Near-Infrared Hybrid Rhodol Dyes with Spiropyran Switches for Sensitive Ratiometric Sensing of pH Changes in Mitochondria and Drosophila melanogaster First-Instar Larvae.
ABSTRACT: Near-infrared hybrid rhodol dyes (probes A and B) for sensitive ratiometric visualization of pH changes were prepared by incorporating hemicyanine dyes into traditional rhodol dyes. This approach was based on ?-conjugation changes involving a rhodol hydroxyl group as a spiropyran switch upon pH changes. Electronic spectra of probes A-2 and B-2 contain sharp absorption peaks at 535 nm and fluorescence peaks at 558 nm with similar ?-conjugation and a closed spiropyran form at a basic pH of 10.2. However, acidic pH conditions break down the hemiaminal ether groups, leading to indolenium moieties and significantly extending the ?-conjugation within the rhodol fluorophores, resulting in additional near-infrared emissions for probes A-1 and B-1. As a result, probes A and B exhibit gradual decreases of the absorption peaks at 535 nm and gradual increases in absorption peaks at 609 and 622 nm upon transition from basic to acidic pH, respectively. Both probes display ratiometric fluorescence sensing responses to pH downgrades from 10.2 to 3.6 with visible fluorescence decreases at 558 nm, as well as corresponding increases of the near-infrared fluorescence peaks at 688 and 698 nm, respectively. They exhibit fast, sensitive, and selective fluorescence responses with clearly defined ratiometric features to pH changes and show low cytotoxicity and excellent cell permeability. Our probes were successfully applied to ratiometrically detect pH changes in mitochondria, D. melanogaster first-instar larvae, and to visualize the mitophagy process caused by either cell nutrient starvation or drug treatment.
Project description:We report two ratiometric fluorescent probes based on ?-conjugation modulation between coumarin and hemicyanine moieties for sensitive ratiometric detection of pH alterations in live cells by monitoring visible and near-infrared fluorescence changes. In a ?-conjugation modulation strategy, a coumarin dye was conjugated to a near-infrared hemicyanine dye via a vinyl connection while lysosome-targeting morpholine ligand and o-phenylenediamine residue were introduced to the hemicyanine dye to form closed spirolactam ring structures in probes A and B, respectively. The probes show only visible fluorescence of the coumarin moiety under physiological and basic conditions because the hemicyanine moieties retain their closed spirolactam ring structures. However, decrease of pH to acidic condition causes spirolactam ring opening, and significantly enhances ?-conjugation within the probes, thus generating new near-infrared fluorescence peaks of the hemicyanine at 755 nm and 740 nm for probes A and B, respectively. Moreover, the probes display ratiometric fluorescence response to pH with decreases of the coumarin fluorescence and increases of the hemicyanine fluorescence when pH changes from 7.4 to 2.5. The probes are fully capable of imaging pH changes in live cells with good ratiometric responses in visible and near-infrared channels, and effectively avoid fluorescence blind spots under neutral and basic pH conditions - an issue that typical intensity-based pH fluorescent probes run into. The probe design platform reported herein can be easily applied to prepare a variety of ratiometric fluorescent probes for detection of biological thiols, metal ions, reactive oxygen and nitrogen species by introducing appropriate functional groups to hemicyanine moiety.
Project description:Three near-infrared ratiometric fluorescent probes (A-C) based on TBET and FRET near-infrared rhodamine acceptors with different pK a values were designed and synthesized to achieve sensitive ratiometric visualization of pH variations in lysosomes in visible and near-infrared channels. Tetraphenylethene (TPE) was bonded to near-infrared rhodamine dyes through short electrical ? -conjugation linkers to prevent an aggregation-caused quenching (ACQ) effect and allow highly efficient energy transfer of up to 98.9% from TPE donors to rhodamine acceptors. Probes A-C respond to pH variation from 7.4 to 3.0 in both buffer solutions and live cells with significant decreases of donor fluorescence and concomitant extraordinary increases of rhodamine acceptor fluorescence because of highly efficient energy transfer. In addition, probe C is capable of determining pH fluctuations in live cells treated with chloroquine. The probes show good photostability, excellent cell membrane permeability, high selectivity to pH, and two well-resolved emission peaks to ensure accurately comparative and quantitative analyses of intracellular pH changes.
Project description:We report five fluorescent probes based on coumarin-hybridized fluorescent dyes with spirolactam ring structures (A-E) to detect pH changes in live cell by monitoring visible and near-infrared fluorescence changes. Under physiological or basic conditions, the fluorescent probes A, B, C, D and E preserve their spirolactam ring-closed forms and only display fluorescent peaks in the visible region corresponding to coumarin moieties at 497, 483, 498, 497 and 482 nm, respectively. However, at acidic pH, the rings of the spirolactam forms of the fluorescent probes A, B, C, D and E open up, generating new near-infrared fluorescence peaks at 711, 696, 707, 715, and 697 nm, respectively, through significantly extended ?-conjugation to coumarin moieties of the fluorophores. The fluorescent probes B and E can be applied to visualize pH changes by monitoring visible as well as near-infrared fluorescence changes. This helps avoid fluorescence imaging blind spots at neutral or basic pH, which typical pH fluorescent probes encounter. The probes exhibit high sensitivity to pH changes, excellent photostability, low auto-fluorescence background and good cell membrane permeability.
Project description:In this paper, we present three ratiometric near-infrared fluorescent probes (A-C) for accurate, ratiometric detection of intracellular pH changes in live cells. Probe A consists of a tetraphenylethene (TPE) donor and near-infrared hemicyanine acceptor in a through-bond energy transfer (TBET) strategy, while probes B and C are composed of TPE and hemicyanine moieties through single and double sp2 carbon-carbon bond connections in a ?-conjugation modulation strategy. The specific targeting of the probes to lysosomes in live cells was achieved by introducing morpholine residues to the hemicyanine moieties to form closed spirolactam ring structures. Probe A shows aggregation-induced emission (AIE) property at neutral or basic pH, while probes B and C lack AIE properties. At basic or neutral pH, the probes only show fluorescence of TPE moieties with closed spirolactam forms of hemicyanine moieties, and effectively avoid blind fluorescence imaging spots, an issue which typical intensity-based pH fluorescent probes encounter. Three probes show ratiometric fluorescence responses to pH changes from 7.0 to 3.0 with TPE fluorescence decreases and hemicyanine fluorescence increases, because acidic pH makes the spirolactam rings open to enhance ?-conjugation of hemicyanine moieties. However, probe A shows much more sensitive ratiometric fluorescence responses to pH changes from 7.0 to 3.0 with remarkable ratio increase of TPE fluorescence to hemicyanine fluorescence up to 238-fold than probes B and C because of its high efficiency of energy transfer from TPE donor to the hemicyanine acceptor in the TBET strategy. The probe offers dual Stokes shifts with a large pseudo-Stokes shift of 361 nm and well-defined dual emissions, and allows for colocalization of the imaging readouts of visible and near-infrared fluorescence channels to achieve more precisely double-checked ratiometric fluorescence imaging. These platforms could be employed to develop a variety of novel ratiometric fluorescent probes for accurate detection of different analytes in applications of chemical and biological sensing, imaging, and diagnostics by introducing appropriate sensing ligands to hemicyanine moieties to form on-off spirolactam switches.
Project description:In this study, a novel ratiometric fluorescent nanoprobe for pH monitoring has been developed by synthesizing red fluorescent Ag2S quantum dots (Ag2S QDs) and green fluorescent carbon dots (CDs) nanohybrids (Ag2S CDs) in one pot using CDs as templates. The nanoprobe exhibits dual-emission peaks at 500 and 670 nm under a single-excitation wavelength of 450 nm. The red fluorescence can be selectively quenched by increasing pH, while the green fluorescence is an internal reference. Therefore, the change of the relative fluorescence intensity (I500/I670) in the ratiometric Ag2S CDs probes can be used for pH sensing. The results revealed that I500/I670 of Ag2S CDs probes was linearly related to pH variation between pH 5.4 and 6.8. Meanwhile, the Ag2S CDs probes possessed a good reversibility along with pH changing between 5.0 and 7.0 without any interruption from common metal ions, proteins and other interferences.
Project description:Near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent dyes with favorable photophysical properties are highly useful for bioimaging, but such dyes are still rare. The development of a unique class of NIR dyes via modifying the rhodol scaffold with fused tetrahydroquinoxaline rings is described. These new dyes showed large Stokes shifts (>110?nm). Among them, WR3, WR4, WR5, and WR6 displayed high fluorescence quantum yields and excellent photostability in aqueous solutions. Moreover, their fluorescence properties were tunable by easy modifications on the phenolic hydroxy group. Based on WR6, two NIR fluorescent turn-on probes, WSP-NIR and SeSP-NIR, were devised for the detection of H2 S. The probe SeSP-NIR was applied in visualizing intracellular H2 S. These dyes are expected to be useful fluorophore scaffolds in the development of new NIR probes for bioimaging.
Project description:Dual emissive luminescence properties of solid-state difluoroboron ?-diketonate-poly(lactic acid) (BF2bdk-PLA) materials have been utilized as biological oxygen sensors. Dyes with red-shifted absorption and emission are important for multiplexing and in vivo imaging, thus hydroxyl-functionalized dinaphthoylmethane initiators and dye-PLA conjugates BF2dnm(X)PLA (X = H, Br, I) with extended conjugation were synthesized. The luminescent materials show red-shifted absorbance (~435 nm) and fluorescence tunability by molecular weight. Fluorescence colors range from yellow (~530 nm) in 10 - 12 kDa polymers to green (~490 nm) in 20 - 30 kDa polymers. Room-temperature phosphorescence (RTP) and thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) are present under a nitrogen atmosphere. For the iodine-substituted derivative, BF2dnm(I)PLA, clearly distinguishable fluorescence (green) and phosphorescence (orange) peaks are present, making it ideal for ratiometric oxygen-sensing and imaging. Bromide and hydrogen analogues with weaker relative phosphorescence intensities and longer phosphorescence lifetimes can be used as highly sensitive, concentration independent, lifetime-based oxygen sensors or for gated emission detection. BF2dnm(I)PLA nanoparticles were taken up by T41 mouse mammary cells and successfully demonstrated differences in vitro ratiometric measurement of oxygen.
Project description:Xanthene fluorophores, including fluorescein, rhodol, and rhodamines, are representative classes of fluorescent probes that have been applied in the detection and visualization of biomolecules. "Turn on" activatable fluorescent probes, that can be turned on in response to enzymatic reactions, have been developed and prepared to reduce the high background signal of "always-on" fluorescent probes. However, the development of activity-based fluorescent probes for biological applications, using simple xanthene dyes, is hampered by their inefficient synthetic methods and the difficulty of chemical modifications. We have, thus, developed a highly efficient, versatile synthetic route to developing chemically more stable reduced xanthene fluorophores, based on fluorescein, rhodol, and rhodamine via continuous Pd-catalyzed cross-coupling. Their fluorescent nature was evaluated by monitoring fluorescence with variation in the concentration, pH, and solvent. As an application to activatable fluorescent probe, nitroreductase (NTR)-responsive fluorescent probes were also developed using the reduced xanthene fluorophores, and their fluorogenic properties were evaluated.
Project description:Many studies have shown that glutathione (GSH) and cysteine (Cys) / homocysteine (Hcy) levels are interrelated in biological systems. To unravel the complicated biomedical mechanisms by which GSH and Cys/Hcy are involved in various disease states, probes that display distinct signals in response to GSH and Cys/Hcy are highly desirable. In this work, we report a rhodol thioester (1) that responds to GSH and Cys/Hcy with distinct fluorescence emissions in neutral media. Probe 1 reacts with Cys/Hcy to form the corresponding deconjugated spirolactam via a tandem native chemical ligation (NCL) reaction. This intramolecular spirocyclization leads to the "quinone - phenol" transduction of rhodol dyes, and an excited-state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) process between the phenolic hydroxyl proton and the aromatic nitrogen in the benzothiazole unit occurs upon photoexcitation, thus affording 2-(2'-hydroxyphenyl) benzothiazole (HBT) emission (454 nm). In the case of the tripeptide GSH, only transthioesterification takes place removing the intramolecular photo-induced electron transfer (PET) process caused by the electron deficient 4-nitrobenzene moiety giving rise to a large fluorescence enhancement at the rhodol emission band (587 nm). The simultaneous detection of GSH and Cys/Hcy is attributed to the significantly different rates of intramolecular S,N-acyl shift of their corresponding thioester adducts derived from 1. The utility of probe 1 has been demonstrated in various biological systems including serum and cells.
Project description:Intracellular pH affects protein structure and function, and proton gradients underlie the function of organelles such as lysosomes and mitochondria. We engineered a genetically encoded pH sensor by mutagenesis of the red fluorescent protein mKeima, providing a new tool to image intracellular pH in live cells. This sensor, named pHRed, is the first ratiometric, single-protein red fluorescent sensor of pH. Fluorescence emission of pHRed peaks at 610 nm while exhibiting dual excitation peaks at 440 and 585 nm that can be used for ratiometric imaging. The intensity ratio responds with an apparent pK(a) of 6.6 and a >10-fold dynamic range. Furthermore, pHRed has a pH-responsive fluorescence lifetime that changes by ~0.4 ns over physiological pH values and can be monitored with single-wavelength two-photon excitation. After characterizing the sensor, we tested pHRed's ability to monitor intracellular pH by imaging energy-dependent changes in cytosolic and mitochondrial pH.