AJCC 8th edition prognostic staging provides no better discriminatory ability in prognosis than anatomical staging in triple negative breast cancer.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:We retrospectively compared the prognostic value between the AJCC 8th edition anatomic (AS) and prognostic staging (PS) system for triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) in a cohort from two involved institutions and a large population database. METHODS:Clinicopathological data of TNBCs were identified in two involved institutions (SYSUCC-PWH cohort). Data from SEER database during 2010-2015 was also accessed. We restaged all cases into AS and PS group according to the AJCC 8th staging system. RESULTS:A total of 611 and 31,941 TNBCs were identified in two cohorts, with a median follow-up of 53.5 and 27?months respectively. PS upstaged 46.1% of patients in SYSUCC-PWH cohort, and 62.4% in SEER cohort. No significant difference was observed in C index between AS and PS models for disease-specific survival (DSS), progression-free survival (PFS) or overall survival (OS) in either cohort. ?2 statistic and Hazard Ratio for PFS, DSS and OS showed better discrimination between IA and IB, IIB and IIIA, IIIA and IIIB in AS model than PS model. Besides, patients with IIIC unchanged stage showed worse PFS compared to those with AS IIIA or IIIB upstaged to PS IIIC in both cohorts(p?=?0.049, p?
Project description:<h4>Bakcground</h4>The recently proposed 8th American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) staging for gastric cancer (GC) did not include the evaluated lymph node (ELN) count as a prognostic indicator. In this study, we performed recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) to objectively combine the 15-ELN threshold and 8th AJCC stage to refine the staging for GC.<h4>Methods</h4>We analyzed 19,018 patients with non-metastatic GC from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database. The dataset was randomly divided into training and validation sets.<h4>Results</h4>For each 8th AJCC stage, survival was significantly better for patients with ?15 ELNs versus those with <15 ELNs (P < 0.001 for all). RPA divided non-metastatic GC into seven stages: RPA-IA (8th AJCC IA with ?15 ELNs), RPA-IB (IA with <15 ELNs and IB/IIA with ?15 ELNs), RPA-IIA (IB with <15 ELNs and IIB with ?15 ELNs), RPA-IIB (IIA with <15 ELNs and IIIA with ?15 ELNs), RPA-IIIA (IIB with <15 ELNs), RPA-IIIB (IIIA with <15 ELNs and IIIB ?15 ELNs), and RPA-IIIC (IIIB with <15 ELNs and IIIC). The corresponding 5-year survival rates were 84.1, 70.3, 52.8, 41.4, 32.9, 21.7, and 10.2%, respectively (P < 0.001 for all pairwise comparisons). The RPA staging outperformed the 8th AJCC staging in terms of discrimination and homogeneity among the SEER training and validation sets, as well as an independent Chinese cohort.<h4>Conclusion</h4>By equipping the 8th AJCC stage with the 15-ELN threshold, the proposed RPA staging is superior to the 8th AJCC staging without overcomplicating.
Project description:National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines consider (18)F-FDG PET/CT for only clinical stage III breast cancer patients. However, there is debate whether TNM staging should be the only factor in considering if PET/CT is warranted. Patient age may be an additional consideration, because young breast cancer patients often have more aggressive tumors with potential for earlier metastases. This study assessed PET/CT for staging of asymptomatic breast cancer patients younger than 40 y.In this Institutional Review Board-approved retrospective study, our hospital information system was screened for breast cancer patients younger than 40 y who underwent staging PET/CT before any treatment. Patients with symptoms or conventional imaging findings suggestive of distant metastases or with prior malignancy were excluded. Initial stage was based on physical examination, mammography, ultrasound, and breast MR imaging. PET/CT was then evaluated to identify unsuspected extraaxillary regional nodal and distant metastases.One hundred thirty-four patients with initial breast cancer stage I to IIIC met inclusion criteria. PET/CT findings led to upstaging to stage III or IV in 28 patients (21%). Unsuspected extraaxillary regional nodes were found in 15 of 134 patients (11%) and distant metastases in 20 of 134 (15%), with 7 of 134 (5%) demonstrating both. PET/CT revealed stage IV disease in 1 of 20 (5%) patients with initial clinical stage I, 2 of 44 (5%) stage IIA, 8 of 47 (17%) stage IIB, 4 of 13 (31%) stage IIIA, 4 of 8 (50%) stage IIIB, and 1 of 2 (50%) stage IIIC. All 20 patients upstaged to stage IV were histologically confirmed. Four synchronous thyroid and 1 rectal malignancies were identified.PET/CT revealed distant metastases in 17% of asymptomatic stage IIB breast cancer patients younger than 40 y. Although guidelines of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network recommend against systemic staging in patients with stage II disease, our data suggest that PET/CT might be valuable in younger patients with stage IIB and III disease. Use of PET/CT in younger patients has the potential to reduce the morbidity and cost of unnecessary therapies in young breast cancer patients.
Project description:The 8th edition of the TNM was released in 2016 and included major revisions, especially for stage III. We aimed to compare the prognostic value of the 7th and 8th editions of the AJCC TNM classification for stage III gastric cancer. Clinical data from 1557 patients operated on for stage III gastric cancer according to the 7th edition between 2007 and 2014 were analyzed and compared using the 7th and 8th TNM classifications. A proposed staging system was established, and the three systems were compared in terms of prognostic performance. The stage shifted for 669 (42.96%) patients. It shifted from IIIA to IIIB (one patient, 0.06%), IIIB to IIIA (230 patients, 14.8%), IIIB to IIIC (94 patients, 6.0%), and IIIC to IIIB (344 patients, 22.1%). However, the new AJCC subgroupings did not prove distinctive for survival levels between T3N3aM0 (stage IIIB) and T3N3bM0 (stage IIIC) or between T4aN3aM0 (stage IIIB) and T4aN3bM0 (stage IIIC) when <30 lymph nodes (LNs) were resected. The performance of the 8th edition (c-index, 0.614; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.596-0.633) revealed no relevant improvement compared to the 7th edition (c-index, 0.624; 95% CI, 0.605-0.643). The proposed staging system generated the best prognostic stratification. The 8th TNM edition may not provide better accuracy in predicting the prognosis of stage III gastric cancer. The proposed staging system, comprised of a combination of the number of LNs harvested and the 7th and 8th AJCC classifications, may improve predictive capacities for stage III gastric cancer.
Project description:Background: The AJCC/UICC TNM (tumor, node, metastasis) classification is a standardized system for the description of anatomical extent and stage grouping of solid malignant tumors and is regularly updated. We aimed at testing the new 2017 8th edition of the TNM classification (TNM8) compared to the former 2009 7th edition (TNM7), in pulmonary squamous cell carcinomas (pSQCC). Methods: We analyzed a clinico-pathologically well-annotated Western single-center cohort of 354 consecutive pSQCC, resected 2000-2013, without previous neoadjuvant therapy. Patients with a clinical history of SQCC of other organs were excluded to reliably exclude lung metastases. Patients in whom TNM was unclear due to multiple tumor nodules were excluded. We reevaluated all pathological records and slides and retrospectively validated pleural invasion for all cases. Raw data of our cohort are provided as Supplementary Material. Results: The stage distribution according to TNM7 was as follows: IA (2009): 59 (16.7%), IB: 75 (21.2%), IIA: 71 (20.1%), IIB: 53 (15.0%), IIIA: 79 (22.3%), IIIB: 7 (2.0%), IV: 10 (2.8%). Staging the cases according to TNM8, 7/354 (2.0%) cases were down-staged, 154 (43.5%) were upstaged; most pronounced between stages IIA(TNM7) and IIB(TNM8), and IIB(TNM7) and IIIA(TNM8). Both staging systems showed significant prognostic impact for overall survival, disease free and disease specific survival and time to recurrence, without significant differences regarding goodness-of-fit criteria (Akaike Information Criterion and Schwarz Bayesian Criterion). Conclusion: In conclusion, we show a significant stage migration between tumors staged using TNM7 and TNM8, without benefit regarding prognostication in our cohort of primary resected pSQCC.
Project description:Early in the course of psychosis, alterations in brain connectivity accompany the emergence of psychiatric symptoms and cognitive impairments, including processing speed. The clinical-staging model is a refined form of diagnosis that places the patient along a continuum of illness conditions, which allows stage-specific interventions with the potential of improving patient care and outcome. This cross-sectional study investigates brain connectivity features that characterize the clinical stages following a first psychotic episode. Structural brain networks were derived from diffusion-weighted MRI for 71 early-psychosis patients and 76 healthy controls. Patients were classified into stage II (first-episode), IIIa (incomplete remission), IIIb (one relapse), and IIIc (two or more relapses), according to the course of the illness until the time of scanning. Brain connectivity measures and diffusion parameters (fractional anisotropy, apparent diffusion coefficient) were investigated using general linear models and sparse linear discriminant analysis (sLDA), studying distinct subgroups of patients who were at specific stages of early psychosis. We found that brain connectivity impairments were more severe in clinical stages following the first-psychosis episode (stages IIIa, IIIb, IIIc) than in first-episode psychosis (stage II) patients. These alterations were spatially diffuse but converged on a set of vulnerable regions, whose inter-connectivity selectively correlated with processing speed in patients and controls. The sLDA suggested that relapsing-remitting (stages IIIb, IIIc) and non-remitting (stage IIIa) patients are characterized by distinct dysconnectivity profiles. Our results indicate that neuroimaging markers of brain dysconnectivity in early psychosis may reflect the heterogeneity of the illness and provide a connectomics signature of the clinical-staging model.
Project description:The American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) eighth edition staging manual introduced a new prognostic stage for breast cancer incorporating biologic factors in addition to traditional anatomic factors.To perform a validation study of the AJCC eighth edition prognostic stage in a single-institution cohort and a large population database.Patients with breast cancer treated with surgery as an initial intervention were identified in a prospective institutional database from The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center and the California Cancer Registry. Vital status data were complete through December 31, 2016, in The University of Texas MD Anderson cohort and through December 31, 2014, in the California Cancer Registry cohort. Patients receiving neoadjuvant systemic therapy, those with inflammatory or rare breast cancers, and those with unknown clinicopathologic factors were excluded. Factors evaluated included T, N, and M categories and tumor grade, as well as estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and HER2 status.Disease-specific survival was calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method. The Harrell concordance index (C index) was used to quantify models' predictive performance, and the Akaike information criterion (AIC) was used to compare model fits.A total of 3327 patients with stage I to IIIC breast cancer treated between 2007 and 2013 at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center (median follow-up of 5 years) with complete clinicopathologic data were identified. Compared with the AJCC anatomic stage, the prognostic stage upstaged 29.5% of patients and downstaged 28.1%. The prognostic stage (C index, 0.8357 and AIC, 816.8) provided more accurate stratification with respect to disease-specific survival than the anatomic stage (C index, 0.737 and AIC, 1039.8) (P?<?.001 for the C index). A total of 54?727 patients with stage I to IV breast cancer treated between 2005 and 2009 were identified in the California Cancer Registry (median follow-up of 7 years). The prognostic stage upstaged 31.0% of patients and downstaged 20.6%. The prognostic stage (C index, 0.8426 and AIC, 80?661.68) performed better than the anatomic stage (C index, 0.8097 and AIC, 81?577.89) (P?<?.001 for the C index).The prognostic stage provided more accurate prognostic information than the anatomic stage alone in both a single-institution cohort and a large population database, thereby supporting its use in breast cancer staging.
Project description:We previously reported that (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography scan (FDG-PET) is almost universally positive in patients with T cell lymphoma. In the present analysis we examined the impact of FDG-PET on the initial staging of peripheral T cell lymphomas (PTCLs), and the prognostic value of interim FDG-PET. This retrospective analysis identified patients with mature T or natural killer (NK) lymphomas who had PET scans as part of initial staging or staging at relapse [(n = 95) (staging cohort)] in the PTCL database at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center. A subset of these patients had repeat PET for interim restaging during initial therapy with curative intent [(n = 50) (interim restaging cohort)]. The frequency of specific T cell histologies included in this analysis were: PTCL not otherwise specified (NOS) (n = 35); angioimmunoblastic T cell lymphoma (AITL) (n = 17); anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL), ALK-1+ (n = 11) and ALK-1- (n = 12); adult T cell lymphoma/leukemia (ATLL) (n = 7); NK/T cell lymphoma (NKTCL) (n = 10); and enteropathy-associated T cell lymphoma (EATL) (n = 3). In the staging cohort, 77 patients were newly diagnosed, and 18 had relapsed disease. Pretreatment FDG-PET was positive in 96% of patients. PET identified additional disease sites in 47/95 patients (50%) when added to conventional staging. Most frequently identified additional sites were: other nodal (n = 24); bone (n = 10); skin (n = 8); nasopharynx (n = 4); spleen (n = 3); and lung (n = 2). However, FDG-PET modified computed tomography (CT)-based staging in only 5/95 patients (5.2%): two patients were upstaged and three patients were downstaged. FDG-PET-based staging did not alter planned treatment for any patient. Interim restaging with PET was performed after a median of 4 cycles of chemotherapy. In this cohort, treatment regimens included cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone CHOP (n = 19); CHOP/ifosfamide, carboplatin and etoposide (ICE) (n = 26); and other (n = 7). Subsequently, 29 patients were consolidated with either autologous (n = 22) or allogeneic (n = 7) stem cell transplant. After a median follow-up of 3.4 years for surviving patients, those with negative interim PET had superior progression-free survival (PFS) compared to patients with positive interim PET (p = 0.03). There were no differences in overall survival (OS). In PTCL, FDG-PET commonly identifies additional sites of disease but infrequently impacts CT-based staging and does not influence therapy. Interim FDG-PET may predict for PFS. FDG-PET should be integrated into prospective trials to confirm these findings.
Project description:<b>Background:</b> The 8<sup>th</sup> edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) staging system for gastric cancer incorporated several new changes. We aimed to assess the comparative prognostic values of the 7<sup>th</sup> and 8<sup>th</sup> AJCC pTNM staging systems in patients with gastric cancer (GC), and accordingly, to put forward a refined staging classification. <b>Methods:</b> The SEER database was queried to identify GC patients between 2004 and 2009. GC patients from Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center (SYSUCC) were used as external validation data. The Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to analyze cause-specific survival (CSS). The prognostic performance of different staging schemes was assessed using the concordance index (c-index), Akaike's information criterion (AIC), and likelihood ratio ?<sup>2</sup> test. <b>Results:</b> In the SEER cohort, stage migration occurred in 8.74% of patients. Survival analysis showed that it was better to treat T4bN0M0 + T4aN2M0 as stage IIIB and T4bN3bM0 as stage IV. Based on this, we established a new staging system which exhibited a superior c-index (0.7501) to the 7<sup>th</sup> and 8<sup>th</sup> AJCC staging systems (0.7498 and 0.7500, respectively). The new staging system also outperformed the 7<sup>th</sup> and 8<sup>th</sup> AJCC staging systems in terms of AIC and the likelihood ratio ?<sup>2</sup> test. The predictive superiority of the new staging system remained valid in the SYSUCC database. <b>Conclusions:</b> We demonstrated that some stage modifications in the 8<sup>th</sup> AJCC pathologic staging were unnecessary. Therefore we established a new staging system, which was superior to the 7<sup>th</sup> and 8<sup>th</sup> staging systems.
Project description:Predicting the prognosis of gallbladder carcinoma (GBC) has always been important for improving survival. The objective of this study was to determine the risk factors of survival for patients with GBC after surgery and to develop predictive nomograms for overall survival (OS) and cancer-specific survival (CSS) using a large population-based cohort. We identified 2,762 patients with primary resectable GBC in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database for the period of 2004 to 2014 and another 152 patients with GBC after surgery from Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center (SYSUCC) for the period of 1997 to 2017. The 1-, 2-, and 3-year cancer-specific mortalities were 37.2, 52.9, and 59.9%, while the competing mortalities were 5.8, 7.8, and 9.0%, respectively. Nomograms were developed to estimate OS and CSS, and these were validated by concordance indexes (C-indexes) and evaluated using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. The C-indexes of the nomograms for OS and CSS prediction were 0.704 and 0.732, respectively. In addition, compared with the 8th Tumor-Node-Metastasis staging system, the newly established nomograms displayed higher areas under the ROC curves for OS and PFS prediction. The nomograms are well-validated and could thus aid individual clinical practice.
Project description:BACKGROUND:This article is about the eighth edition staging guidelines for upstaged patients with oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OCSCC) with >10?mm depth to pT3. This upstages some patients from stage I-II to stage III, a point at which patients are traditionally considered for postoperative radiation therapy (PORT). The role of PORT in patients upstaged for >10?mm depth is unknown. METHODS:We identified patients with surgically resected stage I-II OCSCC with >10?mm depth who were upstaged to stage III. We used Cox proportional hazard modeling to compare patients who received PORT to those who did not (median follow-up 38.6?months). RESULTS:We observed that 3.6% of patients with OCSCC were upstaged to stage III for depth?>10?mm including 823 eligible patients. On adjusted analyses, PORT was associated with improved overall survival in patients upstaged to stage III (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 0.47, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.30-0.73). CONCLUSION:PORT is associated with improved survival for patients with OCSCC upstaged to stage III for >10?mm depth.