Inhibitory Effect of ?-Carotene on Helicobacter pylori-Induced TRAF Expression and Hyper-Proliferation in Gastric Epithelial Cells.
ABSTRACT: Helicobacter pylori infection causes the hyper-proliferation of gastric epithelial cells that leads to the development of gastric cancer. Overexpression of tumor necrosis factor receptor associated factor (TRAF) is shown in gastric cancer cells. The dietary antioxidant ?-carotene has been shown to counter hyper-proliferation in H. pylori-infected gastric epithelial cells. The present study was carried out to examine the ?-carotene mechanism of action. We first showed that H. pylori infection decreases cellular IB? levels while increasing cell viability, NADPH oxidase activity, reactive oxygen species production, nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-B) activation, and TRAF1 and TRAF2 gene expression, as well as protein-protein interaction in gastric epithelial AGS cells. We then demonstrated that pretreatment of cells with ?-carotene significantly attenuates these effects. Our findings support the proposal that ?-carotene has anti-cancer activity by reducing NADPH oxidase-mediated production of ROS, NF-B activation and NF-B-regulated TRAF1 and TRAF2 gene expression, and hyper-proliferation in AGS cells. We suggest that the consumption of ?-carotene-enriched foods could decrease the incidence of H. pylori-associated gastric disorders.
Project description:Background:CHIP is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that plays contrast roles in diverse human malignancies, depending on its targets. To date, the mechanisms underlying the function of CHIP in gastric cancer remains unclear. Here, we aim to further clarify the effects of CHIP on the development and progression of gastric cancer and explore its potential target. Methods:Stably transfected CHIP-shRNA and TRAF2-shRNA AGS gastric cancer cell lines were established using Lipofectamine 2000. Cell growth was measured by an xCelligence real-time monitoring system and colony formation assay. Cell proliferation was detected using CCK-8, Ki-67, or CFSE assays. Apoptosis was detected by TUNEL assay or Annexin V/PI-staining followed by flow cytometric analysis. Cell cycle distribution was detected by PI-staining followed by flow cytometric analysis. Cell migration and invasion abilities were measured by a real-time xCelligence system, Transwell insert, and scratch assays. The expression of cell cycle-related proteins, apoptosis-related proteins, AKT, ERK, NF-κB signaling subunits, MMP2, MMP9, and Integrin β-1 were detected by Western blotting analysis. NF-κB DNA-binding capability was quantified using an ELISA-based NF-κB activity assay. Gastric cancer tissue microarray was analyzed to investigate the expression of both CHIP and TRAF2, and their clinical significance. Results:The CHIP-silencing in the AGS cells was oncogenic evidenced by the appearance of capable of anchorage-independent growth. The CHIP-silencing significantly enhanced the AGS cell proliferation capability likely due to the induced phosphorylation of ERK. The CHIP-silencing significantly inhibited apoptosis due to increased expression of Bcl-2. The CHIP-silencing promoted the AGS cell migration and invasion abilities, likely by regulating the expression of Integrin β-1. TRAF2 expression was markedly decreased in the CHIP-overexpressing cells at protein level, but not at mRNA level. The TRAF2-silencing markedly inhibited the proliferation ability of the AGS cells, the defected cell proliferation and enhanced apoptosis were involved in. The TRAF2-silencing also attenuated the cell migration and invasion capacities of the AGS cells. Furthermore, the expression of CHIP was downregulated while the expression of TRAF2 was upregulated in gastric cancer tissues. TRAF2 expression is independent prognostic factors of gastric cancer. The expression of CHIP and TRAF2 was negatively correlated in the gastric cancer tissue. Lower CHIP or higher TRAF2 was significantly linked to shorter overall survival in gastric cancer patients. Conclusions:TRAF2 influenced diverse aspects of cellular behavior of gastric cancer cells, including cell growth, migration, and invasion, which was in contrast to the functions of CHIP. TRAF2 could be considered as an independent prognostic factor in gastric cancer patients. It is possible that TRAF2 was a substrate of CHIP and CHIP regulated the TRAF2/NF-κB axis, which modulated diverse cellular behaviors in the AGS gastric cancer cells.
Project description:Hyperproliferation and oncogene expression are observed in the mucosa of Helicobacter pylori- (H. pylori-) infected patients with gastritis or adenocarcinoma. Expression of oncogenes such as ?-catenin and c-myc is related to oxidative stress. ?-Lipoic acid (?-LA), a naturally occurring thiol compound, acts as an antioxidant and has an anticancer effect. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of ?-LA on H. pylori-induced hyperproliferation and oncogene expression in gastric epithelial AGS cells by determining cell proliferation (viable cell numbers, thymidine incorporation), levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), NADPH oxidase activation (enzyme activity, subcellular levels of NADPH oxidase subunits), activation of redox-sensitive transcription factors (NF-?B, AP-1), expression of oncogenes (?-catenin, c-myc), and nuclear localization of ?-catenin. Furthermore, we examined whether NADPH oxidase mediates oncogene expression and hyperproliferation in H. pylori-infected AGS cells using treatment of diphenyleneiodonium (DPI), an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase. As a result, ?-LA inhibited the activation of NADPH oxidase and, thus, reduced ROS production, resulting in inhibition on activation of NF-?B and AP-1, induction of oncogenes, nuclear translocation of ?-catenin, and hyperproliferation in H. pylori-infected AGS cells. DPI inhibited H. pylori-induced activation of NF-?B and AP-1, oncogene expression and hyperproliferation by reducing ROS levels in AGS cells. In conclusion, we propose that inhibiting NADPH oxidase by ?-LA could prevent oncogene expression and hyperproliferation occurring in H. pylori-infected gastric epithelial cells.
Project description:Helicobacter pylori infection of the gastric mucosa causes an active-chronic inflammation that is strongly linked to the development of duodenal and gastric ulcers and stomach cancer. However, greater than 80% of individuals infected with H. pylori are asymptomatic beyond histologic inflammation, and it is unknown what factors influence the incidence and character of bacterial-associated gastritis and related disorders. Because previous studies demonstrated that the Muc1 epithelial glycoprotein inhibited inflammation during acute lung infection by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, we asked whether Muc1 might also counter-regulate gastric inflammation in response to H. pylori infection. Muc1(-/-) mice displayed increased bacterial colonization of the stomach and greater TNF-alpha and keratinocyte chemoattractant transcript levels compared with Muc1(+/+) mice after experimental H. pylori infection. Knockdown of Muc1 expression in AGS human gastric epithelial cells by RNA interference was associated with increased phosphorylation of IkappaBalpha, augmented activation and nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB, and enhanced production of interleulin-8 compared with Muc1-expressing cells. Conversely, Muc1 overexpression was correlated with decreased NF-kappaB activation, reduced interleulin-8 production, and diminished IkappaB kinase beta (IKKbeta)/IKKgamma coimmunoprecipitation compared with cells expressing Muc1 endogenously. Cotransfection of AGS cells with Muc1 plus IKKbeta, but not a catalytically inactive IKKbeta mutant, reversed the Muc1 inhibitory effect. Finally, Muc1 formed a coimmunoprecipitation complex with IKKgamma but not with IKKbeta. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that Muc1 binds to IKKgamma, thereby inhibiting formation of the catalytically active IKK complex and blocking the ability of H. pylori to stimulate IkappaBalpha phosphorylation, NF-kappaB activation, and downstream inflammatory responses.
Project description:I-kappa B kinase 2 (IKK2 or IKK-beta) is one of the most crucial signaling kinases for activation of NF-kappa B, a transcription factor that is important for inflammation, cell survival and differentiation. Since many NF-kappa B activating pathways converge at the level of IKK2, molecular interactions of this kinase are pivotal for regulation of NF-kappa B signaling.We searched for proteins interacting with IKK2 using the C-terminal part (amino acids 466-756) as bait in a yeast two-hybrid system and identified the N-terminal part (amino acids 1-228) of the TNF-receptor associated factor TRAF1 as putative interaction partner. The interaction was confirmed in human cells by mammalian two-hybrid and coimmunoprecipitation experiments. The IKK2/TRAF1 interaction seemed weaker than the interaction between TRAF1 and TRAF2, an important activating adapter molecule of NF-kappa B signaling. Reporter gene and kinase assays using ectopic expression of TRAF1 indicated that it can both activate and inhibit IKK2 and NF-kappa B. Co-expression of fluorescently tagged TRAF1 and TRAF2 at different ratios implied that TRAF1 can affect clustering and presumably the activating function of TRAF2 in a dose dependent manner.The observation that TRAF1 can either activate or inhibit the NF-kappa B pathway and the fact that it influences the oligomerization of TRAF2 indicates that relative levels of IKK2, TRAF1 and TRAF2 may be important for regulation of NF-kappa B activity. Since TRAF1 is an NF-kappa B induced gene, it might act as a feedback effector molecule.
Project description:Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is the strongest known risk factor for gastric carcinogenesis. One cancer-linked locus is the cag pathogenicity island, which translocates components of peptidoglycan into host cells. NOD1 is an intracellular immune receptor that senses peptidoglycan from Gram-negative bacteria and responds by inducing autophagy and activating NF-?B, leading to inflammation-mediated bacterial clearance; however chronic pathogens can evade NOD1-mediated clearance by altering peptidoglycan structure. We previously demonstrated that the H. pylori cag(+) strain 7.13 rapidly induces gastric cancer in Mongolian gerbils. Using 2D-DIGE and mass spectrometry, we identified a novel mutation within the gene encoding the peptidoglycan deacetylase PgdA; therefore, we sought to define the role of H. pylori PgdA in NOD1-dependent activation of NF-?B, inflammation, and cancer. Coculture of H. pylori strain 7.13 or its pgdA(-) isogenic mutant with AGS gastric epithelial cells or HEK293 epithelial cells expressing a NF-?B reporter revealed that pgdA inactivation significantly decreased NOD1-dependent NF-?B activation and autophagy. Infection of Mongolian gerbils with an H. pylori pgdA(-) mutant strain led to significantly decreased levels of inflammation and malignant lesions in the stomach; however, preactivation of NOD1 before bacterial challenge reciprocally suppressed inflammation and cancer in response to wild-type H. pylori. Expression of NOD1 differs in human gastric cancer specimens compared with noncancer samples harvested from the same patients. These results indicate that peptidoglycan deacetylation plays an important role in modulating host inflammatory responses to H. pylori, allowing the bacteria to persist and induce carcinogenic consequences in the gastric niche.
Project description:TRAF1/2 and cIAP1/2 are members of the TNF receptor-associated factor (TRAF) and the inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) families, respectively. They are critical for canonical and noncanonical NF-kappaB signaling pathways. Here, we report the crystal structures of the TRAF2: cIAP2 and the TRAF1: TRAF2: cIAP2 complexes. A TRAF2 trimer interacts with one cIAP2 both in the crystal and in solution. Two chains of the TRAF2 trimer directly contact cIAP2, and key residues at the interface are confirmed by mutagenesis. TRAF1 and TRAF2 preferentially form the TRAF1: (TRAF2)(2) heterotrimer, which interacts with cIAP2 more strongly than TRAF2 alone. In contrast, TRAF1 alone interacts very weakly with cIAP2. Surprisingly, TRAF1 and one chain of TRAF2 in the TRAF1: (TRAF2)(2): cIAP2 ternary complex mediate interaction with cIAP2. Because TRAF1 is upregulated by many stimuli, it may modulate the interaction of TRAF2 with cIAP1/2, which explains regulatory roles of TRAF1 in TNF signaling.
Project description:Helicobacter pylori is a Gram-negative bacterium that infects the human gastric mucosa and causes various gastric diseases. H. pylori infection induces the production of inflammatory chemokine CCL20 in gastric mucosa and leads to gastric inflammation. Given that the IL-22/IL-22R axis plays a critical role in the regulation of homeostasis and inflammation of epithelial cells at barrier surfaces, we investigated the effect of IL-22 on CCL20 expression induced by H. pylori. We demonstrated that H. pylori infection of the gastric epithelia-derived AGS cells significantly induced CCL20 expression and the induction was inhibited by IL-22. Functional analysis of the CCL20 promoter revealed that the H. pylori-induced CCL20 expression required the activation of NF-?B, and that IL-22 inhibited the induction by attenuating NF-?B activation. Knockdown of endogenous STAT3 by either short interfering RNAs or a short hairpin RNA significantly reduced the inhibitory effect of IL-22. Furthermore, STAT3 phosphorylation elicited by IL-22 was crucial for the inhibition of H. pylori-induced CCL20 expression. Consistent with the in vitro data showing that IL-22 negatively regulated H. pylori-induced CCL20 expression in gastric epithelial cells, studies on the tissue sections from patients with H. pylori infection also revealed an inverse association of IL-22 expression and CCL20 expression in vivo. Together, our findings suggest that IL-22 plays a role in the control of overproduction of the inflammatory chemokine and thus may protect the gastric mucosa from inflammation-mediated damage.
Project description:Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)4 is a mesenchymal peptide that regulates cells of the gastric epithelium. We investigated whether BMP signaling pathways affect gastric inflammation after bacterial infection of mice.We studied transgenic mice that express either the BMP inhibitor noggin or the ?- galactosidase gene under the control of a BMP-responsive element and BMP4(?gal/+) mice. Gastric inflammation was induced by infection of mice with either Helicobacter pylori or Helicobacter felis. Eight to 12 weeks after inoculation, gastric tissue samples were collected and immunohistochemical, quantitative, reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and immunoblot analyses were performed. We used enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays to measure cytokine levels in supernatants from cultures of mouse splenocytes and dendritic cells, as well as from human gastric epithelial cells (AGS cell line). We also measured the effects of BMP-2, BMP-4, BMP-7, and the BMP inhibitor LDN-193189 on the expression of interleukin (IL)8 messenger RNA by AGS cells and primary cultures of canine parietal and mucus cells. The effect of BMP-4 on NFkB activation in parietal and AGS cells was examined by immunoblot and luciferase assays.Transgenic expression of noggin in mice increased H pylori- or H felis-induced inflammation and epithelial cell proliferation, accelerated the development of dysplasia, and increased expression of the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 and activation-induced cytidine deaminase. BMP-4 was expressed in mesenchymal cells that expressed ?-smooth muscle actin and activated BMP signaling pathways in the gastric epithelium. Neither BMP-4 expression nor BMP signaling were detected in immune cells of C57BL/6, BRE-?-galactosidase, or BMP-4(?gal/+) mice. Incubation of dendritic cells or splenocytes with BMP-4 did not affect lipopolysaccharide-stimulated production of cytokines. BMP-4, BMP-2, and BMP-7 inhibited basal and tumor necrosis factor ?-stimulated expression of IL8 in canine gastric epithelial cells. LDN-193189 prevented BMP4-mediated inhibition of basal and tumor necrosis factor ?-stimulated expression of IL8 in AGS cells. BMP-4 had no effect on TNF?-stimulated phosphorylation and degradation of I?B?, or on TNF? induction of a NF?? reporter gene.BMP signaling reduces inflammation and inhibits dysplastic changes in the gastric mucosa after infection of mice with H pylori or H felis.
Project description:Infection with Helicobacter pylori is known to decrease the level of glutathione in gastric epithelial cells and increase the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which can lead to DNA damage and the development of gastric cancer. Cation transport regulator 1 (CHAC1) has ?-glutamylcyclotransferase activity that degrades glutathione. We found that cagA-positive H. pylori infection triggered CHAC1 overexpression in human gastric epithelial (AGS) cells leading to glutathione degradation and the accumulation of ROS. Nucleotide alterations in the TP53 tumour suppressor gene were induced in AGS cells overexpressing CHAC1, whereas no mutations were detected in cells overexpressing a catalytically inactive mutant of CHAC1. A high frequency of TP53 mutations occurred in H. pylori-infected AGS cells, but this was prevented in cells transfected with CHAC1 siRNA. These findings indicate that H. pylori-mediated CHAC1 overexpression degrades intracellular glutathione, allowing the accumulation of ROS which subsequently causes mutations that could contribute to the development of gastric cancer.
Project description:H. pylori infection of human gastric epithelial cells (GEC) represses H,K-ATPase alpha subunit (HK-alpha) gene transcription through NF-Kappa B p50 homodimer binding to HK-alpha promoter. The bacterial cagA and slt gene products have been implicated in HK-alpha repression, which facilitates gastric H. pylori colonization and may underlie transient clinical hypochlorhydria. We hypothesized that H. pylori also regulates H,K-ATPase expression post-transcriptionally by micro-RNA interaction with HK-alpha mRNA. Our microarray experiment examined the effect of infection by wildtype H. pylori infection or a delta-cagA H. pylori mutant on miRNA expression of human gastric cells (AGS). Our results indicate that H. pylori infection up-regulates GEC miRNAs that target the HK-alpha 3' UTR and block translation, and that CagA activity is implicated in the miRNA up-regulation. Overall design: Three types of samples were generated for microarray analysis: 1) AGS cells infected with wildtype H. pylori; 2) AGS cells infected with cagA-deficient H. pylori; 3) a mock-infected sample, prepared as a control by combining total RNA from uninfected AGS cells with total RNA from wildtype H. pylori, with relative eukaryotic and prokaryotic RNA amounts matching those observed in infected samples, based on proportional ribosomal peak heights quantified by Bioanalyzer. Three experimental replicates were generated for each type of treatment.