Dexmedetomidine during suprazygomatic maxillary nerve block for pediatric cleft palate repair, randomized double-blind controlled study.
ABSTRACT: Background:For children with cleft palates, surgeries at a young age are necessary to reduce feeding or phonation difficulties and reduce complications, especially respiratory tract infections and frequent sinusitis. We hypothesized that dexmedetomidine might prolong the postoperative analgesic duration when added to bupivacaine during nerve blocks. Methods:Eighty patients of 1-5 years old were arbitrarily assigned to two equal groups (forty patients each) to receive bilateral suprazygomatic maxillary nerve blocks. Group A received bilateral 0.2 mL/kg bupivacaine (0.125%; maximum volume 4 mL/side). Group B received bilateral 0.2 mL/kg bupivacaine (0.125%) + 0.5 µg/kg dexmedetomidine (maximum volume 4 mL/side). Results:The modified children's hospital of Eastern Ontario pain scale score was significantly lower in group B children after 8 hours of follow-up postoperatively (P < 0.001). Mean values of heart rate and blood pressure were significantly different between the groups, with lower mean values in group B (P < 0.001). Median time to the first analgesic demand in group A children was 10 hours (range 8-12 hr), and no patients needed analgesia in group B. The sedation score assessment was higher in children given dexmedetomidine (P = 0.03) during the first postoperative 30 minutes. Better parent satisfaction scores (5-point Likert scale) were recorded in group B and without serious adverse effects. Conclusions:Addition of dexmedetomidine 0.5 µg/kg to bupivacaine 0.125% has accentuated the analgesic efficacy of bilateral suprazygomatic maxillary nerve block in children undergoing primary cleft palate repair with less postoperative supplemental analgesia or untoward effects.
Project description:Background and Aims:Intraperitoneal local anesthetic is an effective analgesic approach in laparoscopic appendectomy in adults. The aim of the study was to compare the postoperative pain when intraperitoneal bupivacaine is administered alone versus the addition of dexmedetomidine to it in children undergoing a laparoscopic appendectomy. Methods:In this prospective randomized trial, 52 children were randomly allocated to Group B who received intraperitoneal bupivacaine 0.25% (2 mg/kg) or Group BD who received intraperitoneal bupivacaine 0.25% (2 mg/kg) plus dexmedetomidine (1 mcg/kg) for postoperative analgesia in children undergoing laparoscopic appendectomy. Postoperative pethidine consumption at day 1 was recorded and considered the primary outcome of the study. Patients were evaluated for pain scores at 0, 2, 4, 6, 12, and 24 h, time to first request of pethidine, sedation scores at 0, 2, 4, and 6 h, length of hospital stay, and parents' satisfaction. Chi-square, Fisher's exact, Student's t-test, and Mann-Whitney U-tests were used for analysis. Results:Postoperative visual analog scale scores were lower in Group BD at 2, 4, and 6 h (mean = 3, 3, 3, respectively) compared with Group B (mean = 4, 5, 4, respectively) (P < 0.05). Patients in Group BD had more sedation scores at 0, 2, and 4 h (P < 0.05), longer time to first rescue analgesia (P = 0.03), lesser rescue analgesic consumption (P = 0.02), shorter length of hospital stay (P = 0.02), and higher parents' satisfaction (P = 0.01). Conclusion:Adding dexmedetomidine to intraperitoneal bupivacaine provides adequate postoperative analgesia in children undergoing laparoscopic appendectomy.
Project description:Caudal analgesia is a good, reliable, and easy method to provide intraoperative and postoperative analgesia for infra-umbilical surgeries in children. Many additives are being used in combination with local anesthetics in caudal block to prolong the postoperative analgesia (clonidine, midazolam, ketamine, fentanyl, and dexmedetomidine). The purpose of this study was to compare the intraoperative hemodynamics, postoperative analgesia, postoperative rescue analgesic requirement, postoperative sedation and side-effects of clonidine and midazolam used as adjuvants to bupivacaine for caudal analgesia.Following approval from Institutional Ethical Research Committee, 75 American Society of Anesthesiologists I and II patients aged between 1 and 7 years undergoing various elective infra-umbilical surgical procedures were included in this study. The patients were randomly allocated into three groups of 25 patients each. Group B received 1 ml/kg 0.25% bupivacaine in normal saline, Group BC received 1 ml/kg 0.25% bupivacaine + 1 μg/kg clonidine in normal saline, and Group BM received 1ml/kg 0.25% bupivacaine + 30 μg/kg midazolam in normal saline. The various parameters studied were intraoperative hemodynamic changes, duration of postoperative analgesia, postoperative sedation, postoperative analgesic requirement, and incidence of side-effects.All the groups were similar with respect to patient and block characteristics. The hemodynamic parameters before and after administering caudal analgesia were also comparable. The mean duration of analgesia was 724.80 ± 60.29 min in Group BC, 605.40 ± 82.37 min in Group BM and 295.00 ± 41.78 min in Group B. Thus, the duration of analgesia was significantly prolonged in Group BC compared to Groups BM and B. The FLACC pain score was higher in Group B at the end of 4th, 8th and 12th h compared with Group BC and Group BM. Furthermore at the end of 12th h, pain scores were significantly higher in Group BM compared to Group BC. Only 1 child in Group BC received three rescue medications compared to 15 (60%) children in Group B and 7 (28%) children in Group BM. None of the groups were treated for bradycardia or hypotension and no significant sedation was noted.This study showed that the addition of both clonidine (1 μg/kg) and midazolam (30 μg/kg) with bupivacaine administered caudally significantly increase the duration of postoperative analgesia with minimal side-effects in children. The use of clonidine as an additive to bupivacaine in caudal epidural is a superior choice to midazolam as it reduces the demand of postoperative rescue analgesics significantly.
Project description:Gastrointestinal motility may be impaired after intestinal surgery. Epidural morphine is effective in controlling postoperative pain, but can further reduce gastrointestinal motility. Here, we aimed to investigate the effects of epidural dexmedetomidine on gastrointestinal motility in patients undergoing colonic resection. Seventy-four patients undergoing colonic resection were enrolled in this clinical trial and allocated randomly to treatment with dexmedetomidine (D group) or morphine (M group). The D group received a loading dose epidural administration of 3 ml dexmedetomidine (0.5 ?g kg(-1)) and then a continuous epidural administration of 80 ?g dexmedetomidine in 150 ml levobupivacaine (0.125%) at 3 ml h(-1) for two days. The M group received a loading dose epidural administration of 3 ml morphine (0.03 mg kg(-1)) and then a continuous epidural administration of 4.5 mg morphine in 150 ml levobupivacaine at 3 ml h(-1) for two days. Verbal rating score (VRS), postoperative analgesic requirements, side effects related to analgesia, the time to postoperative first flatus (FFL) and first feces (FFE) were recorded. VRS and postoperative analgesic requirements were not significantly different between treatment groups. In contrast, the time to FFL and time to FFE were significant longer in M group in comparison to D group (P < 0.05). Moreover, patients in M group had a significantly higher incidence of nausea, vomiting, and pruritus (P < 0.05). No patients showed neurologic deficits in either group. In comparison to morphine, epidural dexmedetomidine is safe and beneficial for the recovery of gastrointestinal motility after colonic resection when used as an adjunct with levobupivacaine for postoperative pain control.Chinese Clinical Trial Registry ChiCTR-TRC-14004644.
Project description:Background:Magnesium is one of the effective, safe local anesthetic adjuvants that can exert an analgesic effect in conditions presenting acute and chronic post-sternotomy pain. We studied the efficacy of continuous infusion of presternal magnesium sulfate with bupivacaine for pain relief following cardiac surgery. Methods:Ninety adult patients undergoing valve replacement cardiac surgery randomly allocated into three groups. In all patients; a presternal catheter was placed for continuous infusion of either 0.125% bupivacaine and 5% magnesium sulfate (3 ml/h for 48 hours) in group 1, or 0.125% bupivacaine only in the same rate in group 2, versus conventional intravenous paracetamol and ketorolac in group 3. Rescue analgesia was iv 25 µg fentanyl. Postoperative Visual Analog Scale (VAS) and fentanyl consumption during the early two postoperative days were assessed. All patients were followed up over two months for occurrence of chronic post-sternotomy pain. Results:VAS values showed high significant differences during the first 48 hours with the least pain scale in group 1 and significantly least fentanyl consumption (30.8 ± 7 µg in group 1 vs. 69 ± 18 µg in group 2, and 162 ± 3 in group 3 respectively). The incidence of chronic pain has not differed between the three groups although it was more pronounced in group 3. Conclusions:Continuous presternal bupivacaine and magnesium infusion resulted in better postoperative analgesia than both presternal bupivacaine alone or conventional analgesic groups.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Multiple studies claim that caudal administration of ketamine causes effective postoperative analgesia. The aim of this study was to assess the clinical effectiveness of ketamine after caudal or topical administration in pediatric patients undergoing inguinal herniotomy. PATIENTS AND METHODS:This randomized, comparative, double-blind study included eighty children (aged 6 months to 6 years) received either 1 ml/kg of 0.25% bupivacaine/ketamine 0.5 mg/kg for caudal analgesia (caudal group) or 0.3 ml/kg of 0.25% bupivacaine/ketamine 0.5 mg/kg sprayed by the surgeon around the spermatic cord and upon the ilioinguinal nerve before wound closure for topical analgesia (topical group). The duration of postoperative analgesia, pain scores, rescue analgesic consumption, sedation score, hemodynamic monitoring, and side-effects were evaluated 48 h postoperative. RESULTS:Kaplan-Meier survival analysis of analgesia free time demonstrated a significant advantage of topical ketamine (TK) group over caudal ketamine (CK) group. The duration of postoperative analgesia was longer in TK group than in CK group (28.74 ± 2.88 vs. 21.43 ± 5.01 h, P = 0.000). Fewer children asked for oral analgesics in the topical group (24 of 36, 66.7%) than in the caudal one (28 of 32, 87.5%; P < 0.01). Postoperative pain scores at the 6th till 48th h were lower in topical group with comparable analgesic consumption between two groups. In the caudal group, four subjects suffered from retention of urine: Two presented with a residual motor block and two had photophobia. CONCLUSION:Wound instillation of bupivacaine/ketamine is a simple, noninvasive, and effective technique that could be a safe alternative to CK for postoperative analgesia in children undergoing inguinal hernia repair.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Optimal analgesia following ambulatory surgery is an important matter in patient satisfaction, and it reduces unnecessary hospital admissions. This study investigated whether a caudal block with bupivacaine alone or in a combination with lidocaine can alter postoperative pain scores, complications, and peroperative and postoperative analgesic consumption. MATERIAL AND METHODS:This is a retrospective study that included children who underwent elective circumcision surgery under general anesthesia and caudal analgesia between January and June 2018. Among the 103 children, 17 cases were not analyzed due to an unsuccessful caudal block and procedures simultaneously underwent another operation unrelated to circumcision. We divided the study participants into two groups according to the type of local anesthetic applied: 0.5 mL/kg 0.25% bupivacaine (Group B) and 0.5 mL/kg 0.25% bupivacaine + 3 mg/kg 1% lidocaine (Group BL) caudally. RESULTS:Pain scores were similar between these groups and remained in the mild-to-moderate range throughout the hospitalization (p>0.05). There were significant differences regarding the rescue analgesic use, first micturition, and mobilization times (p<0.001). In addition, we applied the multivariable logistic regression for fentanyl consumption adjusted for first mobilization and micturition time, unlike mobilization, a significantly increased risk for postoperative delayed micturition (OR, 1.06; 95% CI, 1.0-1.12; p=0.038) was found with intra-operative intravenous fentanyl use. CONCLUSION:Our results suggest that the caudal block with a lidocaine+bupivacaine combination decreases rescue analgesic consumption at day-case surgery. In circumcision procedures, the caudal block is an effective and safe analgesic method for intraoperative and postoperative pain control with no side effects. This trial was registered at Clinicaltrals.gov, NCT03911648.
Project description:Background:An adequate anesthesia technique generates appropriate postoperative analgesic properties and decreases the patient's stress response. This will lead to decreased morbidity and mortality associated with immunology disturbances, such as infection, prolonged wound healing, and sepsis. Objectives:The aim of this study was to compare interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations, as the markers of the stress response, between continuous epidural and quadratus lumborum (QL) block as postoperative analgesia techniques among living kidney donors. Methods:Sixty-two patients were randomly divided into two equal groups: continuous epidural and QL block. A group received bilateral QL block with 20 mL of bupivacaine 0.25% and the other received 6 mL/hour of bupivacaine 0.25% continuously via an epidural catheter. Prior to extubation, the QL block group received bilateral QL block with the same dose and the continuous epidural group was administered with 6 mL/hour of bupivacaine 0.125%. Blood samples were drawn to compare IL-6 and CRP concentrations after intubation (preoperatively), directly after surgery, 24 hours postoperatively, and 48 hours postoperatively. Postoperative pain was measured with the numerical rating scale (NRS). Morphine requirement and duration of catheter usage were also measured postoperatively. Side effects within 24 hours postoperatively were noted. Data were analyzed with independent t-test or Mann-Whitney test. Results:No difference was observed between the groups in the plasma concentration of IL-6 either after surgery or 24 hours postoperatively (P = 0.785 and P = 0.361, respectively) although the mean IL-6 concentration 24 hours postoperatively was lower in the QL block group than in the continuous epidural group. CRP concentration was not significantly different between the groups either after surgery or 48 hours postoperatively (P = 0.805 and P = 0.636, respectively). Conclusions:There was no significant difference in IL-6 and CRP concentrations between continuous epidural and QL block among living kidney donors. Both continuous epidural and QL block techniques showed comparable postoperative analgesic properties among living kidney donors undergoing laparoscopic nephrectomy.
Project description:Dexmedetomidine (D) is a α2 agonist, has anesthetic and analgesic-sparing property. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of intravenous (I.V.) dexmedetomidine on the duration of sensory and motor block, postoperative analgesia, the level of sedation and side effect.Sixty patients were randomly divided into two groups of thirty each. Group D received dexmedetomidine infusion @1 mcg/kg over 10 min and then @ 0.6 mcg/kg/h for rest of duration during surgery, Group C (control) received a similar volume of normal saline infusion before spinal anesthesia with 3 ml of bupivacaine 0.5%. Time of onset and regression time for sensory and motor blockade, the maximum upper level of sensory blockade, duration of postoperative analgesia, Ramsay sedation score and hemodynamic parameters were recorded. Intraoperative bradycardia and atropine requirement along with other side effect were also recorded.The duration of sensorimotor block was significantly longer in D Group (341.7 ± 20.8 min for sensory block and 278.0 ± 11.0 min for motor block) as compared to control group (329.5 ± 22.1 min for sensory block and 250.0 ± 14.8 min for motor block), which was statistically significant (P < 0.05). The mean time for two dermatomal regression of sensory blockade was significantly prolonged in dexmedetomidine group (115.5 ± 8.7 min) compared to control group (95.8 ± 11.4) (P < 0.001). Intraoperative Ramsay sedation scores were significantly higher in D Group (mean - 3.4 ± 0.7, range - 2-4) as compared to C Group (mean - 2.9 ± 0.3, range - 2-4) (P < 0.001). 26.7% (8/30) cases had bradycardia that required atropine as compared to control group (2/30), and none of the patients in the dexmedetomidine group had postoperative shivering as compared to 10% in control group (P = 0.056). Statistical analysis was performed with statistical package for the social science version-20 using analysis of variance/Chi-square test/unpaired t-test, and P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.I.V. dexmedetomidine significantly prolongs the duration of sensory and motor block of bupivacaine spinal anesthesia. Dexmedetomidine provides an excellent sedation during surgery.
Project description:This study aimed to compare the effects of rectal midazolam addition after applying bupivacaine and caudal anesthesia on postoperative analgesia time, the need for additional analgesics, postoperative recovery, and sedation and to find out its adverse effects in children having lower abdominal surgery.40 children between 2 and 10 years of ASA I-II were randomized, and they received caudal anesthesia under general anesthesia. Patients underwent the application of caudal block in addition to saline and 1 mL/kg bupivacaine 0.25%. In the postoperative period, Group C (n = 20) was given 5 mL saline, and Group M (n = 20) was given 0.30 mg/kg rectal midazolam diluted with 5 mL saline. Sedation scale and postoperative pain scale (CHIPPS) of the patients were evaluated. The patients were observed for their analgesic need, first analgesic time, and adverse effects for 24 hours.Demographic and hemodynamic data of the two groups did not differ. Postoperative sedation scores in both groups were significantly lower compared with the preoperative period. There was no significant difference between the groups in terms of sedation and sufficient analgesia.We conclude that caudal anesthesia provided sufficient analgesia in peroperative and postoperative periods, and rectal midazolam addition did not create any differences. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02127489.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Arthroscopic meniscus surgery can lead to pain at various levels. In this study, we aimed to compare, in patients undergoing arthroscopic meniscectomy under spinal anesthesia, the efficacy of the combination of magnesium sulfate and dexmedetomidine with local anesthetics administered intraarticularly for postoperative pain management Methods: This prospective, randomized, controlled, double-blind study comprised of 52 patients who were randomly assigned into two groups depending on the combination injected intraarticularly at the end of the procedure: bupivacaine and dexmedetomidine (group D) or bupivacaine and magnesium sulfate (group M). Perioperative data, postoperative visual analog scale (VAS) scores, and total analgesic consumption were recorded. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION:NCT03479216 Results: No statistically significant differences were found in mobilization times, rescue analgesic times, and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory consumption. The maximum mean VAS values at rest and during movement in group D were measured at the 6th hour while in group M peaked at the 8th hour. CONCLUSION:Both intraarticular dexmedetomidine and magnesium sulfate, in combination with bupivacaine, have similar effects on reducing postoperative pain in arthroscopic knee surgery. HIPPOKRATIA 2019, 23(2): 51-57.