Epidemiology of Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in Egyptian intensive care units using National Healthcare-associated Infections Surveillance Data, 2011-2017.
ABSTRACT: Objective:To describe the epidemiology of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) healthcare-associated infections (HAI) in Egyptian hospitals reporting to the national HAI surveillance system. Methods:Design: Descriptive analysis of CRE HAIs and retrospective observational cohort study using national HAI surveillance data. Setting: Egyptian hospitals participating in the HAI surveillance system. The patient population included patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) in participating hospitals. Enterobacteriaceae HAI cases were Klebsiella, Escherichia coli, and Enterobacter isolates from blood, urine, wound or respiratory specimen collected on or after day 3 of ICU admission. CRE HAI cases were those resistant to at least one carbapenem. For CRE HAI cases reported during 2011-2017, a hospital-level and patient-level analysis were conducted using only the first CRE isolate by pathogen and specimen type for each patient. For facility, microbiology, and clinical characteristics, frequencies and means were calculated among CRE HAI cases and compared with carbapenem-susceptible Enterobacteriaceae HAI cases through univariate and multivariate logistic regression using STATA 13. Results:There were 1598 Enterobacteriaceae HAI cases, of which 871 (54.1%) were carbapenem resistant. The multivariate regression analysis demonstrated that carbapenem resistance was associated with specimen type, pathogen, location prior to admission, and length of ICU stay. Between 2011 and 2017, there was an increase in the proportion of Enterobacteriaceae HAI cases due to CRE (p-value?=?0.003) and the incidence of CRE HAIs (p-value?=?0.09). Conclusions:This analysis demonstrated a high and increasing burden of CRE in Egyptian hospitals, highlighting the importance of enhancing infection prevention and control (IPC) programs and antimicrobial stewardship activities and guiding the implementation of targeted IPC measures to contain CRE in Egyptian ICU's .
Project description:There is scarce information regarding hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) among children in resource-constrained settings. This study aims to measure prevalence of HAIs in Vietnamese pediatric hospitals.Monthly point prevalence surveys (PPSs) in 6 pediatric intensive care units (ICUs) in 3 referral hospitals during 1 year.A total of 1363 cases (1143 children) were surveyed, 59.9% male, average age 11 months. Admission sources were: other hospital 49.3%, current hospital 36.5%, and community 15.3%. Reasons for admission were: infectious disease (66%), noninfectious (20.8%), and surgery/trauma (11.3%). Intubation rate was 47.8%, central venous catheter 29.4%, peripheral venous catheter 86.2%, urinary catheter 14.6%, and hemodialysis/filtration 1.7%. HAI was diagnosed in 33.1% of the cases: pneumonia (52.2%), septicemia (26.4%), surgical site infection (2%), and necrotizing enterocolitis (2%). Significant risk factors for HAI included age under 7 months, intubation and infection at admission. Microbiological findings were reported in 212 cases (43%) with 276 isolates: 50 Klebsiella pneumoniae, 46 Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and 39 Acinetobacter baumannii, with carbapenem resistance detected in 55%, 71%, and 65%, respectively. Staphylococcus aureus was cultured in 18 cases, with 81% methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Most children (87.6%) received antibiotics, with an average of 1.6 antibiotics per case. Colistin was administered to 96 patients, 93% with HAI and 49% with culture confirmed carbapenem resistance.The high prevalence of HAI with carbapenem resistant gram-negative strains and common treatment with broad-spectrum antibiotics and colistin suggests that interventions are needed to prevent HAI and to optimize antibiotic use.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Vietnam is a lower middle-income country with no national surveillance system for hospital-acquired infections (HAIs). We assessed the prevalence of hospital-acquired infections and antimicrobial use in adult intensive care units (ICUs) across Vietnam. METHODS:Monthly repeated point prevalence surveys were systematically conducted to assess HAI prevalence and antimicrobial use in 15 adult ICUs across Vietnam. Adults admitted to participating ICUs before 08:00 a.m. on the survey day were included. RESULTS:Among 3287 patients enrolled, the HAI prevalence was 29.5% (965/3266 patients, 21 missing). Pneumonia accounted for 79.4% (804/1012) of HAIs Most HAIs (84.5% [855/1012]) were acquired in the survey hospital with 42.5% (363/855) acquired prior to ICU admission and 57.5% (492/855) developed during ICU admission. In multivariate analysis, the strongest risk factors for HAI acquired in ICU were: intubation (OR 2.76), urinary catheter (OR 2.12), no involvement of a family member in patient care (OR 1.94), and surgery after admission (OR 1.66). 726 bacterial isolates were cultured from 622/1012 HAIs, most frequently Acinetobacter baumannii (177/726 [24.4%]), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (100/726 [13.8%]), and Klebsiella pneumoniae (84/726 [11.6%]), with carbapenem resistance rates of 89.2%, 55.7%, and 14.9% respectively. Antimicrobials were prescribed for 84.8% (2787/3287) patients, with 73.7% of patients receiving two or more. The most common antimicrobial groups were third generation cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, and carbapenems (20.1%, 19.4%, and 14.1% of total antimicrobials, respectively). CONCLUSION:A high prevalence of HAIs was observed, mainly caused by Gram-negative bacteria with high carbapenem resistance rates. This in combination with a high rate of antimicrobial use illustrates the urgent need to improve rational antimicrobial use and infection control efforts.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Studying temporal changes in resistant pathogens causing healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) is crucial in improving local antimicrobial and infection control practices. The objective was to describe ten-year trends of resistance in pathogens causing HAIs in a tertiary care setting in Saudi Arabia and to compare such trends with those of US National Health Surveillance Network (NHSN). METHODS:Pooled analysis of surveillance data that were prospectively collected between 2007 and 2016 in four hospitals of Ministry of National Guard Health Affairs. Definitions and methodology of HAIs and antimicrobial resistance were based on NHSN. Consecutive NHSN reports were used for comparisons. RESULTS:A total 1544 pathogens causing 1531 HAI events were included. Gram negative pathogens (GNP) were responsible for 63% of HAIs, with a significant increasing trend in Klebsiella spp. and a decreasing trend in Acinetobacter. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (27.0%) was consistently less frequent than NHSN. Vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE, 20.3%) were more than doubled during the study, closing the gap with NHSN. Carbapenem resistance was highest with Acinetobacter (68.3%) and Pseudomonas (36.8%). Increasing trends of carbapenem resistance were highest in Pseudomonas and Enterobacteriaceae, closing initial gaps with NHSN. With the exception of Klebsiella and Enterobacter, multidrug-resistant (MDR) GNPs were generally decreasing, mainly due to the decreasing resistance towards cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, and aminoglycosides. CONCLUSION:The findings showed increasing trends of carbapenem resistance and VRE, which may reflect heavy use of carbapenems and vancomycin. These findings may highlight the need for effective antimicrobial stewardship programs, including monitoring and feedback on antimicrobial use and resistance.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:Incidence rates of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) depend upon infection control policy and practices, and the effectiveness of the implementation of antibiotic stewardship. Amongst intensive care unit (ICU) patients with HAIs, a substantial number of pathogens were reported to be multidrug-resistant bacteria (MDRB). However, impacts of ICU HAIs due to MDRB (MDRB-HAIs) remain understudied. Our study aimed to evaluate the negative impacts of MRDB-HAIs versus HAIs due to non-MDRB (non-MRDB-HAIs). METHODS:Among 60,317 adult patients admitted at ICUs of a 2680-bed medical centre in Taiwan between January 2010 and December 2017, 279 pairs of propensity-score matched MRDB-HAI and non-MRDB-HAI were analyzed. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS:Between the MDRB-HAI group and the non-MDRB-HAI group, significant differences were found in overall hospital costs, costs of medical and nursing services, medication, and rooms/beds, and in ICU length-of-stay (LOS). As compared with the non-MDRB-HAI group, the mean of the overall hospital costs of patients in the MDRB-HAI group was increased by 26%; for categorized expenditures, the mean of costs of medical and nursing services of patients in the MDRB-HAI group was increased by 8%, of medication by 26.9%, of rooms/beds by 10.3%. The mean ICU LOS in the MDRB-HAI group was increased by 13%. Mortality rates in both groups did not significantly differ. CONCLUSIONS:These data clearly demonstrate more negative impacts of MDRB-HAIs in ICUs. The quantified financial burdens will be helpful for hospital/government policymakers in allocating resources to mitigate MDRB-HAIs in ICUs; in case of need for clarification/verification of the medico-economic burdens of MDRB-HAIs in different healthcare systems, this study provides a model to facilitate the evaluations.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Available data on antibiotic resistance in sub-Saharan Africa is limited despite its increasing threat to global public health. As there is no previous study on antibiotic resistance in patients with clinical features of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) in Sierra Leone, research is needed to inform public health policies. Our study aimed to assess antibiotic resistance rates from isolates in the urine and sputum samples of patients with clinical features of HAIs. METHODOLOGY:We conducted a cross-sectional study of adult inpatients aged ?18?years at Connaught Hospital, an urban tertiary care hospital in Freetown between February and June 2018. RESULTS:Over the course of the study, we enrolled 164 patients. Risk factors for HAIs were previous antibiotic use (93.3%), comorbidities (58.5%) and age (?65?years) (23.9%). Of the 164 samples, 89.6% were urine. Bacterial growth was recorded in 58.8% of cultured specimens; the type of specimen was an independent predictor of bacterial growth (p?<?0.021). The most common isolates were Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae; 29.2% and 19.0% in urine samples and 18.8% and 31.3% in sputum samples, respectively. The overall resistance rates were 58% for all extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing organisms, 13.4% for carbapenem-resistant non-lactose fermenting gram-negative bacilli, 8.7% for carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) and 1.3% for carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE). There were no carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa (CRPA) isolates but all Staphylococcus aureus isolates were methicillin-resistant S. aureus. CONCLUSION:We demonstrated a high prevalence rate of ESBL-producing organisms which are a significant burden at the main tertiary hospital in Sierra Leone. Urgent action is needed to strengthen microbiological diagnostic infrastructure, initiate surveillance on antibiotic resistance and develop and implement policy framework on antibiotic stewardship.
Project description:Carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) infection is a rising public health threat since its first outbreaks in New York City (NYC) in the early 2000s. We investigated annual trends of CRKP infection in hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) and community-onset infections (COIs) treated in 3 NYC hospitals from 2006 to 2014.We extracted K pneumoniae infection data including carbapenem susceptibility and anatomical sites, compared clinical characteristics between CRKP and carbapenem-susceptible K pneumoniae infections, and determined CRKP infection proportions in total K pneumoniae infections in HAI and COI to identify statistically significant trends from 2006 to 2014 using the Cochran-Armitage trend test.Carbapenem-resistant K pneumoniae contributed 17.3% (601 of 3477) of hospital-acquired K pneumoniae infection compared with 7.7% (149 of 1926) in COI from 2006 to 2014. Carbapenem-resistant K pneumoniae proportions in HAI and COI were positively correlated over time (r = 0.83, P < .01), and there were downward annual trends of CRKP proportions from 2006 to 2014 in both HAI and COI (25.8% to 10.5% in HAI, P < .001; 13.6% to 3.1% in COI, P < .001). By anatomical site, significant downward annual trends were present only in urinary tract infection (P < .001 for both HAI and COI) from 2006 to 2014.Annual trends of CRKP proportions from 2006 to 2014 were downward in both HAI and COI, and HAI and COI were positively correlated. Efforts to reduce and prevent CRKP infections in both hospital and community settings were successful and warrant continuation.
Project description:The impact of infection prevention and control (IPC) programs in limited resource countries such as Russia are largely unknown due to a lack of reliable data. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of an IPC program with respect to healthcare associated infection (HAI) prevention and to define the incidence of HAIs in a Russian ICU.A pioneering IPC program was implemented in a neuro-ICU at Burdenko Neurosurgery Institute in 2010 and included hand hygiene, surveillance, contact precautions, patient isolation, and environmental cleaning measures. This prospective observational cohort study lasted from 2011 to 2016, included high-risk ICU patients, and evaluated the dynamics of incidence, etiological spectrum, and resistance profile of four types of HAIs, including subgroup analysis of device-associated infections. Survival analysis compared patients with and without HAIs.We included 2038 high-risk patients. By 2016, HAI cumulative incidence decreased significantly for respiratory HAIs (36.1% vs. 24.5%, p-value?=?0.0003), urinary-tract HAIs (29.1% vs. 21.3%, p-value?=?0.0006), and healthcare-associated ventriculitis and meningitis (HAVM) (16% vs. 7.8%, p-value?=?0.004). The incidence rate of EVD-related HAVM dropped from 22.2 to 13.5 cases per 1000 EVD-days. The proportion of invasive isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Acinetobacter baumannii resistant to carbapenems decreased 1.7 and 2 fold, respectively. HAVM significantly impaired survival and independently increasing the probability of death by 1.43.The implementation of an evidence-based IPC program in a middle-income country (Russia) was highly effective in HAI prevention with meaningful reductions in antibiotic resistance.
Project description:To examine the effect of mandated state health care-associated infection (HAI) reporting laws on central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) rates in adult intensive care units (ICUs).We analyzed 2006-2012 adult ICU CLABSI and hospital annual survey data from the National Healthcare Safety Network. The final analytic sample included 244 hospitals, 947 hospital years, 475 ICUs, 1,902 ICU years, and 16,996 ICU months.We used a quasi-experimental study design to identify the effect of state mandatory reporting laws. Several secondary models were conducted to explore potential explanations for the plausible effects of HAI laws.Controlling for the overall time trend, ICUs in states with laws had lower CLABSI rates beginning approximately 6 months prior to the law's effective date (incidence rate ratio = 0.66; p < .001); this effect persisted for more than 6 1/2 years after the law's effective date. These findings were robust in secondary models and are likely to be attributed to changes in central line usage and/or resources dedicated to infection control.Our results provide valuable evidence that state reporting requirements for HAIs improved care. Additional studies are needed to further explore why and how mandatory HAI reporting laws decreased CLABSI rates.
Project description:Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) are adverse complications of hospitalisation resulting in delayed recovery and increased costs. The aim of this study was an analysis of epidemiological factors obtained in the framework of constant, comprehensive (hospital-wide) infection registration, and identification of priorities and needs in infection control, both with regard to targeted surveillance, as well as preventative actions. The study was carried out according to the methodology recommended by the HAI-Net (Surveillance Network) coordinated by the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, in the multiprofile hospital in Southern Poland, between 2012 and 2016. A total of 159,028 patients were under observation and 2184 HAIs were detected. The incidence was 1.4/100 admissions (2.7/1000 patient-das of hospitalisation) and significantly differed depending on the type of the patient care: in intensive care units (ICU) 16.9%; in surgical units, 1.3%; non-surgical units, 1.0%; and paediatric units, 1.8%. The most common HAI was gastrointestinal infections (GIs, 28.9%), followed by surgical site infections (SSIs, 23.0%) and bloodstream infections (BSIs, 16.1%). The vast majority of GIs, BSIs, urinary tract infections, and incidents of pneumonia (PN) were detected in non-ICUs. As many as 33.2% of cases of HAI were not confirmed microbiologically. The most frequently detected etiologic agent of infections was Clostridium difficile-globally and in GI (49%). Comprehensive analysis of the results allowed to identify important elements of surveillance of infections, i.e., surveillance of GI, PN, and BSI not only in ICU, but also in non-ICU wards, indicating a need for implementing rapid actions to improve compliance with HAI prevention procedures.
Project description:Due to therapeutic challenges, hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) caused by Acinetobacter baumannii (HA-AB), particularly carbapenem-resistant strains (HA-CRAB) pose a serious health threat to patients worldwide. This systematic review sought to summarize recent data on the incidence and prevalence of HA-AB and HA-CRAB infections in the WHO-defined regions of Europe (EUR), Eastern Mediterranean (EMR) and Africa (AFR). A comprehensive literature search was performed using MEDLINE, EMBASE and GMI databases (01/2014-02/2019). Random-effects meta-analyses were performed to determine the pooled incidence of HA-AB and HA-CRAB infections as well as the proportions of A. baumannii among all HAIs. 24 studies from 3,340 records were included in this review (EUR: 16, EMR: 6, AFR: 2). The pooled estimates of incidence and incidence density of HA-AB infection in intensive care units (ICUs) were 56.5 (95% CI 33.9-92.8) cases per 1,000 patients and 4.4 (95% CI 2.9-6.6) cases per 1,000 patient days, respectively. Five studies conducted at a hospital-wide level or in specialized clinical departments/wards (ICU + non-ICU patients) showed HA-AB incidences between 0.85 and 5.6 cases per 1,000 patients. For carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii infections in ICUs, the pooled incidence and incidence density were 41.7 (95% CI 21.6-78.7) cases per 1,000 patients and 2.1 (95% CI 1.2-3.7) cases per 1,000 patient days, respectively. In ICUs, A. baumannii and carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii strains accounted for 20.9% (95% CI 16.5-26.2%) and 13.6% (95% CI 9.7-18.7%) of all HAIs, respectively. Our study highlights the persistent clinical significance of hospital-acquired A. baumannii infections in the studied WHO regions, particularly in ICUs.