Predicting and Defining Steroid Resistance in Pediatric Nephrotic Syndrome Using Plasma Metabolomics.
ABSTRACT: Introduction:Nephrotic syndrome (NS) is a kidney disease that affects both children and adults. Glucocorticoids have been the primary therapy for >60 years but are ineffective in approximately 20% of children and approximately 50% of adult patients. Unfortunately, patients with steroid-resistant NS (SRNS; vs. steroid-sensitive NS [SSNS]) are at high risk for both glucocorticoid-induced side effects and disease progression. Methods:We performed proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) metabolomic analyses on plasma samples (n = 86) from 45 patients with NS (30 SSNS and 15 SRNS) obtained at initial disease presentation before glucocorticoid initiation and after approximately 7 weeks of glucocorticoid therapy to identify candidate biomarkers able to either predict SRNS before treatment or define critical molecular pathways/targets regulating steroid resistance. Results:Stepwise logistic regression models identified creatinine concentration and glutamine concentration (odds ratio [OR]: 1.01; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.99-1.02) as 2 candidate biomarkers predictive of SRNS, and malonate concentration (OR: 0.94; 95% CI: 0.89-1.00) as a third candidate predictive biomarker using a similar model (only in children >3 years). In addition, paired-sample analyses identified several candidate biomarkers with the potential to identify mechanistic molecular pathways/targets that regulate clinical steroid resistance, including lipoproteins, adipate, pyruvate, creatine, glucose, tyrosine, valine, glutamine, and sn-glycero-3-phosphcholine. Conclusion:Metabolomic analyses of serial plasma samples from children with SSNS and SRNS identified elevated creatinine and glutamine concentrations, and reduced malonate concentrations, as auspicious candidate biomarkers to predict SRNS at disease onset in pediatric NS, as well as additional candidate biomarkers with the potential to identify mechanistic molecular pathways that may regulate clinical steroid resistance.
Project description:Introduction:Nephrotic syndrome (NS) is a characterized by massive proteinuria, edema, hypoalbuminemia, and dyslipidemia. Glucocorticoids (GCs), the primary therapy for >60 years, are ineffective in approximately 50% of adults and approximately 20% of children. Unfortunately, there are no validated biomarkers able to predict steroid-resistant NS (SRNS) or to define the pathways regulating SRNS. Methods:We performed proteomic analyses on paired pediatric NS patient plasma samples obtained both at disease presentation before glucocorticoid initiation and after approximately 7 weeks of GC therapy to identify candidate biomarkers able to either predict steroid resistance before treatment or define critical molecular pathways/targets regulating steroid resistance. Results:Proteomic analyses of 15 paired NS patient samples identified 215 prevalent proteins, including 13 candidate biomarkers that predicted SRNS before GC treatment, and 66 candidate biomarkers that mechanistically differentiated steroid-sensitive NS (SSNS) from SRNS. Ingenuity Pathway Analyses and protein networking pathways approaches further identified proteins and pathways associated with SRNS. Validation using 37 NS patient samples (24 SSNS/13 SRNS) confirmed vitamin D binding protein (VDB) and APOL1 as strong predictive candidate biomarkers for SRNS, and VDB, hemopexin (HPX), adiponectin (ADIPOQ), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), and APOL1 as strong candidate biomarkers to mechanistically distinguish SRNS from SSNS. Logistic regression analysis identified a candidate biomarker panel (VDB, ADIPOQ, and matrix metalloproteinase 2 [MMP-2]) with significant ability to predict SRNS at disease presentation (P = 0.003; area under the receiver operating characteristic curve = 0.78). Conclusion:Plasma proteomic analyses and immunoblotting of serial samples in childhood NS identified a candidate biomarker panel able to predict SRNS at disease presentation, as well as candidate molecular targets/pathways associated with clinical steroid resistance.
Project description:The pathogenesis of childhood-onset nephrotic syndrome (NS), disparity in incidence of NS among races, and variable responses to therapies in children with NS have defied explanation to date. In the last 20 years over 50 genetic causes of steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS) have been identified, and at least two disease loci for two pathologic variants of SRNS (focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and membranous nephropathy) have been defined. However, the genetic causes and risk loci for steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome (SSNS) remain elusive, partly because SSNS is relatively rare and also because cases of SSNS vary widely in phenotypic expression over time. A recent study of a well-defined modest cohort of children with SSNS identified variants in HLA-DQA1 as a risk factor for SSNS. Here we review what is currently known about the genetics of SSNS and also discuss how recent careful phenotypic and genomic studies reinforce the role of adaptive immunity in the molecular mechanisms of SSNS.
Project description:Background:Limited and contradictory pharmacogenetic studies of NPHS2 gene R229Q polymorphism in nephrotic syndrome (NS) children of different ethnicities steered us to investigate the genotype frequency and associated risk of this polymorphism in Bangladeshi NS children. Methods:A prospective case-control study was conducted which comprised a total of 142 children having nephrotic syndrome (NS), divided into 2 groups: case group consisted of 40 children with steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS), and control group involved 102 children with steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome (SSNS). Both were genotyped by using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method for R229Q polymorphism. Results:The results indicate the presence of R229Q polymorphism in 27.50% of SRNS and 12.75% of SSNS children. SRNS children possess 2.94-fold greater risk (p = 0.025) of carrying Arg/Gln genotype compared to SSNS children. Moreover, R229Q variant in SRNS children was observed as in a compound heterozygous form with p.Ala297Val located in exon 8. Age of onset (4-6 years) presents as a significant contributing factor (adjusted OR = 1.06; 95% CI = 1.023-1.094; p = 0.001) for SRNS susceptibility in Bangladeshi children. Contrarily, though the incidence of SRNS was higher in male children than female (80% vs 20%), gender remains to be a neutral factor (p = 0.257) in relation to SRNS susceptibility. Conclusion:Compound heterozygosity of NPHS2 p.R229Q gene variant with p.Ala297Val may cause pathogenic SRNS in Bangladeshi children. Large scale studies are warranted to establish the genotype-phenotype correlation. It is recommended to screen for p.R229Q first and, if positive, for p.Ala297Val in Bangladeshi SRNS children.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Mutations in the NPHS2 genes are the main aetiology of early-onset and familial steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS). The pathogenic NPHS2 mutation together with the p.R229Q variant has been less described among Egyptian children. AIM:This study aims to determine the mutation of NPHS2 in children with NS and discover the role of p.R229Q variant in SRNS. METHODS:The study included 53 children with NS, and 53 healthy volunteers matched in age and sex controls. The median age at disease onset was 7.3 years. Among NS cases, 31 cases had steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome (SSNS) and 22 children with steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS). Polymerase chain reaction amplification of the whole coding region of NPHS2 gene was carried out for its mutational analysis. Restriction digestion testing was carried out after PCR to determine the presence of R229Q polymorphism. Randomly selected samples were re-genotyped by two independent technicians for assessment of Quality control. RESULTS:NS patients showed a significant higher frequency of heterozygous genotype GA (89.5%) compared to control group (10.5%) with increased risk of NS (OR, 12.04; 95% CI, 2.61 to55.38; p < 0.0001). Moreover, SRNS showed a significant higher frequency of GA genotype (68.2%) than the SSNS group (6.5%). The GA genotype was associated with increased risk of SRNS (OR, 31.1; 95% CI, 5.73 to 168.48; P < 0.001) and the A allele was associated with increased risk of SRNS (OR, 15.52; 95% CI, 3.325 to 72.422; P < .001). CONCLUSION:R229Q polymorphisms are associated with SRNS, and any child with SRNS should be searched for mutations in the NPHS2 gene.
Project description:Nephrotic syndrome (NS) is a genetically heterogeneous group of diseases that are divided into steroid-sensitive NS (SSNS) and steroid-resistant NS (SRNS). SRNS inevitably leads to end-stage kidney disease, and no curative treatment is available. To date, mutations in more than 24 genes have been described in Mendelian forms of SRNS; however, no Mendelian form of SSNS has been described. To identify a genetic form of SSNS, we performed homozygosity mapping, whole-exome sequencing, and multiplex PCR followed by next-generation sequencing. We thereby detected biallelic mutations in EMP2 (epithelial membrane protein 2) in four individuals from three unrelated families affected by SRNS or SSNS. We showed that EMP2 exclusively localized to glomeruli in the kidney. Knockdown of emp2 in zebrafish resulted in pericardial effusion, supporting the pathogenic role of mutated EMP2 in human NS. At the cellular level, we showed that knockdown of EMP2 in podocytes and endothelial cells resulted in an increased amount of CAVEOLIN-1 and decreased cell proliferation. Our data therefore identify EMP2 mutations as causing a recessive Mendelian form of SSNS.
Project description:Introduction:In South Africa (SA), steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS) is more frequent in black than in Indian children. Methods:Seeking a genetic basis for this disparity, we enrolled 33 Indian and 31 black children with steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome (SSNS) and SRNS from KwaZulu-Natal, SA; SRNS children underwent kidney biopsy. We sequenced NPHS2 and genotyped APOL1 in 15 SSNS and 64 SRNS unrelated patients and 104 controls and replicated results in 18 black patients with steroid-resistant focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (SR-FSGS). Known FSGS genes (n = 21) were sequenced in a subset of patients. Results:Homozygosity for NPHS2 V260E was found in 8 of 30 black children with SRNS (27%); all 260E/E carriers had SR-FSGS. Combining SR-FSGS patients from the 2 groups, 14 of 42 (33%) were homozygous for V260E. One black control was heterozygous for V260E; no Indian patients or controls were carriers. Haplotype analysis indicated that homozygosity for V260E was not explained by cryptic consanguinity. Children with NPHS2 260E/E developed SRNS at earlier age than noncarriers (34 vs. 78 months, P = 0.01), and none achieved partial or complete remission (0% vs. 47%, P = 0.002). APOL1 variants did not associate with NS. Sequencing FSGS genes identified a CD2AP predicted pathogenic variant in the heterozygous state in 1 Indian case with SR-FSGS. Conclusion:NPHS2 260E/E was present in one-third of black FSGS patients, was absent in black controls and Indian patients, and affected patients were unresponsive to therapy. Genotyping V260E in black children from South Africa with NS will identify a substantial group with SR-FSGS, potentially sparing these children biopsy and ineffective steroid treatment.
Project description:Background: Reduced HDACs levels have been reported in steroid resistant chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and bronchial asthma patients. P-glycoprotein (P-gp) over expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) has been reported in patients with steroid resistant nephrotic syndrome (NS). Whether and how HDACs and P-gp are linked with each other is not clear, especially in NS patients. Aim: To evaluate mRNA expression of P-gp/MRP-1 and HDAC2 in PBMCs of steroid sensitive (SSNS) and steroid resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS) patients, and determine the relationship between expression of HDAC2 and P-gp/ MRP-1in NS patients. Methods: Twenty subjects (10 in each group), SSNS (mean age 7.54 ± 3.5 years), and SRNS (mean age 8.43 ± 3.8 years) were recruited. mRNA expression of HDAC2 and P-gp/MRP-1 was studied by quantitative real time PCR. PBMCs were treated with Theophylline, 1 ?M, and Trichostatin A, 0.8 ?M, for 48 h for induction and suppression of HDAC2, respectively. Results: At baseline, expression of P-gp (4.79 ± 0.10 vs. 2.13 ± 0.12, p < 0.0001) and MRP-1 (3.99 ± 0.08 vs. 1.99 ±0.11, p < 0.0001) on PBMCs were increased whereas, HDAC2 mRNA levels (2.97 ± 0.15 vs. 6.02 ± 0.13, p < 0.0001) were significantly decreased in SRNS as compared to that of SSNS patients. Compared to baseline, theophylline reduced mRNA expression of P-gp and MRP-1 (fold change 2.65 and 2.21, * p < 0.0001 in SRNS) (fold change 1.25, 1.24, * p < 0.0001 in SSNS), respectively. However, it increased the expression of HDAC2 (fold change 5.67, * p < 0.0001 in SRNS) (fold change 6.93, * p < 0.0001 in SSNS). Compared to baseline, TSA treatment increased mRNA levels of P-gp and MRP-1 (fold change 7.51, 7.31, * p < 0.0001 in SRNS) and (fold change 3.49, 3.35, * p < 0.0001 in SSNS), respectively. It significantly decreased the level of HDAC2 (fold change 1.50, * p < 0.0001 in SRNS) (fold change 2.53, * p < 0.0001 in SSNS) patients. Conclusion: Reduced HDAC2 and increased P-gp/MRP-1 activity may play a role in response to steroids in childhood NS. HDAC2 and P-gp/MRP-1 are in reciprocal relationship with each other.
Project description:Idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (NS) is the most common glomerular disorder of childhood. Response to initial treatment with corticosteroids is an indicator of prognosis, as resistant patients often present more progressive disease. In this cross-sectional pilot study, we set out to discover a panel of noninvasive biomarkers that could distinguish steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS) from steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome (SSNS). Information gleaned from such a panel could yield more individualized treatment plans and prevent unnecessary steroid exposure in patients unlikely to respond. Urine was collected from 50 pediatric patients diagnosed with idiopathic NS at Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center. Isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) was used to discover 13 proteins that were differentially expressed in SSNS vs SRNS in a small 5 × 5 discovery cohort. Suitable assays were found for 9 of the 13 markers identified by iTRAQ and were used in a 25 SRNS × 25 SSNS validation cohort. Vitamin D-binding protein (VDBP), alpha-1 acid glycoprotein 1 (AGP1), alpha-1 acid glycoprotein 2 (AGP2), alpha-1-B glycoprotein (A1BG), fetuin-A, prealbumin, thyroxine-binding globulin and hemopexin, and alpha-2 macroglobulin were measured and combined with urine neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), which had been previously shown to distinguish patients with SRNS. Urinary VDBP, prealbumin, NGAL, fetuin-A, and AGP2 were found to be significantly elevated in SRNS using univariate analysis, with area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUCs) ranging from 0.65 to 0.81. Multivariate analysis revealed a panel of all 10 markers that yielded an AUC of 0.92 for identification of SRNS. A subset of 5 markers (including VDBP, NGAL, fetuin-A, prealbumin, and AGP2) showed significant associations with SRNS and yielded an AUC of 0.85.
Project description:Introduction:In last few years, several studies have revealed the remarkable stability of extracellular microRNAs (miRNAs) circulating in the blood or excreted in the urine and underscored their key importance as biomarkers of certain diseases. Since miRNA in urinary sediment is relatively stable and easily quantified, it has the potential to be developed as a biomarker for disease diagnosis and monitoring. Identification of serum and urinary levels of certain miRNAs may assist in the diagnosis and assessment of disease activity in patients with nephrotic syndrome (NS). The global expression profile of miRNAs in childhood NS in Indian population remains unknown. Hence, further research is warranted in this area. This study seeks to prospectively evaluate whether a multipronged multiomics approach concentrating on microRNA expression profiles in children with NS vis-a-vis normal healthy children is discriminant enough to predict steroid responsiveness in childhood NS. Methods and analysis:In this prospective multicentric cohort study, subjects will be recruited from general paediatric and paediatric nephrology outpatient departments (OPDs) in tertiary care level referral hospitals. Age-matched and sex-matched healthy individuals with normal renal function (as assessed by normal serum creatinine and normal ultrasound of kidneys, ureter and bladder) in 1:1 ratio between study and control groups will be recruited from among the healthy siblings of children presenting to the OPDs. Differential microRNA expression profiles in urine and serum samples of children with steroid-sensitive NS (SSNS) and steroid-resistant NS (SRNS) with healthy children will be compared in a two-phased manner: a biomarker discovery phase involving pooled samples across SSNS, SRNS and healthy siblings analysed in triplicate using next-generation sequencing, slide microarray and quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR) arrays covering human miRNome followed by a validation phase with customised qRT-PCR primers based on the concordance in the discovery phase differential expression profiles and bioinformatics analysis. Ethics and dissemination:The study is funded after dueInstitutional Ethics Committee (IEC) clearance, and results will be available as open access.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Few data exist for the genetic variants underlying the risk for steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome (SSNS) in children. The objectives of this study were to evaluate HLA-DQA1 and APOL1 variants as risk factors for SSNS in African American children and use classic HLA antigen types and amino acid inference to refine the HLA-DQA1 association. STUDY DESIGN:Case-control study. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS:African American children with SSNS or steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS) were enrolled from Duke University and centers participating in the Midwest Pediatric Nephrology Consortium. FACTOR:Genetic variants in HLA-DQA1 (C34Y [rs1129740]; F41S [rs1071630]) and APOL1 high-risk alleles. OUTCOMES:SSNS and SRNS. MEASUREMENTS:Direct sequencing for the HLA-DQA1 and APOL1 variants in 115 African American children (65 with SSNS and 50 with SRNS). Imputation of classic HLA alleles and amino acids was done in 363 South Asian children. RESULTS:The 2 HLA-DQA1 variants were significantly associated with SSNS in African American children (C34Y: P=5.7 × 10-11; OR, 3.53; 95% CI, 2.33-5.42; F41S: P=1.2 × 10-13; OR, 4.08; 95% CI, 2.70-6.28), but not with SRNS (C34Y: P=0.6; F41S: P=0.2). APOL1 high-risk variants were not associated with SSNS (P=0.5) but showed significant associations with SRNS (P=1.04 × 10-7; OR, 4.17; 95% CI, 2.23-7.64). HLA-DQA1*0201, HLA-DQB1*0201, and HLA-DRB1*0701 were the classic HLA alleles with the most significant associations with SSNS risk. The most significantly associated amino acid positions were HLA-DQ?1 56 and 76 (both P=2.8 × 10-7). Conditional analysis revealed that these variants most likely account for the observed association. LIMITATIONS:Modest sample size and limited statistical power to detect small to moderate effect sizes. Children studied may not be representative of all African American children in the United States. CONCLUSIONS:HLA-DQA1 is a risk locus for SSNS, but not SRNS, in African American children, consistent with its role in SSNS risk in children of European, Asian, and African ancestries. There is little evidence of a significant role for the APOL1 high-risk alleles in childhood SSNS in African American children. Refinement of the HLA-DQA1 association identified the critical classic HLA antigen types and amino acids of the HLA-DQ ?1 molecule.