Molecular dynamics study of membrane permeabilization by wild-type and mutant lytic peptides from the non-enveloped Flock House virus.
ABSTRACT: Flock House virus (FHV) serves as a model system for understanding infection mechanisms utilized by non-enveloped viruses to transport across cellular membranes. During the infection cycle of FHV, a fundamental stage involves disruption of the endosomal membrane by membrane active peptides, following externalization of the peptides from the capsid interior. The FHV lytic agents are the 44 C-terminal amino acids residues of the capsid protein, which are auto-catalytically cleaved during the capsid maturation process. The cleaved peptides are termed ? peptides. In this study, we perform multi-scale molecular dynamics simulations including 40??s all-atom molecular dynamics simulations to study the behavior of pre-inserted transmembrane lytic peptides at a high concentration in a neutral membrane. We study the dynamical organization among peptides to form oligomeric bundles in four systems including the wild-type ? peptide and three mutant forms; namely, a truncation mutant in which the 23 C-terminal residues are deleted (?1), a construct where the 8 C-terminal residues of ? are fused to ?1 (?385-399 ?) and a single-point mutant (F402A ?), all of which have been experimentally shown to drastically affect infectivity and lytic activity compared to the wild-type ?. Our results shed light on the actions of varied forms of the FHV lytic peptide including membrane insertion, trans-membrane stability, peptide oligomerization, water permeation activity and dynamic pore formation. Findings from this study provide detailed structural information and rationale for the differences in lytic activity among variants of FHV ?.
Project description:Using a combination of coarse-grained and atomistic molecular dynamics simulations we have investigated the membrane binding and folding properties of the membrane lytic peptide of Flock House virus (FHV). FHV is an animal virus and an excellent model system for studying cell entry mechanisms in non-enveloped viruses. FHV undergoes a maturation event where the 44 C-terminal amino acids are cleaved from the major capsid protein, forming the membrane lytic (?) peptides. Under acidic conditions, ? is released from the capsid interior allowing the peptides to bind and disrupt membranes. The first 21 N-terminal residues of ?, termed ?1, have been resolved in the FHV capsid structure and ?1 has been the subject of in vitro studies. ?1 is structurally dynamic as it adopts helical secondary structure inside the capsid and on membranes, but it is disordered in solution. In vitro studies have shown the binding free energies to POPC or POPG membranes are nearly equivalent, but binding to POPC is enthalpically driven, while POPG binding is entropically driven. Through coarse-grained and multiple microsecond all-atom simulations the membrane binding and folding properties of ?1 are investigated against homogeneous and heterogeneous bilayers to elucidate the dependence of the microenvironment on the structural properties of ?1. Our studies provide a rationale for the thermodynamic data and suggest binding of ?1 to POPG bilayers occurs in a disordered state, but ?1 must adopt a helical conformation when binding POPC bilayers.
Project description:Flock House virus (FHV) is a well-characterized model system to study infection mechanisms in non-enveloped viruses. A key stage of the infection cycle is the disruption of the endosomal membrane by a component of the FHV capsid, the membrane active ? peptide. In this study, we perform all-atom molecular dynamics simulations of the 21 N-terminal residues of the ? peptide interacting with membranes of differing compositions. We carry out umbrella sampling calculations to study the folding of the peptide to a helical state in homogenous and heterogeneous membranes consisting of neutral and anionic lipids. From the trajectory data, we evaluate folding energetics and dissect the mechanism of folding in the different membrane environments. We conclude the study by analyzing the extent of configurational sampling by performing time-lagged independent component analysis.
Project description:Nonenveloped viruses often invade membranes by exposing hydrophobic or amphipathic peptides generated by a proteolytic maturation step that leaves a lytic peptide noncovalently associated with the viral capsid. Since multiple copies of the same protein form many nonenveloped virus capsids, it is unclear if lytic peptides derived from subunits occupying different positions in a quasi-equivalent icosahedral capsid play different roles in host infection. We addressed this question with Nudaurelia capensis omega virus (N?V), an insect RNA virus with an icosahedral capsid formed by protein ?, which undergoes autocleavage during maturation, producing the lytic ? peptide. N?V is a unique model because autocatalysis can be precisely initiated in vitro and is sufficiently slow to correlate lytic activity with ? peptide production. Using liposome-based assays, we observed that autocatalysis is essential for the potent membrane disruption caused by N?V. We observed that lytic activity is acquired rapidly during the maturation program, reaching 100% activity with less than 50% of the subunits cleaved. Previous time-resolved structural studies of partially mature N?V particles showed that, during this time frame, ? peptides derived from the pentamer subunits are produced and are organized in a vertical helical bundle that is projected toward the particle surface, while identical polypeptides in quasi-equivalent subunits are produced later or are in positions inappropriate for release. Our functional data provide experimental support for the hypothesis that pentamers containing a central helical bundle, observed in different nonenveloped virus families, are a specialized lytic motif.
Project description:Divalent metal ions are components of numerous icosahedral virus capsids. Flock House virus (FHV), a small RNA virus of the family Nodaviridae, was utilized as an accessible model system with which to address the effects of metal ions on capsid structure and on the biology of virus-host interactions. Mutations at the calcium-binding sites affected FHV capsid stability and drastically reduced virus infectivity, without altering the overall architecture of the capsid. The mutations also altered the conformation of gamma, a membrane-disrupting, virus-encoded peptide usually sequestered inside the capsid, by increasing its exposure under neutral pH conditions. Our data demonstrate that calcium binding is essential for maintaining a pH-based control on gamma exposure and host membrane disruption, and they reveal a novel rationale for the metal ion requirement during virus entry and infectivity. In the light of the phenotypes displayed by a calcium site mutant of FHV, we suggest that this mutant corresponds to an early entry intermediate formed in the endosomal pathway.
Project description:A strategy for the high-throughput screening of a peptide nucleic acid (PNA) encoded peptide library to allow the identification of MRSA and MSSA selective peptides including AMPs. This novel screening approach allows simultaneous screening of cell selective peptides with different uptake mechanisms including lytic peptides and non-lytic CPPs. MRSA and MSSA were incubated with Library-18 (50 uM; corresponding to 39 nM of each library member) under short incubation times (30 min) to ensure collection of both live and apoptotic cells, which allowed selection of lytic peptides as well as non-lytic CPPs. Incubation was followed by washing and lysis and the intracellular and membrane associated library members were extracted and purified by filter centrifugation (between 3,000 and 10,000 Da). The extracted PNA tags were hybridized onto custom designed microarrays. Each microarray consisted of 4 sub-arrays of 44,000 features each with 33 replicates of each oligonucleotide complementary to each member of the library as well as 1232 non-coding negative controls. Microarray scanning and data analysis (BlueFuse, BlueGenome) was used to extract the intensity of the FAM label, thereby giving the relative amount of PNA hybridized to each spot and the identity of the peptide.
Project description:Mature human adenovirus particles contain four minor capsid proteins, in addition to the three major capsid proteins (penton base, hexon and fiber) and several proteins associated with the genomic core of the virion. Of the minor capsid proteins, VI plays several crucial roles in the infection cycle of the virus, including hexon nuclear targeting during assembly, activation of the adenovirus proteinase (AVP) during maturation and endosome escape following cell entry. VI is translated as a precursor (pVI) that is cleaved at both N- and C-termini by AVP. Whereas the role of the C-terminal fragment of pVI, pVIc, is well established as an important co-factor of AVP, the role of the N-terminal fragment, pVIn, is currently elusive. In fact, the fate of pVIn following proteolytic cleavage is completely unknown. Here, we use a combination of proteomics-based peptide identification, native mass spectrometry and hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry to show that pVIn is associated with mature human adenovirus, where it binds at the base of peripentonal hexons in a pH-dependent manner. Our findings suggest a possible role for pVIn in targeting pVI to hexons for proper assembly of the virion and timely release of the membrane lytic mature VI molecule.
Project description:Adenovirus cement proteins play crucial roles in virion assembly, disassembly, cell entry, and infection. Based on a refined crystal structure of the adenovirus virion at 3.8-Å resolution, we have determined the structures of all of the cement proteins (IIIa, VI, VIII, and IX) and their organization in two distinct layers. We have significantly revised the recent cryoelectron microscopy models for proteins IIIa and IX and show that both are located on the capsid exterior. Together, the cement proteins exclusively stabilize the hexon shell, thus rendering penton vertices the weakest links of the adenovirus capsid. We describe, for the first time to our knowledge, the structure of protein VI, a key membrane-lytic molecule, and unveil its associations with VIII and core protein V, which together glue peripentonal hexons beneath the vertex region and connect them to the rest of the capsid on the interior. Following virion maturation, the cleaved N-terminal propeptide of VI is observed, reaching deep into the peripentonal hexon cavity, detached from the membrane-lytic domain, so that the latter can be released. Our results thus provide the molecular basis for the requirement of maturation cleavage of protein VI. This process is essential for untethering and release of the membrane-lytic region, which is known to mediate endosome rupture and delivery of partially disassembled virions into the host cell cytoplasm.
Project description:Arginine-rich cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs), including human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Tat (48-60) and oligoarginines, have been applied as carriers for delivery of cargo molecules, because of their capacity to internalize into cells and penetrate biological membranes. Despite the fact that they have been extensively studied, the factors required for the efficient internalization of CPPs are still unclear. In this report, we evaluated the internalization efficiencies of seven CPPs derived from DNA/RNA-binding peptides, and discovered that a peptide derived from the flock house virus (FHV) coat protein was internalized most efficiently into Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1), HeLa, and Jurkat cells. Comparison of the factors facilitating the internalization with those of the Tat peptide revealed that the FHV peptide induces macropinocytosis much more efficiently than the Tat peptide, which leads to its high cellular uptake efficiency. Additionally, the strong adsorption of the FHV peptide on cell membranes via glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) was shown to be a key factor for induction of macropinocytosis, and these steps were successfully monitored by live imaging of the peptide internalization into cells in relation to the actin organization. The remarkable methods of FHV peptide internalization thus highlighted the critical factors for internalizations of the arginine-rich CPPs.
Project description:Adenovirus (Ad) membrane penetration during cell entry is poorly understood. Here we show that antibodies which neutralize the membrane lytic activity of the Ad capsid protein VI interfere with Ad endosomal membrane penetration. In vitro studies using a peptide corresponding to an N-terminal amphipathic alpha-helix of protein VI (VI-Phi), as well as other truncated forms of protein VI suggest that VI-Phi is largely responsible for protein VI binding to and lysing of membranes. Additional studies suggest that VI-Phi lies nearly parallel to the membrane surface. Protein VI fragments membranes and induces highly curved structures. Further studies suggest that protein VI induces positive membrane curvature. These data support a model in which protein VI binds membranes, inducing positive curvature strain which ultimately leads to membrane fragmentation. These results agree with previous observations of Ad membrane permeabilization during cell entry and provide an initial mechanistic description of a nonenveloped virus membrane lytic protein.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) is a small, non-enveloped DNA virus causing swine lymphocyte depletion and severe impact on the swine industry. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antigenicity and immunogenicity of specific peptides, and seeking the potential candidate of PCV2 peptide-based vaccine. It's initiating from peptides reacting with PCV2-infected pig sera and peptide-immunized mouse sera. RESULTS:The data showed that the sera from PCV2-infected pigs could react with the N-terminal (C1), middle region (C2), and C-terminal peptide (C3) of PCV2 capsid protein (CP), ORF3 protein (N1), ORF6 protein (N2) and ORF9 protein (N3). This study demonstrated that anti-PCV2 mouse antisera could be generated by specific synthetic peptides (C3 and N2) and recognized PCV2 viral protein. We found that the tertiary or linear form C-terminal sequence (C3) of PCV2 capsid peptide only appeared a local distribution in the nucleus of PCV2-infected PK cells, virus-like particles of PCV2 major appeared a local distribution in the cytoplasm, and ORF 6 protein of PCV2 were shown unusually in cytoplasm. Furthermore, most residues of the C1 and the C3 were presented on the surface of PCV2 CP, in the view of 3-D structure of the CP. Our data demonstrated that PCV2-infected pigs had higher OD405 value of anti-C3 IgG on Day 1, Month 3 and Month 6 than in Month 1. These pigs had higher anti-C3 IgM level in Month 3 and Month 6 than on Day 1 (P?<?0.01). CONCLUSIONS:We demonstrated that the key peptide (C3) mimic the C-terminal of PCV2 capsid protein which were capable of inducing antibodies. The specific antibody against the C3 were confirmed as the serological marker in PCV2-infected pigs.