Chromosome-level genome assembly reveals the unique genome evolution of the swimming crab (Portunus trituberculatus).
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:The swimming crab, Portunus trituberculatus, is an important commercial species in China and is widely distributed in the coastal waters of Asia-Pacific countries. Despite increasing interest in swimming crab research, a high-quality chromosome-level genome is still lacking. FINDINGS:Here, we assembled the first chromosome-level reference genome of P. trituberculatus by combining the short reads, Nanopore long reads, and Hi-C data. The genome assembly size was 1.00 Gb with a contig N50 length of 4.12 Mb. In addition, BUSCO assessment indicated that 94.7% of core eukaryotic genes were present in the genome assembly. Approximately 54.52% of the genome was identified as repetitive sequences, with a total of 16,796 annotated protein-coding genes. In addition, we anchored contigs into chromosomes and identified 50 chromosomes with an N50 length of 21.80 Mb by Hi-C technology. CONCLUSIONS:We anticipate that this chromosome-level assembly of the P. trituberculatus genome will not only promote study of basic development and evolution but also provide important resources for swimming crab reproduction.
Project description:The blue crab, Callinectes sapidus (Rathbun, 1896) is an economically, culturally, and ecologically important species found across the temperate and tropical North and South American Atlantic coast. A reference genome will enable research for this high-value species. Initial assembly combined 200× coverage Illumina paired-end reads, a 60× 8 kb mate-paired library, and 50× PacBio data using the MaSuRCA assembler resulting in a 985 Mb assembly with a scaffold N50 of 153 kb. Dovetail Chicago and HiC sequencing with the 3d DNA assembler and Juicebox assembly tools were then used for chromosome scaffolding. The 50 largest scaffolds span 810 Mb are 1.5-37 Mb long and have a repeat content of 36%. The 190 Mb unplaced sequence is in 3921 sequences over 10 kb with a repeat content of 68%. The final assembly N50 is 18.9 Mb for scaffolds and 9317 bases for contigs. Of arthropod BUSCO, ∼88% (888/1013) were complete and single copies. Using 309 million RNAseq read pairs from 12 different tissues and developmental stages, 25,249 protein-coding genes were predicted. Between C. sapidus and Portunus trituberculatus genomes, 41 of 50 large scaffolds had high nucleotide identity and protein-coding synteny, but 9 scaffolds in both assemblies were not clear matches. The protein-coding genes included 9423 one-to-one putative orthologs, of which 7165 were syntenic between the two crab species. Overall, the two crab genome assemblies show strong similarities at the nucleotide, protein, and chromosome level and verify the blue crab genome as an excellent reference for this important seafood species.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The swimming crab, Portunus trituberculatus, which is naturally distributed in the coastal waters of Asia-Pacific countries, is an important farmed species in China. Salinity is one of the most important abiotic factors that influence not only the distribution and abundance of crustaceans, it is also an important factor for artificial propagation of the crab. To better understand the interaction between salinity stress and osmoregulation, we performed a transcriptome analysis in the gills of Portunus trituberculatus challenged with salinity stress, using the Illumina Deep Sequencing technology.<h4>Results</h4>We obtained 27,696,835, 28,268,353 and 33,901,271 qualified Illumina read pairs from low salinity challenged (LC), non-challenged (NC), and high salinity challenged (HC) Portunus trituberculatus cDNA libraries, respectively. The overall de novo assembly of cDNA sequence data generated 94,511 unigenes, with an average length of 644 bp. Comparative genomic analysis revealed that 1,705 genes differentially expressed in salinity stress compared to the controls, including 615 and 1,516 unigenes in NC vs LC and NC vs HC respectively. GO functional enrichment analysis results showed some differentially expressed genes were involved in crucial processes related to osmoregulation, such as ion transport processes, amino acid metabolism and synthesis processes, proteolysis process and chitin metabolic process.<h4>Conclusion</h4>This work represents the first report of the utilization of the next generation sequencing techniques for transcriptome analysis in Portunus trituberculatus and provides valuable information on salinity adaptation mechanism. Results reveal a substantial number of genes modified by salinity stress and a few important salinity acclimation pathways, which will serve as an invaluable resource for revealing the molecular basis of osmoregulation in Portunus trituberculatus. In addition, the most comprehensive sequences of transcripts reported in this study provide a rich source for identification of novel genes in the crab.
Project description:The evolutionary history of horseshoe crabs, spanning approximately 500 million years, is characterized by remarkable morphological stasis and a low species diversity with only four extant species. Here we report a chromosome-level genome assembly for the mangrove horseshoe crab (Carcinoscorpius rotundicauda) using PacBio reads and Hi-C data. The assembly spans 1.67?Gb with contig N50 of 7.8?Mb and 98% of the genome assigned to 16 chromosomes. The genome contains five Hox clusters with 34 Hox genes, the highest number reported in any invertebrate. Detailed analysis of the genome provides evidence that suggests three rounds of whole-genome duplication (WGD), raising questions about the relationship between WGD and species radiation. Several gene families, particularly those involved in innate immunity, have undergone extensive tandem duplication. These expanded gene families may be important components of the innate immune system of horseshoe crabs, whose amebocyte lysate is a sensitive agent for detecting endotoxin contamination.
Project description:Portunus trituberculatus, or the swimming crab, is tolerant of reduced salinity; however, the molecular mechanism of this tolerance is not clear. Cells can be damaged by hyperosmotic salinity. The protein p53, sometimes referred to as “the guardian of the genome,” displays versatile and important functions under changing environmental conditions. Herein, the P. trituberculatus p53 gene (designated as Ptp53) was cloned and studied. The full-length Ptp53 cDNA comprised 1,544bp, with a 1,314bp open reading frame, which encodes a putative polypeptide of 437 amino acids. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR assays revealed ubiquitous expression of Ptp53 in all tissues examined, with the gills showing the highest expression level. Extensive apoptosis was detected under low salinity conditions using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase nick-end-labeling staining. Oxidative stress was induced under low salinity conditions, consequently leading to apoptosis. Low salinity stress caused significant upregulation of Ptp53 mRNA and protein levels in the gills. Moreover, compared with that in the control group, the mortality of Ptp53-silenced crabs under low salinity stress was enhanced significantly. Taken together, our findings suggest that Ptp53, via regulation of apoptosis and antioxidant defense, played important functions in the low salinity stress response of the swimming crab.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The swimming crab Portunus trituberculatus is one of the most commonly farmed crustaceans in China. As one of the most widely known and high-value edible crabs, it crab supports large crab fishery and aquaculture in China. Only large and sexually mature crabs can provide the greatest economic benefits, suggesting the considerable effect of reproductive system development on fishery. Studies are rarely conducted on the molecular regulatory mechanism underlying the development of the reproductive system during the mating embrace stage in this species. In this study, we used high-throughput sequencing to sequence all transcriptomes of the P. trituberculatus reproductive system. RESULTS:Transcriptome sequencing of the reproductive system produced 81,688,878 raw reads (38,801,152 and 42,887,726 reads from female and male crabs, respectively). Low-quality (quality <20) reads were trimmed and removed, leaving only high-quality reads (37,020,664 and 41,021,030 from female and male crabs, respectively). A total of 126,188 (female) and 164,616 (male) transcripts were then generated by de novo transcriptome assembly using Trinity. Functional annotation of the obtained unigenes revealed that a large number of key genes and some important pathways may participate in cell proliferation and signal transduction. On the basis of our transcriptome analyses and as confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR, a number of genes potentially involved in the regulation of gonadal development and reproduction of P. trituberculatus were identified: ADRA1B, BAP1, ARL3, and TRPA1. CONCLUSION:This study is the first to report on the whole reproductive system transcriptome information in stage II of P. trituberculatus gonadal development and provides rich resources for further studies to elucidate the molecular basis of the development of reproductive systems and reproduction in crabs. The current study can be used to further investigate functional genomics in this species.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The Chinese mitten crab, Eriocheir sinensis, is one of the most studied and economically important crustaceans in China. Its transition from a swimming to a crawling method of movement during early development, anadromous migration during growth, and catadromous migration during breeding have been attractive features for research. However, knowledge of the underlying molecular mechanisms that regulate these processes is still very limited. FINDINGS:A total of 258.8 gigabases (Gb) of raw reads from whole-genome sequencing of the crab were generated by the Illumina HiSeq2000 platform. The final genome assembly (1.12 Gb), about 67.5 % of the estimated genome size (1.66 Gb), is composed of 17,553 scaffolds (>2 kb) with an N50 of 224 kb. We identified 14,436 genes using AUGUSTUS, of which 7,549 were shown to have significant supporting evidence using the GLEAN pipeline. This gene number is much greater than that of the horseshoe crab, and the annotation completeness, as evaluated by CEGMA, reached 66.9 %. CONCLUSIONS:We report the first genome sequencing, assembly, and annotation of the Chinese mitten crab. The assembled draft genome will provide a valuable resource for the study of essential developmental processes and genetic determination of important traits of the Chinese mitten crab, and also for investigating crustacean evolution.
Project description:Low salinity is one of the most important abiotic factors that directly affect the abundance of the swimming crab, <i>Portunus trituberculatus</i>. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping could be helpful in identifying the markers and genes involved in low salinity tolerance. In this study, two QTLs of low salt tolerance were mapped on linkage group 17 (LG17, 2.6-5.2 cM) based on a high-density linkage map. Ninety-five markers related to low salinity tolerance were identified <i>via</i> association analysis, and seventy-nine low salt-related candidate genes (including ammonium transport, aldehyde dehydrogenase, and glucosyltransferase) were screened from draft genome of the species <i>via</i> these markers. This represents the first report of QTL mapping for low salinity tolerance in the swimming crab, which may be useful to elucidate salinity adaptation mechanisms.
Project description:A high-resolution genetic linkage map is an essential tool for decoding genetics and genomics in non-model organisms. In this study, a linkage map was constructed for the swimming crab (Portunus trituberculatus) with 10,963 markers; as far as we know, this number of markers has never been achieved in any other crustacean. The linkage map covered 98.85% of the whole genome with a mean marker interval of 0.51?cM. The de novo assembly based on genome and transcriptome sequencing data enabled 2,378 explicit annotated markers to be anchored to the map. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping revealed 10 growth-related QTLs with a phenotypic variance explained (PVE) range of 12.0-35.9. Eight genes identified from the growth-related QTL regions, in particular, RE1-silencing transcription factor and RNA-directed DNA polymerase genes with nonsynonymous substitutions, were considered important growth-related candidate genes. We have demonstrated that linkage mapping aided by de novo assembly of genome and transcriptome sequencing could serve as an important platform for QTL mapping and the identification of trait-related genes.
Project description:Populus deltoides has important ecological and economic values, widely used in poplar breeding programs due to its superior characteristics such as rapid growth and resistance to disease. Although the genome sequence of P. deltoides WV94 is available, the assembly is fragmented. Here, we reported an improved chromosome-level assembly of the P. deltoides cultivar I-69 by combining Nanopore sequencing and chromosome conformation capture (Hi-C) technologies. The assembly was 429.3 Mb in size and contained 657 contigs with a contig N50 length of 2.62 Mb. Hi-C scaffolding of the contigs generated 19 chromosome-level sequences, which covered 97.4% (418 Mb) of the total assembly size. Moreover, repetitive sequences annotation showed that 39.28% of the P. deltoides genome was composed of interspersed elements, including retroelements (23.66%), DNA transposons (6.83%), and unclassified elements (8.79%). We also identified a total of 44 362 protein-coding genes in the current P. deltoides assembly. Compared with the previous genome assembly of P. deltoides WV94, the current assembly had some significantly improved qualities: the contig N50 increased 3.5-fold and the proportion of gaps decreased from 3.2% to 0.08%. This high-quality, well-annotated genome assembly provides a reliable genomic resource for identifying genome variants among individuals, mining candidate genes that control growth and wood quality traits, and facilitating further application of genomics-assisted breeding in populations related to P. deltoides.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The swimming crab, Portunus trituberculatus, is an important farmed species in China, has been attracting extensive studies, which require more and more genome background knowledge. To date, the sequencing of its whole genome is unavailable and transcriptomic information is also scarce for this species. In the present study, we performed de novo transcriptome sequencing to produce a comprehensive transcript dataset for major tissues of Portunus trituberculatus by the Illumina paired-end sequencing technology.<h4>Results</h4>Total RNA was isolated from eyestalk, gill, heart, hepatopancreas and muscle. Equal quantities of RNA from each tissue were pooled to construct a cDNA library. Using the Illumina paired-end sequencing technology, we generated a total of 120,137 transcripts with an average length of 1037 bp. Further assembly analysis showed that all contigs contributed to 87,100 unigenes, of these, 16,029 unigenes (18.40% of the total) can be matched in the GenBank non-redundant database. Potential genes and their functions were predicted by GO, KEGG pathway mapping and COG analysis. Based on our sequence analysis and published literature, many putative genes with fundamental roles in growth and muscle development, including actin, myosin, tropomyosin, troponin and other potentially important candidate genes were identified for the first time in this specie. Furthermore, 22,673 SSRs and 66,191 high-confidence SNPs were identified in this EST dataset.<h4>Conclusion</h4>The transcriptome provides an invaluable new data for a functional genomics resource and future biological research in Portunus trituberculatus. The data will also instruct future functional studies to manipulate or select for genes influencing growth that should find practical applications in aquaculture breeding programs. The molecular markers identified in this study will provide a material basis for future genetic linkage and quantitative trait loci analyses, and will be essential for accelerating aquaculture breeding programs with this species.