubiquitome of senescing rose (Rosa hybrida) petals to better understand their involvement in petal senescence. Of 3859 proteins quantified in senescing petals, 1198 were upregulated, and 726 were downregulated during senescence. We identified 2208 ubiquitinated sites, including 384 with increased ubiquitination in 298 proteins and 1035 with decreased ubiquitination in 674 proteins. Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analyses revealed that proteins related to peptidases in proteolysis and autophagy pathways were enriched in the proteome, suggesting that protein degradation and autophagy play important roles in petal senescence. In addition, many transporter proteins accumulated in senescing petals, and several transport processes were enriched in the ubiquitome, indicating that transport of substances is associated with petal senescence and regulated by ubiquitination. Moreover, several components of the brassinosteroid (BR) biosynthesis and signaling pathways were significantly altered at the protein and ubiquitination levels, implying that BR plays an important role in petal senescence. Our data provide a comprehensive view of rose petal senescence at the posttranslational level.
Project description:Petal senescence involves numerous programmed changes in biological and biochemical processes. Ubiquitination plays a critical role in protein degradation, a hallmark of organ senescence. Therefore, we investigated changes in the proteome and ubiquitome of senescing rose (Rosa hybrida) petals to better understand their involvement in petal senescence. Of 3859 proteins quantified in senescing petals, 1198 were up-regulated and 726 were down-regulated during senescence. We identified 2208 ubiquitinated sites including 384 with increased ubiquitination in 298 proteins and 1035 with decreased ubiquitination in 674 proteins. Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analyses revealed that proteins related to peptidases in proteolysis and autophagy pathways were enriched in the proteome, suggesting that protein degradation and autophagy play important roles in petal senescence. In addition, many transporter proteins accumulated in senescing petals, and several transport processes were enriched in the ubiquitome, indicating that transport of substances is associated with petal senescence and regulated by ubiquitination. Moreover, several components of the brassinosteroid (BR) biosynthesis and signaling pathways were significantly altered at the protein and ubiquitination levels, implying that BR plays important roles in petal senescence. Our data provide a comprehensive view of rose petal senescence at the posttranslational level.
Project description:Rose (Rosa hybrida) plants are major ornamental species worldwide, and their commercial value greatly depends on their open flowers, as both the quality of fully open petals and long vase life are important. Petal senescence can be started and accelerated by various hormone signals, and ethylene is considered an accelerator of petal senescence in rose. To date, however, the underlying mechanism of signaling crosstalk between ethylene and other hormones such as JA in petal senescence remains largely unknown. Here, we isolated RhMYB108, an R2R3-MYB transcription factor, which is highly expressed in senescing petals as well as in petals treated with exogenous ethylene and JA. Applications of exogenous ethylene and JA markedly accelerated petal senescence, while the process was delayed in response to applications of 1-MCP, an ethylene action inhibitor. In addition, silencing of RhMYB108 alter the expression of SAGs such as RhNAC029, RhNAC053, RhNAC092, RhSAG12, and RhSAG113, and finally block ethylene- and JA-induced petal senescence. Furthermore, RhMYB108 was identified to target the promoters of RhNAC053, RhNAC092, and RhSAG113. Our results reveal a model in which RhMYB108 functions as a receptor of ethylene and JA signals to modulate the onset of petal senescence by targeting and enhancing senescence-associated gene expression.
Project description:Autophagy is one of the main mechanisms of degradation and remobilization of macromolecules, and it appears to play an important role in petal senescence. However, little is known about the regulatory mechanisms of autophagy in petal senescence. Autophagic processes were observed by electron microscopy and monodansylcadaverine staining of senescing petals of petunia (Petunia hybrida); autophagy-related gene 8 (ATG8) homologues were isolated from petunia and the regulation of expression was analysed. Nutrient remobilization was also examined during pollination-induced petal senescence. Active autophagic processes were observed in the mesophyll cells of senescing petunia petals. Pollination induced the expression of PhATG8 homologues and was accompanied by an increase in ethylene production. Ethylene inhibitor treatment in pollinated flowers delayed the induction of PhATG8 homologues, and ethylene treatment rapidly upregulated PhATG8 homologues in petunia petals. Dry weight and nitrogen content were decreased in the petals and increased in the ovaries after pollination in detached flowers. These results indicated that pollination induces autophagy and that ethylene is a key regulator of autophagy in petal senescence of petunia. The data also demonstrated the translocation of nutrients from the petals to the ovaries during pollination-induced petal senescence.
Project description:BACKGROUND:One of the most popular ornamental plants worldwide, roses (Rosa sp.), are very susceptible to Botrytis gray mold disease. The necrotrophic infection of rose petals by B. cinerea causes the collapse and death of these tissues in both the growth and post-harvest stages, resulting in serious economic losses. To understand the molecular basis of rose resistance against B. cinerea, we profiled the petal transcriptome using RNA-Seq technology. RESULTS:We identified differentially transcribed genes (DTGs) in petals during B. cinerea infection at 30 h post inoculation (hpi) and/or 48 hpi. Gene ontology term enrichment and pathway analyses revealed that metabolic, secondary metabolite biosynthesis, plant-pathogen interaction, and plant hormone signal transduction pathways were involved. The expression of 370 cell-surface immune receptors was upregulated during infection. In addition, 188 genes encoding transcription factors were upregulated, particularly in the ERF, WRKY, bHLH, MYB, and NAC families, implying their involvement in resistance against B. cinerea. We further identified 325 upregulated DTGs in the hormone signal transduction pathways. Among them, the brassinosteroid (BR)-related genes were the most significantly enriched. To confirm the role of BR in Botrytis resistance, exogenous BR was applied to rose flowers before the inoculation of B. cinerea, which enhanced the defense response in these petals. CONCLUSIONS:Our global transcriptome profiling provides insights into the complex gene regulatory networks mediating the rose petal response to B. cinerea. We further demonstrated the role of the phytohormone BR in the resistance of petals to necrotrophic fungal pathogens.
Project description:Protein ubiquitination, which is a major post-translational modifications that occurs in eukaryotic cells, is involved in diverse biological processes. To date, large-scale profiling of the ubiquitome in common wheat has not been reported, despite its status as the major cereal crop in the world. Here, we performed the first ubiquitome analysis of the common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) variety, Aikang 58. Overall, 433 lysine modification sites were identified in 285 proteins in wheat seedlings, and four putative ubiquitination motifs were revealed. In particular, 83 of the 285 ubiquitinated proteins had ubiquitination orthologs in Oryza sativa L., and Arabidopsis thaliana. Ubiquitylated lysines were found to have a significantly different preference for secondary structures when compared with the all lysines. In accordance with previous studies, proteins related to binding and catalytic activity were predicted to be the preferential targets of lysine ubiquitination. Besides, protein interaction network analysis reveals that diverse interactions are modulated by protein ubiquitination. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that the ubiquitinated proteins were involved in diverse biological processes. Our data provides a global view of the ubiquitome in common wheat for the first time and lays a foundation for exploring the physiological role of lysine ubiquitination in wheat and other plants.
Project description:Cysteine proteases play an important role in several developmental processes in plants, particularly those related to senescence and cell death. A cysteine protease gene, RbCP1, has been identified that encodes a putative protein of 357 amino acids and is expressed in the abscission zone (AZ) of petals in rose. The gene was responsive to ethylene in petals, petal abscission zones, leaves, and thalamus. The expression of RbCP1 increased during both ethylene-induced as well as natural abscission and was inhibited by 1-MCP. Transcript accumulation of RbCP1 was accompanied by the appearance of a 37 kDa cysteine protease, a concomitant increase in protease activity and a substantial decrease in total protein content in the AZ of petals. Agro-injection of rose petals with a 2.0 kb region upstream of the RbCP1 gene could drive GUS expression in an abscission zone-specific manner and was blocked by 1-MCP. It is concluded that petal abscission is associated with a decrease in total protein content resulting from rapid transcription of RbCP1 and the expression of a 37 kDa protease.
Project description:Protein ubiquitination is an essential post-translational modification regulating neurodevelopment, synaptic plasticity, learning, and memory, and its dysregulation contributes to the pathogenesis of neurological diseases. Here we report a systematic analysis of ubiquitinated proteome (ubiquitome) in rat brain using a newly developed monoclonal antibody that recognizes the diglycine tag on lysine residues in trypsinized peptides (K-GG peptides). Initial antibody specificity analysis showed that the antibody can distinguish K-GG peptides from linear GG peptides or pseudo K-GG peptides derived from iodoacetamide. To evaluate the false discovery rate of K-GG peptide matches during database search, we introduced a null experiment using bacterial lysate that contains no such peptides. The brain ubiquitome was then analyzed by this antibody enrichment with or without strong cation exchange (SCX) prefractionation. During SCX chromatography, although the vast majority of K-GG peptides were detected in the fractions containing at least three positive charged peptides, specific K-GG peptides with two positive charges (e.g., protein N-terminal acetylated and C-terminal non-K/R peptides) were also identified in early fractions. The reliability of C-terminal K-GG peptides was also extensively investigated. Finally, we collected a data set of 1786 K-GG sites on 2064 peptides in 921 proteins and estimated their abundance by spectral counting. The study reveals a wide range of ubiquitination events on key components in presynaptic region (e.g., Bassoon, NSF, SNAP25, synapsin, synaptotagmin, and syntaxin) and postsynaptic density (e.g., PSD-95, GKAP, CaMKII, as well as receptors for NMDA, AMPA, GABA, serotonin, and acetylcholine). We also determined ubiquitination sites on amyloid precursor protein and alpha synuclein that are thought to be causative agents in Alzhermer's and Parkinson's disorders, respectively. As K-GG peptides can also be produced from Nedd8 or ISG15 modified proteins, we quantified these proteins in the brain and found that their levels are less than 2% of ubiquitin. Together, this study demonstrates that a large number of neuronal proteins are modified by ubiquitination and provides a feasible method for profiling the ubiquitome in the brain.
Project description:The programmed degradation of macromolecules during petal senescence allows the plant to remobilize nutrients from dying to developing tissues. Ethylene is involved in regulating the timing of nucleic acid degradation in petunia, but it is not clear if ethylene has a role in the remobilization of phosphorus during petal senescence. To investigate ethylene's role in nutrient remobilization, the P content of petals (collectively called the corolla) during early development and senescence was compared in ethylene-sensitive wild type Petunia x hybrida 'Mitchell Diploid' (MD) and transgenic petunias with reduced sensitivity to ethylene (35S::etr1-1). When compared to the total P content of corollas on the day of flower opening (the early non-senescing stage), P in MD corollas had decreased 74% by the late stage of senescence (advanced wilting). By contrast, P levels were only reduced by an average of 32% during etr1-1 corolla (lines 44568 and Z00-35-10) senescence. A high-affinity phosphate transporter, PhPT1 (PhPht1;1), was cloned from senescing petunia corollas by RT-PCR. PhPT1 expression was up-regulated during MD corolla senescence and a much smaller increase was detected during the senescence of etr1-1 petunia corollas. PhPT1 mRNA levels showed a rapid increase in detached corollas (treated at 1 d after flower opening) following treatment with low levels of ethylene (0.1 microl l(-1)). Transcripts accumulated in the presence of the protein synthesis inhibitor, cycloheximide, indicating that PhPT1 is a primary ethylene response gene. PhPT1 is a putative phosphate transporter that may function in Pi translocation during senescence.
Project description:Protein ubiquitination, a major and conserved post-translational modification, is known to play a critical regulatory role in many biological processes in eukaryotes. Although several ubiquitinated proteins have been found in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) testis in our previous studies, large-scale profiling of buffalo testis ubiquitome has not been reported to date. In the present study, we first identified a global profiling of lysine ubiquitination of adult buffalo testis using a highly sensitive LC-MS/MS coupled with immune-affinity enrichment of ubiquitinated peptides. In total, 422 lysine ubiquitination sites were identified in 262 proteins in adult buffalo testis tissue. Bioinformatics analysis showed that the ubiquitinated proteins are involved in a variety of biological processes and diverse subcellular localizations. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway and protein interaction network analysis indicated that proteasome, glycolysis/gluconeogenesis and gap junction pathways are modulated by protein ubiquitination in testis. Besides, 44 ubiquitinated proteins may involve in spermatogenesis according to the SpermatogenesisOnline database, of which, the ubiquitination of HSPA2 and UCHL1 were confirmed by Immunoprecipitation (IP)/Western blot analysis. Taken together, these data provide a global view of ubiquitome in buffalo testis for the first time, and serve as an important resource for exploring the physiological role especially spermatogenesis of lysine ubiquitination in testis in mammals.
Project description:Senescence represents the last phase of petal development during which macromolecules and organelles are degraded and nutrients are recycled to developing tissues. To understand better the post-transcriptional changes regulating petal senescence, a proteomic approach was used to profile protein changes during the senescence of Petuniaxhybrida 'Mitchell Diploid' corollas. Total soluble proteins were extracted from unpollinated petunia corollas at 0, 24, 48, and 72 h after flower opening and at 24, 48, and 72 h after pollination. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) was used to identify proteins that were differentially expressed in non-senescing (unpollinated) and senescing (pollinated) corollas, and image analysis was used to determine which proteins were up- or down-regulated by the experimentally determined cut-off of 2.1-fold for P <0.05. One hundred and thirty-three differentially expressed protein spots were selected for sequencing. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was used to determine the identity of these proteins. Searching translated EST databases and the NCBI non-redundant protein database, it was possible to assign a putative identification to greater than 90% of these proteins. Many of the senescence up-regulated proteins were putatively involved in defence and stress responses or macromolecule catabolism. Some proteins, not previously characterized during flower senescence, were identified, including an orthologue of the tomato abscisic acid stress ripening protein 4 (ASR4). Gene expression patterns did not always correlate with protein expression, confirming that both proteomic and genomic approaches will be required to obtain a detailed understanding of the regulation of petal senescence.